About animals

Fauna on - GOOD IS!


As already noted, the content of notobranchiuses in soft, acidic water is not a condition at all. Due to the outstanding plasticity, these amazing fish feel great in the usual water supply in Moscow with a pH of about 7 and dGH of 10-16 °. Thus, the current physico-chemical parameters of the habitat for the maintenance of notobranchiuses are not critical. But what really requires control is the stability of indicators, because as far as these beauties are accustomed to abnormal conditions, they perceive inconstancy so negatively.

Photo males of notobranchius

If your pets of cheating are living in water that is rarely changed and rich in “nitrogen”, you can continue not to worry about filtering issues, but if you got cleaners, do not try to put them in a dirty aquarium. Individuals grown in soft water react painfully to hard water, and specimens accustomed to a highly mineralized medium do not tolerate the transfer to desalted. It follows that when buying new notranchiuses it is not unnecessary (rather, even mandatory) to ask the seller not only the price of fish, but also the conditions of their previous lives. This is all the more significant since many people practice the maintenance of these killy in salted (2-5 ppm) water, and a sharp transfer of fish to fresh water is unlikely to cause a storm of joy.

Speaking of table salt. It is generally accepted that notobranchius in salted water is less likely to suffer from the notorious oodyiniumosis. The same applies to the content of notobranchiuses in hard water. Of course, the frequency, and most importantly, the severity of the flagellate lesion in these conditions is lower. But to consider these measures as a panacea, in my opinion, would be a clear excess. Unfortunately, I did not keep statistics before, and my experience is relatively small and does not allow me to draw reliable conclusions at the current stage, but purely speculative the efficiency of these measures does not exceed 60-70% (which, of course, is also a lot).

In this regard, I want to note that I was generally unable to identify a clear pattern in the chain of "conditions of detention - susceptibility to oodyiniumosis." The sore often occurs, it seems, out of nowhere and proceeds like this today, and tomorrow differently: then in a matter of days, regardless of any measures, it attacks almost the entire tribe, it is easily eliminated already at the initial stage, say, by the Münster odimor, which just a week ago and seemed to be in powerless conditions.

Fortunately, in most cases, treatment still gives a good effect, and after a few days there is no trace of the disease, which, however, does not guarantee the absence of a new outbreak. In addition to the aforementioned Odimor, Serov's Costapur works well, as well as a number of other branded antiparasitic drugs, the active ingredient in which is copper salt or (in my opinion, preferable) malachite green. However, the usual salt baths are a good help in the fight against the odinious scourge - both cheap and cheerful.

As for the transfer of notranchiuses from one medium to another, this must be done slowly, in stages, stretching the “pleasure” for several hours. Of course, a little troublesome, but it will help to avoid unplanned losses.

I have already noted that the content of notobranchiuses in a common aquarium with others is possible, but undesirable. It is better to allocate a separate container (or several for an extensive collection) to the notobranchiuses for maintenance and grow them in isolation. Theoretically, such a vessel can be any jar with a capacity of 3-5 liters, in which a couple can live and multiply. The optimum, in my opinion, is a 40-50-liter tank with 5-6 males and a dozen females (of course, all of the same kind).

The presence of several male specimens in one container makes life in it more dynamic and significantly more picturesque, and competitive swars usually do no significant harm to the participants, since everything is limited by the language of poses - splayed gill covers and fins, body vibration, in extreme cases, pushing each other sideways . In addition, it is easier to isolate the brightest and strongest individual from the flock and use it in the future to obtain better offspring.

Photo female notobranchius

Lighting is not very bright, diffused. For this purpose, economical 9-11-watt compact fluorescent lamps with a threaded base (one per capacity) will fit perfectly.

Soil — it is a substrate — boiled peat, coconut fibers, sand, or a mixture of these components. The layer height is not critical for notobranchiuses, because, unlike some other spawning cyprinids, they do not dive into the ground during spawning, they only drop caviar into it with the hull and unpaired fins. Therefore, 1.5-3 cm is quite enough.

