Systematics of Charadriiformes:
Suborder: Alcae = Chistiki
Family: Alc> Suborder: Charadrii = Waders
Family: Burhin> Family: Charadri> Family: Chion> Family: Dromad> Family: Glareol> Family: Haematopod> Family: Jacan> Family: Recurvirostr> Family: Rostratul> Family: Scolopac> Family: Thinocor> Family: Lar> Suborder: Lari Sharpe, 1891 = Seagulls
Family: Rynchop> Family: Stercorari> Family: Stern> Genus: Sterna Linnaeus, 1758 = Krachki
View: Sterna hirundo = River Tern
View: Hydroprogne Sterna caspia Pallas, 1770 = Cegrava
Genus: Gelochel> Species: Gelochel> Genus: Chl> Species: Chl> Species: Chl> Species: Chl> Family: Ib> Species: Ib>
Brief description of the detachment
Charadriiformes are small and medium sized birds (weight from 20 g to 3 kg) with a characteristic appearance of waders, gulls, and auk. The order includes about 300 species of predominantly near-water or water birds. It is divided into 3 suborders, which reflects the main directions of evolution within the order. The suborder of waders is more primitive, within which wide adaptive radiation has made it possible to master the most diverse near-water biotopes. Developing adaptations to a more aquatic way of life, suborders of gulls and auk were separated from waders.
Lead mainly near-water or water Lifestyle.
The number of common characters for all groups of the order is relatively small, but in the complex they quite distinctly separate Charadriiformes from other, even related, orders. Beaks are very diverse in shape. The skull is schizognathic with a developed opener, in some groups the transition to egotognathism is more or less pronounced. Functioning basipterygoid joints are found in chicks; in some species, they remain in adults. The supraorbital glands are usually well developed. Cervical vertebrae 12-16. The thoracic vertebrae often merge into the spinal bone; in pure-thymus vertebrae, it does not form. At the posterior edge of the sternum, one or two pairs of tenderloins. The little fork is well developed. True ribs 5-8 pairs. Tarsus and lower end of tibia not feathered. The hind finger of all groups except yakans is strongly reduced, in some species it completely disappears. Pneumatism of the skeleton is relatively weak. Larynx tracheobronchial. Carotid arteries are paired. The esophagus is easily extensible; goiter is usually not. Muscular stomach with powerful walls. The cecum is developed to varying degrees. There is a gall bladder. The side pin of a contour pen is usually developed. The coccygeal gland is feathered. Wings pointed, diastatactic (exception - white plovers). Of primary flywheel 11, the first is small and often poorly visible. Steering 12-18, rarely more. Fluff grows on pterillia and aptheria. In year two molting: full post-breeding and partial spring (premarital). Sexual morphism coloring characteristic of few species, most have a pronounced age and seasonal change.
Most species monogamous. Eggs usually with a painted shell and more or less distinct spotting. Chicks brood type, but in many species they are fed by their parents before climbing to the wing. Common almost all over the globe.
The order of charadriiformes includes 3 suborders with 17 families, uniting 287-289 species belonging to 87-113 genera.
In the fauna of the CIS, 132-133 species of 51-56 genera were recorded (120-121 species undoubtedly nest) out of 10 families of all 3 suborders.