About animals

Marine Junker


Coris julis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Marine Junker
Mediterranean rainbow wrasse, African rainbow wrasse
Coris taeniatus Steindachner, 1863
Julis azorensis Fowler, 1919
Julis festiva Valenciennes, 1839
Julis mediterranea Risso, 1827
Julis melanura Lowe, 1839
Julis speciosa Risso, 1827
Julis vulgaris Fleming, 1828
Labrus giofredi Risso, 1810
Labrus julis Linnaeus, 1758
Labrus paroticus Linnaeus, 1758

A very variegated fish in the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas is the marine junker (Coris julis). The whole day the fish tirelessly swims and only in the evening buries itself in the sand, which it does when it is in danger. At first, young fish are all females and, after a short transitional phase, turn into males. Males reach a size of 26 cm. On the side is a longitudinal orange stripe. The back is usually blue-green, and the sides in front are blue in stripes. The main color of males is brown or olive-brown with one yellow and two dark, bluish, reddish or even red stripes on the side. It is interesting that males turn out to be the most active during the period of transformation from females to males, and after acquiring a beautiful color of males, they have a kind of sexual old age. The question remains unclear whether males in the last stage of their development have any part in the reproduction and conservation of the genus.

No eggs and larvae of this species were found in the Black Sea; fish with mature sexual products were also not found in catches.

In the Mediterranean Sea, spawning of Coris julis occurs from April to July (Lo Bianco, 1888, 1908-1909). The eggs are pelagic, spherical, very small - 0.60-0.70 mm, with a small fat drop - 0.16-0.18 mm (Raffaele, 1888, Sparta, 1956a). As Ehrenbaum (1905 - 1909) points out, Coris julis is rare in the Mediterranean and North Seas. Its eggs and larvae are known only from the Mediterranean Sea (Fig. 35, a, b, Sparta, 1956a).

Life of animals. Volume 4. Pisces Edited by Professor T. S. Rass 1971

In many species, the coloration undergoes great changes throughout life and juveniles sharply differ in appearance from adult individuals. Males and females are also often colored differently. In the Black Sea marine junker (Coris julis), for example, males have a purple or bluish-green back, a wide, orange top and black bottom, a longitudinal strip on the side and a silver-white belly, and on the dorsal fin they have a large oval spot of black or blue colors. In less bright females - this is also characteristic of other gubanovy - the back is brown, on the belly on each side passes along a golden strip, and there is no spot on the dorsal fin. In this species (as in many other gubans), males and females have long been considered to belong to different species.
It is interesting that in some Gubanovs, in particular the already mentioned sea cunk, each individual in his youth functions as a female, and then as a male. This species first develops an ovary, and fish less than 8 cm long are always represented only by females. Then there is a restructuring of the sex glands and their transformation into testes, so that among large fish exceeding 15 cm in length, only males are present. The change in color noted above is combined with the sex change.


The body is low, slender, moderately compressed laterally. The scales are very small (more than 60 scales in the lateral line), do not cover the head. The head is small, but its length exceeds the height of the body, the snout is pointed, the mouth is small. The front 3 spines of the junker's dorsal fin at the apex are flexible, the males are longer, the rest are sharp. The teeth in the outer row are conical, sharp, larger in front, 2 front and to a lesser extent 2 following them enlarged in the form of curved, protruding fangs, the last or occasionally 2 last on each side on the upper jaw in the corner of the males are also enlarged in the form canines, internal teeth are smaller, rounded, located in one row or large in the form of strips. The dorsal fin contains 8–9 thin and flexible spiny rays.

The color of the sea cunker is extremely variable, in males the upper body is purple or bluish-green, with a wide orange stripe from the eye to the caudal fin and black, narrower and shorter under it, the belly is silver-white, in front of the dorsal fin between the 1st and by 4 rays a large, oval, black or bluish spot, absent in females, at the base of the pectoral fin above and at the end of the gill cover, along a black spot, in females lighter, darker, in females the back is brown, on the belly on each side golden stripe.