A sophisticated water treatment system is not required; a conventional foam rubber airlift filter is sufficient. He will ensure the elimination of suspended matter, and he will not create an excessively strong current, stirring up the soil.

Water changes for notobranchiuses are carried out once a week, at 15-20%, trying to ensure that fresh water has parameters close to those of the aquarium. The only exceptions are toppings used as spawning stimulants - they should be carried out with softer, sour and cooler water. However, this is not necessary.

The temperature in the aquarium is determined by the species affiliation of notobranchiuses. For most of them, 20-22 ° C is quite enough, but among this rainbow tribe there are also greenhouses preferring 24-25 ° C.

Video breeding notobranchius

From the scenery, it is possible to recommend medium-sized, but preferably intricate shapes and with many twigs of crust, as well as any plants that are suitable for existence in such conditions. The universal ones include the Thai fern and dwarf anubias (they are attached to the crusts), many cryptocoryns are also suitable. The latter are best planted in shallow pots, which are bottoms cut off from 0.5-1-liter colorless plastic bottles - the interior of the aquarium is less affected and at the same time the maintenance and removal of the substrate with caviar is simplified (if such a goal is) . For aesthetic reasons, long stalks planted around the perimeter would be appropriate, but most of them would suffer from a lack of light and quickly lose their decorativeness.

Feeding is simple, unless you are a staunch opponent of natural feeds, since the vast majority of notobranchiuses do not accept flakes, granules and other “offal”. Almost all home-breeding fish are ready to be content with only an ice-cream bloodworm. True, the specimens grown on such a limited diet are noticeably inferior to their color by the fact that they received a more varied diet throughout their short lives - coronet, Drosophila, adult artemia. By the way, its nauplii will also work - adults are happy to enjoy this “baby” product.

It is better to give out rations fractionally, in small portions, so that the fish have time to grab everything they owe before it sinks to the bottom: from an open patch, the notobranchiuses can still pick something up, but they don’t really like to swarm in the substrate or in the wilds of plant roots, and uneaten food debris will only spoil the water.

Breeding Notobranchius

To one degree or another, I have already touched on the topic of breeding musicians in almost every of the previous subsections, and this is no accident, since the main task of the transient life of musicians is to ensure full reproduction of the tribe.

As already mentioned, the males are very loving, ready for action in almost any situation, despite its compliance with the requirements of the genus.

Females at breeding, it seems to me, have a more rational view of this problem, and indeed they are finickier and much calmer. With a significant discrepancy in temperaments and views on the surrounding reality between partners, conflicts can arise that are fraught for slender females with more or less serious physical damage (up to death, by the way). As a preventative measure, it is usually recommended that the notobranchius be kept in harems, when at least 2-3 girlfriends are made for each male.

Photo female notobranchius

In harsh natural conditions, when breeding, notobranchus have to cherish every moment of the few that diverted the harsh African climate to a pond that is drying out before their eyes, and therefore, having reached reproductive age, the fish immediately start spawning, laying eggs every day.

Thus, it makes no sense to talk about some phases and cycles of mating activity in relation to representatives of the genus Nothobranchius: this process is permanent, not involving pauses for restoration of strength. Perhaps that is why the potential of fish is so quickly exhausted - a phenomenon that is very annoying to breeders, but quite justified from the point of view of natural rationality.

However, if you intend to breed notobranchiuses not in the general aquarium, but in a separate aquarium, then it is better to separate the males and the females ahead of time (about a week), giving them the opportunity to meet directly in the spawning - a low all-glass vessel with a capacity of 5-10 liters. In this case, spawning occurs at a more dynamic pace, and in seated and heavily fed after its termination - that is, after 2-3 days - the fish will have a real opportunity to recover.

But I do not recommend constantly keeping fish in isolation: according to my observations, such an ascetic regime spoils their character and, contrary to logic, negatively affects fertility. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the long absence of a partner of the opposite sex leads to some kind of violations in the development of the reproductive system of notobranchiuses.

When transplanting, do not forget to monitor the continuity of water parameters, otherwise instead of spawning you will have to send the producers to medicinal baths.

