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Barbel oak

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Systematic position
Coleoptera (beetles) - Coleoptera
Lumberjack family - Cerambycidae.
Barbel large oak - Cerambyx cerdo Linnaeus, 1758

Status. 7 “Specially controlled” - 7, SK. In the Red Book of the USSR is classified as "II. Rare species" . It is included in Appendix 2 to the Red Book of the Russian Federation.

Short morphological description

Body length 23–55 mm. Black, elytra in apical part red-brown, red or chestnut, upper body shiny. Antennae 1.4–1.7 times as long as body, ♀ slightly shorter or slightly longer than elytra, 2nd segment long and wide about the same but not transverse, 3rd and 4th segments at apex thickened, but bloated do not look.

Pronotum with acute lateral tubercle, in numerous coarse irregular folds. Elytra elongated, markedly (stronger at ♂) narrowed to apex, at the base in rough sculpture, suture angle elongated into denticle or spine.

Spread

Europe (from the shores of the Atlantic Ocean to Ukraine, including Crimea, north to southern Sweden), Turkey, the Middle East (south to Jordan and Israel), Northern Iran, the Caucasus. Distributed in the region approximately from the line connecting the districts of Varenikovskaya and Kropotkin, to the border with SK, KCR and Abkhazia 1, 3, 13, 23, 25.

The closest locations outside the region are the neighboring districts of RA, KCR and Abkhazia 17, 25, on the one hand, and districts in the south of the Crimean peninsula, on the other.

Considering the individual variability of a large oak barbel, the selection of its eastern subspecies Cerambyx cerdo acuminatus Motschulsky, 1852 (as well as its other subspecies), distributed on the Crimean peninsula, in Turkey, the Middle East, Northern Iran, and throughout the Caucasus, is doubtful 19 , 24.

Features of biology and ecology

It inhabits flat and mountain deciduous forests of various types, found in parkland. It prefers oak, but develops on many hardwoods 2, 11, 14-16, 20, 25. The main habitats are confined to old oak plantations. When the trees are weakened, thin trunks populate.

Larvae develop first in the bark, then in sapwood and wood. The total stroke length can reach 1 m, on average - it is 40-60 cm. Pupation in the middle - late summer. Adults usually appear in August and winter in a pupal cradle. Three-year generation. Beetles are found in May - August, are active both during the day and at night, fly into the light. Previously considered one of the most important physiological and technical pests of oak 3-6, 8-10, 14-21.

Abundance and its trends

Quantitative indicators of regional populations have not been specifically studied. At the same time, there are regular cases of mass settlement of individual oak, linden, and other species in some low and mid-mountain districts of the region, including the Black Sea coast, as well as in the Krasnodar area and its environs, which indicates a rather favorable condition of this barbel in the region .

Limiting factors

Felling of ripe deciduous stands, primarily oak forests, which are the main habitats of the lumberjack.

h3> Necessary and additional security measures

Limitation of felling of large-sized deciduous trees, at least oak, linden and walnut. Organization of entomological micro-reserves and landscape reserves. The adoption of special practical protective measures, among which the most promising is the identification of trees populated by the species with the prohibition of their harvesting during various felling in forests.

Sources of information. The Red Book of the Krasnodar Territory 1. Bogdanov-Katkov, 1917, 2. Danilevsky, Miroshnikov, 1985, 3. Dobrovolsky, 1951, 4. Lozova, 1941, 5. Lozovoi, 1958a, 6. Lozova, 1958b, 7. Lopatin, 1985, 8. Milyanovsky, 1953, 9. Milyanovsky, 1971, 10. Mirzoyan, 1977, 11. Miroshnikov, 2000b, 12. On the approval of ..., 1998, 13. Smelters, 1931, 14. Smelters, 1932, 15. Smelters, 1940, 16. Mellers, 1955, 17. Rudnev, 1957, 18. Samedov, 1963, 19. Khnzoryan, 1957, 20. Demelt, 1966, 21. Dohring, 1955, 22. IUCN, 2006, 23. Koe-nig, 1899, 24. Sama, 2002, 25. Unpublished data compiled. Compiled by A.I. Miroshnikov.

Cerambyx cerdo

Big oak barbel, Oak cerambyx

Great сapricorn beetle

Coleoptera (Beetles) - Coleoptera

Barbel oak - damages hardwood species: oak, beech, hornbeam, elm. Harm larvae. The development is complete. Reproduction bisexual. Three-year generation. Overwintering larvae and young bugs.