The length of males is up to 25 cm, females - up to 18 cm.


Marine cunker is common in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Spain, Portugal and Ireland.

The junker keeps alone or in numerous groups on the littoral, among rocks and thickets of algae at a depth of 1 to 120 m, usually to a depth of 60 m (only older individuals are found deeper). It is most active in the daytime, and at night, apparently, burrows in silt or sand.


Hermaphrodite, the sex gland first functions as an ovary, then as a testis. Male and female germ cells are not isolated in different parts of the gonad; male cells quickly replace oocytes immediately after their degeneration. Up to a length of 8 cm, only females are found. Over 15 cm, only males are found. The individuals intermediate between these sizes are mostly (66.6%) males.

A certain number (15.9%) of males retain the color of females. These are usually larger individuals, still having the appearance of females. Pelagic caviar. In the northwestern part of the Mediterranean Sea breeds in May - August, in the southern part - in April - August, in the Black Sea, breeding was not observed. Matures at the age of one year.

It feeds on small crustaceans, mollusks.

Economic value

The marine junker has no economic significance. It is strictly forbidden to eat this fish. Cases of severe poisoning by meat and blood of fish have been reported.

1. N. Svetovidov. Fishes of the Black Sea. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965
2. Wheeler A. Key to fishes of sea and fresh waters of the North European basin. Per. from English Foreword and comment. V.P. Serebryakova. - M .: Light and food industry, 1982. - 432 p., Ill.
3. Prosvirov E.S. Poisonous and dangerous fish of the tropical waters of the Atlantic. - M: Publishing House of VNIRO, 2007 .-- 38 p.
4. Vasilieva E.D. Fishes of the Black Sea. Key to marine, brackish, euryhaline and migratory species with color illustrations collected by S.V. Bogorodsky .- M.: VNIRO Publishing House, 2007

Description of fish Marine junker (Coris jlllis)

  • Squad - perched
  • Family - Guban
  • Maximum length - 25 cm
  • Places of fishing - seaweed thickets on pitfalls
  • The way of catching is Bolognese

Sea junker (Coris jlllis) is one of the most common fish of the Gubanov family in our waters. This is a small fish with an elongated, laterally compressed body. The snout is long and pointed, in the mouth on each jaw there are two rows of teeth. There is one dorsal fin; it is supported by nine spiny rays and twelve soft rays.

The anal fin is also well developed, the first three rays are prickly, the other twelve are soft. The caudal fin is rounded, and the pectoral and ventral are relatively small. The body color changes depending on the sex of the fish, brighter in the male: the back is brown, on the sides there is a bright red-orange strip, a blue spot is visible behind the pectoral fins, and the abdomen is white. Females are neutral in color.

Lifestyle and nutrition of the marine junker

The marine junker lives near underwater cliffs overgrown with algae, near the shore or at a depth of up to and over 100 m. In winter, it moves to deeper places and, like most gubanovtskh, searches for food during the day and buries itself in the sand at night. Juveniles are schooling fish, while adults lead a solitary lifestyle. It feeds on crustaceans, mollusks and sea worms, which it seeks, constantly sifting sand.

How to catch a sea junker

Marine junkers can be caught from natural and artificial rocky ridges, in ports and bays, for this you need to take, preferably a light, Bologna fishing rod 4-5 m long, a reel with a good single-core fishing line wound with a diameter of 0.20 mm.

Fig. Fisherman, even in port, you can get a decent catch of sea junkers

For shallow water, a leash 80 cm long with an elongated float, surrounded by several pellets, is suitable. At great depths, a rounded float and a leash of two undergrowths 15 and 35 cm long will be needed, a sinker - torpedo is attached at the fork.

The nozzle should be very well fixed on the hook, while narrowing it should be kept almost at the very bottom, so that a jamb of hungry sea junkers would attack it. As soon as you attack the school, the bites will follow one after another, so do not rush to change the place of fishing, but continue to catch until you catch the whole school.