The mating games of these killies are extraordinary and quite spectacular. At the initial stage, the pair stays in the middle layers of the water, slowly barraging above the ground (the male is usually higher) in search of the optimal zone. Having chosen a place, manufacturers are slightly reduced, looking for a specific section of the label. Then the male presses the body against the female, persistently inviting her to lie down. If agreement is reached, the partners descend on the substrate and the gentleman touches the lady with dorsal and anal fins. However, there is no sentiment in this gesture, and it pursues a very practical goal: to minimize the distance between the participants in the action and to ensure the most efficient consumption of sexual products.

After the mark, the fish disperse, and after a while everything repeats. And so every day. The daily fertility varies depending on the species affiliation of notobranchiuses, their activity and condition, and can range from several single eggs to tens.

Caviar of Notobranchius

What to use as a substrate for spawning when breeding notobranchiuses is the matter of choosing an aquarist. Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages. So, fine river sand is convenient for collecting caviar (it is simply sifted through a sieve with mesh size of about 0.5 mm), but it does not retain moisture well.

Digging caviar from peanuts or coconut fibers is not an easy task, but you can store caviar directly in them, because these materials are very hygroscopic and maintain a microclimate that is comfortable for caviar for a long time. The compromise option is quite practical: the use of sand as a spawning substrate, followed by screening of eggs and storing them in wet peat.

For the convenience of harvesting, I recommend laying the substrate not on the bottom of the aquarium, but in various plastic boxes. Fortunately, many products are now sold in pallets, and it is not at all difficult to pick up containers of appropriate dimensions. In this case, you only have to remove the spawn tray from the spawning only once a week, putting in its place a new one, with a fresh and still empty substrate.

Photo caviar notobranchiusov

Now comes the most critical phase of the imitation of the drought season at home. Peat is gently poured onto a sieve, allowed to drain water, then squeezed slightly and packaged in plastic bags with labels containing at least information about the type, timing of spawning and subsequent pouring. The substrate ready for incubation should have the consistency of granular cottage cheese: be slightly moist (but not wet), crumble slightly, and pour over. Do not be afraid to overdo it during the spin cycle - the eggs are quite tight to the touch and resistant to physical exertion. Their shell is, of course, not a coconut shell, but it is quite capable of providing good mechanical protection to the “contents”. It is still transparent, which allows using a magnifying glass to control the processes occurring inside and to select eggs with dead embryos.

The caviar of notobranchiuses is not sticky, vitreous, about 1 mm in diameter. The color of the caviar of the notobranchius has different shades of brown (from light tea to coffee), depending on the type of producer.

In advance, select a corner in the apartment where caviar will not be threatened by drafts, and the temperature is more or less stable in the region of 20-24 ° C, where the bags do not interfere with anyone, they will not turn over, but at the same time it is easy to get them from where to evaluate the state of the substrate (its absolute drying out must not be allowed).

After the set time - from 1 month (in N. korthausae and N.patrizii) to six months or more (again, depending on the species) - peat is dumped into a small aquarium and filled with cool (15-18 ° C) water so that the height it did not exceed 2-3 cm above the substrate level. This is an imitation of rain that brought the long-awaited moisture and filled the bowl of a dried puddle.

Fry of notobranchius - what to feed

There comes a moment of truth: if everything was done correctly, after a few hours you will witness the appearance of tiny, 4-6-mm (depending on the species) fry from the notobranchius caviar. They hatch from eggs already fully formed and ready to eat almost immediately, so make sure you have freshly popped Artemia nauplii at this time.

Even better, if you can please the fry of the notobranchiuses with a varied menu consisting of pond "dust" and home cultures of ciliates, rotifers and microworms. The richer the menu, the stronger the juveniles and the less their retreat.

Luck is not always achieved on the first try. Sometimes part of the embryos, or even all, do not want to leave the eggs. In this case, a day or two after the appearance of the first frit of the notobranchius (or after pouring), it is necessary to return the substrate to its original incubation state and repeat the procedure, say, in a week.