Click on photo to enlarge

Favorable t (o C)+20 – +35 Fertility (pcs)100 Generations per yearThree year

generation Egg (mm)2 Larva (mm)(65-85) x (13-18) Doll (mm)100x (18-20) Imago (mm)Up to 65

Morphology

Imago. Tar black beetle. Body size up to 65 mm. The elytra in the apical part are red. The antennae are longer than the body. Pronotum covered with rough, black folds.

The suture angle of the elytra is equipped with a spike. The length of the second segment of the antennae, if measured along the inner edge, is equal to its width. The top is covered with implicit hairs. Only the apex of the elytra in thicker and more noticeable hairs. The Crimean and Caucasian populations are distinguished by coarse wrinkled pronoti, and strongly tapering to the back of the elytra.

Sexual dimorphism. Homosexual individuals differ in the structure of the genitals. Secondary sexual characteristics are not expressed.

Egg, like all barbel, elongated-oblong in shape, toward the caudal end more narrowed, narrowly rounded. At the anterior cranial end, it is bluntly rounded. The length is more than double the width.

Larva. Length at the last age up to 90 mm, width - up to 20 mm. The pronotum shield is covered with a rather rough hatching.

Clypeus and upper lip of larvae, as in all individuals of the subfamily Cerambycinae, narrow, occupy about a third between the mandibular condyles. The incisal margin of the mandibles is smooth, chisel-like, rounded, denticles absent.

The occipital foramen is divided by a thin bridge. Postnotum available. The labiomaxillary complex connects to the front edge of the hypostome in a small area slightly larger than the width of the gula. IX segment of the abdomen has no weapons.

Doll, like all barbel, open type with freely located external organs. The head is clearly distinguishable, a neck interception is pronounced behind the eyes. Oral appendages, antennae, legs, wing rudiments, open, mobile abdomen are also well distinguishable. The integuments are white, translucent bear subtle bristles, only in some parts located more or less densely.

The antennae of the pupa of the oak barbel on the lateral side does not have spines. The top of the abdomen without urohomphal outgrowths. The top of the hips is bare. The pronotum near the apex has no transverse interception.

Phenology of development (in days)

TurningFull Full cycle3 years Egg (embryo)10–15 Larva2.5 years Imago6-9 months

Imago. The bugs are observed from half of May to August inclusive. The individuals are photophilous. They predominantly settle in old stands of overgrown origin. Here they populate the well-lit and thickest living oak trees located on the southern edges and in thinned forest stands.

Mating period. Females lay eggs in cracks in the tree bark. Fertility is up to 100 pieces.

Egg. Embryo development lasts 10 to 15 days.

Larva after baking, it immediately takes root under the bark. In the first year of life, she gnaws a stroke under the bark. Before the first wintering, the larva goes deeper into the wood and spends the next two years there. Moreover, it gnaws deep passages, the width of which can reach 3 cm. In the third year of development, after wintering, the larva brings the passage close to the surface of the trunk and pupates.

Doll. Duration of development 1 - 2 months.

Imago. Young beetles are reflected by the end of summer, in July-August, winter in larval passages. They leave the tree only in spring. Before pairing pass additional nutrition with oak juice.

Development features. Three-year generation.

Morphologically close species

According to the morphology (appearance) of the imago, the Small Oak barbel is close to the described pest (Cerambyxscopolii) The main differences: the antennae are noticeable, but no more than 1.5 times longer than the body, the second segment of the antennae is narrow, ring-shaped, almost three times as long as long, body color is black without a brown tint, body size does not exceed 28 mm

In addition, the species is divided into two subspecies Big oak barbel (Cerambyxcerdocerdo) and Southern Great Oak Barbel (Cerambyxcerdoacuminatus) close in morphology of adults.

In the large oak barbel, the elytra in the back are slightly narrowed, and the pronotum in the rough irregular transversely folded furrow sculpture.

The southern large oak barbel is distinguished by elytra narrowed to the apex, pronotum is covered with a rough and irregular sculpture, the grooves and folds of which are connected and often turn into each other.

Malware

Barbel oak damages hardwood. Prefers shoots oak. Harm larvae.

As a result of the life of the pest, the trees weaken and lose their resistance to adverse environmental factors, and the category of technical suitability of wood decreases.

Large oak barbel external description:

Barbel (Cerambux cerdo) reaches a length of 25-56 mm. The body has a black color, black-brown at the ends of the folded elytra. 2 spines located on sides of pronotum. Pronotum in convoluted folds from above. By the length of the antennae, one can judge the sex of the beetle, in females the length is equal to the length of the body, in males the length of the antennae exceeds the length of the body. In this case, I dare say that the male is captured in the photographs.