Do not be discouraged if part of the caviar died during storage - it is extremely rare to manage without losses. Some eggs didn’t get milk, some embryos didn’t go the wrong way — there is nothing to be done. Your task is to bring to the final stage at least a third of the offspring, and only half can be considered a real achievement.

Actually, the signal to the readiness of the embryo to be born is the pupils with a characteristic slightly shiny rim. If they are well formed (and this can be seen even with the naked eye), then the larval stage at the notobranchius is over and it is time to flood the peat with water.

Photo caviar notobranchiusov

Daily increase the water level in the tank with fry by 2-3 cm, gradually bringing it up to 15-20 cm, or carefully transfer the juveniles to another tank, paying attention to the absence of any significant differences in hydrochemical parameters. The soil in the outgrowth is not needed - it is easier to maintain cleanliness in it.

Fry of notobranchiusif they don’t have a shortage of food, they are quite loyal to each other, which allows them to jointly grow decently differing in terms of hatching generation. But I do not advise doing this: the older ones are more active, agile and voracious, and therefore they can doom their young brothers to a half-starved existence, which will certainly affect the growth and condition of the latter. Therefore, it is better to raise juveniles separately: with a difference in the dates of birth no more than 2 weeks. Unrelated groups should not be united at all - you can hardly reliably determine the species affiliation of young females subsequently.

Food for fry of notobranchiuses

With proper care, fry of notobranchius grow quickly. The main thing is to provide a comfortable living environment and plentiful feeding, suitable for them by age and immodest demands, quite, however, corresponding to the outstanding growth rates.

Food for fry of notobranchius should be present in the outgrowth constantly and in sufficient quantity, but not pollute the water. Artemia nauplii of different stages of development can be present in the diet until the fish reach adulthood, but bait can and should be alternated and enlarged in a timely manner.

If at the first stages it is permissible to use only live “dust” as such, then after a week you can consider grindal and chopped tubule as very useful additives, and some time later - cyclops and fine limy bloodworms. An excellent food for both the younger generation and adults is the Drosophila fly. But recently, her culture has somehow faded away by herself, and it’s not easy to get good material “for the tribe”.

It is good if fry of notobranchiuses do not disdain dry food, and this, it should be noted, is not uncommon. In this case, specialized products for fry or flakes to the right size for adult ornamental fish will go into business. It is especially useful to include artificial feed in the diet of babies with special additives that enhance color.

The more actively you use chopped and dry food, the more carefully control over its consumption should be. Particles that are not interested in fry or cannot fit in their mouths should be removed from the outgrowth as soon as possible. However, the optimal feeding algorithm for the fry of notobranchius in this case is quite standard for any aquarium fish: often, in small portions, as much as the fish can eat in 5 minutes.
It is also better to perform a water change in a teenage aquarium with fry of notobranchiuses fractionally, but often: 15-20% daily, again trying not to shock the young with sudden changes in parameters.

Adolescents are placed in a common aquarium with adult individuals when they reach a length of 2 cm. Notobranchies of most species by this time already acquire not only an “adult” color, but also the ability to reproduce and the ability to fend for themselves.

As you can see, the cultivation of musical notes is not an easy task. In this case, much is akin to the manifestation of a color film: you carefully prepare solutions, tremblingly conduct a naughty celluloid tape through several stages, look forward to the result and. you are sure to be satisfied with a few shots. But what a splendor is to the eye, if everything is done correctly, and this is quite a worthy compensation for the energy spent.

Types of Notobranchius

Roth's Nothobranchius (Nothobranchius rachovii) . This species of notranhius lives in reservoirs near the city of Beira (Mozambique). Like other relatives, this is a seasonal fish, and usually lives for 1 year in an aquarium.

Notobranchius Rakhova has a moderately elongated (up to 8 cm) and relatively tall body. The dorsal fin is located on the back half of the body. The tail is large, fan-shaped. The body of the male is painted in orange-red color with many blue spots on its side. Dorsal, anal and caudal - blue with dark red spots and lines, caudal with a black border and a wide orange stripe. The female is colored paler than the male - in a grayish-brown color. All her fins are colorless.

Gunther Notobranchius (Nothobranchius guentheri) . The birthplace of this species of notobranchius is mainly temporary reservoirs of Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique.

Gunther's notobranchius has a moderately elongated body, up to 7.5 centimeters long. The dorsal and anal fins are rounded; the caudal fin resembles a fan. Females have colorless fins and a monochromatic light brown body color. Males shimmer with almost all the colors of the rainbow, a number of red dots and strokes stand out on their body, especially they are intense at the caudal fin. The body has a bluish or greenish tint, the pectoral and ventral fins are bluish, the anal and dorsal fins are dark red, at the base they turn blue. Caudal fin bright red with a black stripe on the outer edge.

Sex difference: The male is larger than the female, brightly colored. The female is slightly smaller, brown. Gunther's notobranchius reaches puberty at the age of 1-1.5 months.

Nothobranchius palmquisti . Notkranchius Palmqvista, like all his other relatives, lives in the water bodies of Kenya and Tanzania.

Notkranchius Palmqvista has a moderately elongated (up to 8 cm) and relatively tall body. In the aquarium, as a rule, the body length of this type of notobranchius does not exceed 5 cm. The dorsal fin is located on the back half of the body. The tail is large, fan-shaped. The body of the male is painted in a bluish-green color. Each flake with a red border forms a net pattern on the body. Caudal fin bright red. Dorsal and anal - yellowish-green with reddish-brown dots. The female is colored paler than the male, in olive-gray color. All her fins are colorless.

Nothobranchius foerschi - A popular aquarium fish with a very delicate, attractive color. It is distinguished by calm, activity, comparative peacefulness.
Representatives of the species live in the drying up and shallow reservoirs of Tanzania, which is located in Africa.

The body length of the male reaches 5 centimeters, the female is about 1.5 centimeters less. Basically Notobranchius Foerschi are painted in bluish or blue-green color. On the back there is a brighter color. The tail fin of the male is light red or saturated red in color, along the rear edge it is surrounded by a thin golden or yellow, sometimes whitish stripe. The pectoral fins are golden yellow. The dorsal and anal fins are naturally golden-yellow in color with many small saturated red dots that are located at the base of the fin. Females are colored gray or taupe, their abdomen is slightly lighter than the back. The scales have dark faded edges.

Red-finned Nothobranchius (Nothobranchius rubripinnis) . Homeland - Tanzania. The maximum size is 5 cm.

Notobranchus Flammikomantis or Orangefin Notobranchius (Nothobranchius flammicomantis). Homeland - Tanzania. The maximum size is 6 cm.

Brown-footed Nothobranchius (Nothobranchius fuscotaeniatus) .

Notbranchius Eggers diff. Red (Nothobranchius eggersi var. "Red") .

Notbranchius Eggers diff. Blue (Nothobranchius eggersi var. "Blue") .

Nothobranchius virgatus .

Nothobranchius taeniopygus .

Nothobranchius rosenstocki .

Nothobranchius pienaari .

Nothobranchius furzeri .

Nothobranchius korthausae .

Content Notrobranius

Notobranchius can be kept both in the species and in the general aquarium from 40 cm long with peat crumb soil and a water level of up to 25 cm. Various shelters are needed in the aquarium, overgrown plants on the sides of the aquarium, floating plants that create shady places and free space for swimming. Shelters from snags and stones are also desirable. Light is best natural, not too bright.

The optimal parameters of water for keeping notobranchius: hardness (dH) 2-15 °, acidity (pH) 6.0-7.0, temperature 21-23 ° C. Also in the aquarium, powerful filtration (likes clean water), aeration and weekly water changes are required, up to 25% of the total volume. Water can be salted at the rate of 1 gram of salt per liter of water, this will be the prevention of notobranchiuses from various diseases.

Feeding the Notobranchius

Notobranchius consumes high-quality live food: bloodworms and larvae of other mosquitoes, daphnia, worms, tubule and substitutes. Frozen food should be given in small quantities.