Large oak barbel reproduction, stage of the larva:

Barbel eggs (Cerambyx cerdo) lays in the cortex, finding a suitable crack in it. Over the course of her life, a female mustache lays up to 100 eggs. Females find a suitable tree with the help of sensitive smell. Larvae emerge from eggs after 12-14 days. They develop and feed at first, in the bark, then they are introduced into the wood of drying or living deciduous trees (like oak, hence the name), growing in parks and forests, especially trees that are lit by the sun. Paving moves, the larvae cause a flow of juice, which in turn attracts various butterflies and beetles. And if you decide to find a barbel, then it is advisable for you to find just such a place, the smell of juice attracts them to you. Barbel prefers to settle on powerful old trees that look completely healthy in appearance.

In the last year of its development, in the summer, the larva gnaws a course, sometimes up to 50 cm, where it constructs an oval "room" 10x3 cm in size for a pupa (wintering). Barbel larva develops for 3 years. The larvae of the barbel (Cerambyx cerdo) are thick and reach a length of up to 90 mm, a width of 18-20 mm. With a chitinized pronotum, cream-colored, with a dark brown head having black upper jaws, as well as three eyes. The larva moves inside the tree with the help of growths, calluses, which have an oval shape.

Larvae pupate in July - August, and having hibernated, barbel beetles leave in August - September along the "tunnel" that the larva bit before. From May to September there are adults. Over the years, several generations of barbel have come out of the same tree.

What does it look like

Large oak barbel is one of the largest European species of barbel. The body is dark brown, its length is 25–56 mm. Elytra shagreened, black or black-brown, with a lighter or reddish apex. The whole pronotum is covered with rough wrinkles and has two spikes on each side.

The antennae are silky to the touch, in females they are equal to the length of the body, in males they exceed its length by 1.4–1.7 times. The first segment is opaque, since it has strong punctuation, the length and width of the second segment are almost the same. The belly of the beetle is almost as silky as the antennae, the body is brilliant. These are the main distinguishing features of this type of barbel, it is they who are used by entomological scientists in the preparation of definition tables. The adult larva is also quite large.

Her body reaches 90 mm in length and 17–21 mm in thickness. The color is creamy or yellowish white. On a small brownish-red head are three eyes and powerful upper jaws of black color. Pronotum strongly chitinized; pronotum very large. Abdominal and dorsal growths (corns) are used to move inside gnawed holes and passages in the wood.

Lifestyle and Biology

Adult beetles occur from late May to early September, and are especially active in June - July. They prefer to fly during the day, but in summer with warm weather they can be observed in the evening. Large oak barbel is a frequent guest on tree trunks that secrete juice (gum). They flock to feast on them, and then populate a tree, gnawing moves in it, and they themselves become the reason that it begins to “cry”.

During its short three-month life, the female lays about 100 eggs. For masonry uses cracks in the crust. The insect finds the right tree using its luxurious mustache.

The larvae that emerged after 12-14 days are immediately buried in the bark, where they spend the first summer. Here they feed, and then gnaw out the course and go deep into the wood.

Preference is given to old weakened oaks, as well as beech, hornbeam and elm. Development is slow: by the end of the second year, the larvae reach about 50-60 mm in length; in the final third year, their length is almost 100 mm. In the summer, shortly before pupation, the larva gnaws out long passages (sometimes 50–100 cm each), at the end of which it constructs an oval lullaby measuring 10 3 cm, and makes a hole for an adult to exit, corking it with a cork of tender wood fibers and coarse bark particles.

The beetle hatches in the same year and hibernates in a cradle, and then comes to the surface according to a previously prepared move. Full development, depending on the conditions and condition of the wood, takes three to four years.

The main enemies of large oak barbel are woodpeckers, who are not averse to feasting on fat fleshy larvae. In addition, they can also be hunted by other predatory beetles: nutcrackers, motley moths, and squirrels. Various Hymenoptera insects parasitize on barbel eggs, for example, encyrtids (Oobius rudnevi).

It is entered in the Red Book

At one time, when the territory of Europe was massively covered with oak forests, this species of barbel is considered one of the most malicious pests. Gathering in large numbers on one plant, beetles provoked its death. Such a tree gradually dried up, starting from the crown (the so-called dry top). It was immediately cut down, and after that the bark was removed from the stump.

As the oak groves disappeared, the barbel that lived in them also disappeared. Since the mid-1980s, the species has been listed as protected. In the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Germany, the beetle is protected by law, in Armenia it is included in the list of species to be protected, in Belarus, Lithuania and Ukraine in the Red Book.

Classification

Kingdom: animals (Animalia).
A type: arthropods (Arthropoda).
Grade: insects (Insecta).
Squad: Coleoptera (Coleoptera).
Family: barbel (Cerambycidae).
Gender: barbel oak (Cerambyx).
View: large oak barbel (Cerambyx cerdo).

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