Beware of overfeeding fish!

Important! It is necessary to feed musicians every day (1-2 times), because because of their rapid metabolism, they cannot endure a long hunger strike and die.

Breeding Notobranchiusa

A spawning aquarium of 10 liters (for 1 male and 2-3 females) with a water level of about 10 cm, a layer of boiled peat crumbs at the bottom (up to 2.5 cm) and a bush of small-leaved plants (for example, Javanese moss) is suitable for breeding Rakhov’s notobranchius. .

Dilution water parameters: hardness (dH) 2-10 °, acidity (pH) 6.0-6.5, temperature 22-25 ° C.

Producers are kept separately for 2-3 days, fed plentifully, then they are seated, and after 1-2 days they are again placed in the spawning ground. After several such plantings, peat and caviar are collected and laid for incubation in a glass jar for 6-7 weeks. After incubation, the eggs are poured with fresh water with dH and pH values ​​for dilution, but with a temperature of 18-20 ° C. The incubation period lasts 1.5-6 months. When storing eggs before the bay, you can check the readiness of the embryo. 2-3 eggs are selected from peat and a control is carried out using a magnifying glass. The bay is held at the silver eye stage.

After hatching fry, they immediately begin to feed.

Starting feed: ciliates, and after 2–3 days give “live dust” and microworms, after a week - small cyclops.

Fries grow very quickly, but unevenly, especially females lag behind in growth, so they must be sorted by size.

Sexual maturity in notobranchius occurs at the age of 1-2 months.

Notobranchius compatibility with other aquarium inhabitants

Notobranchius is a relatively peace-loving fish. In a large aquarium, you can keep several males (2-4 females are planted per 1 male), but keep in mind that skirmishes will constantly occur between them. The neighbors select related species of fish, although in this case there is a danger of confusing the females.

Also, I do not recommend in the neighbors of fish with veil fins and slow in movement, because their fin fins will most likely bite off.

Notobranchiuses are kept in the middle and lower layers of water.

The content of notranchiuses in the aquarium

Significant role in promoting musicians how aquabionts play their unpretentiousness to the conditions of detention. Contrary to popular belief, the vast majority of species do not need exclusively soft and acidic water, quite content with what the local water supply provides, and this applies not only to the content, but also to the breeding of these fish.
This saves aquarists a lot of trouble associated with preparing the habitat.

Due to the small size musicians, the length of the males on average is 5-6 centimeters (females 1-2 cm less), for their maintenance does not require large containers. The minimum norm, for one individual, is about 2-3 liters of water, with a total aquarium volume of only 10-15 liters. This alignment makes musicians a very promising object for amateurs who, due to various circumstances, are not able to acquire a spacious aquarium or are loyal followers of nano-aquariums who are now in fashion.

Such bright creatures do not threaten to get lost either in a miniature aquarium or in a more spacious tank, regardless of the style of their design and color schemes.

In nature, there are 10-12-centimeter music companions, but these species are rarely found among lovers.

Content musicians usually does not cause difficulties in an aquarium, but in order to preserve these fish for several generations, it is necessary to create optimal conditions for them.

Despite the fact that in nature notobranchusam you have to live in the temperature range from 16 to 32 ° C, withstanding its daily fluctuations up to 6 ° C.
In captivity, the optimum temperature for their maintenance lies in the range of 20-23 ° C. Since at lower temperatures, the color of the males fades and they lose their decorativeness, and at higher temperatures, the life span of the fish is significantly reduced.
Water hardness (dGH) can range from 5 to 20 °. In too soft water, fish are often prone to oodinosis. The acid value (pH) can range from 6 to 7.5.

Aquarium care is no different from a similar procedure for other aquarium fish: maintaining cleanliness and weekly replacement of part of the water.
Individual species musicians negatively react to a one-time substitution of a large amount of water, therefore, the replaced water in chemical composition should be close to the old one. It is recommended to replace the water in small portions, this will improve the appetite and well-being of the fish.

Note Branches rather shy, but despite this they get along well with other small, peaceful species of fish. Optimally, if their neighbors become other spawning cyprinids, preferring to stay in the middle and upper layers of water.

Best kept musicians nests in species aquariums, when two or three females per male.

Cardinalis notobranchus male and female

If there are several males in one small aquarium, then in the presence of females, fights periodically occur between them. Usually it looks like this: rivals inflate gills and get closer. Approaching each other at a fairly close distance, they turn sideways, unfurl the fins and, sharply bending, simulate fins, having done so several times, the explanation of the relationship usually stops. Similarly, males attract the attention of females.
Sometimes males, clutching each other with jaws, ride along the bottom of the aquarium.
Such fights usually end without any serious consequences for both opponents. In the worst case, this is not significant damage to the fins, which quickly heal within three to four days.

Duel between the males of the notobranchius Gunther

In the absence of females, as a rule, males behave more peacefully.

In an aquarium with notraniuses dim light should be used, with the lamp better placed closer to the sight glass.
From the aquarium flora, those species of plants that tolerate small shading are well recommended, for example: Javanese moss, fern-microzorium, cinnamon, some types of cryptocoryns.

The optimal solution would be to use a Thai fern (Microsorium pteropus), which, in addition to shading, is not afraid of suspensions of peat particles and can serve as a reliable shelter for females hiding from an overly intrusive partner.

A valuable property is the ability of the Thai fern to withstand a small salinity of water, which sometimes has to be salted (1 tablespoon of table salt per 10 l) to prevent fish disease from pathogenic microorganisms from the group of flagellates Piscinoodinium (Oodinium), which often affect weakened musicians, affecting the quality and life expectancy of fish.

Most spectacularly music companions look in a well-planted aquarium with a volume of 40 liters or more at a temperature of 21-24 ° C.

Under such conditions, males reach optimal sizes and are brightly colored. Although in nature music companions they live only one season (about six months), until the pond dries up, in the conditions of the aquarium, individual specimens can live up to three years.

Reproduction of notobranchiuses in an aquarium

With reproduction musicians usually there are no problems - starting from one and a half to two months of age, fish are tossed daily even in a common aquarium. It is much harder to keep eggs and get fry.

For spawning, an aquarium of about 5-10 liters is quite suitable. The best soil and at the same time substrate for the incubation of eggs is peat, laid in a layer of about 1 cm, as it retains moisture well and also has bactericidal properties. For this purpose, a well-washed and boiled peat, suitable as crumbs, or fibers, is suitable.
Peat must be neutral in order not to acidify the water in the aquarium. To do this, it is prepared as follows: boil for 20 minutes, washed in a nylon net until the water becomes clear, then boil again for 40 minutes and rinse again. Only after such treatment is it placed in the aquarium.

An alternative to peat is coconut flakes or the so-called coconut concentrate.
To prevent feed from entering the substrate, it is advisable to place peat in a small plastic container.

For breeding musicians you can use both soft and hard water, the pH should not be less than 6.5. Basically music companions able to successfully reproduce even in very hard (dGH 20 °, KH 22 °) and alkaline (pH 8) water.
A prerequisite is the quality of the water, it should not contain organic matter (the remains of uneaten food, waste products of fish), otherwise the caviar will die.

It is best to feed manufacturers with bloodworms, cyclops, or daphnia. Food is given once a day and should be eaten within two hours. Not eaten food residues decompose and pollute the water, which can lead to the death of caviar. In summer, the best food is the larva of a mosquito of the genus Culex ("little devil"), which is preferred by fish.

Spawning behavior musicians quite spectacular.
It is interesting to observe the courtship of the male during spawning. Staying in the middle layers of water, steam slowly moves above the ground, in search of a suitable place. Having found such manufacturers fall below. After making sure that the choice is correct, the male carries the female to the soil surface with his body, forcing her to lie on the bottom. Then he hugs his partner with the dorsal and anal fin, thereby reducing the distance between them.

Gunther's Notobranch Couple - Ready to Spawn

Having laid a portion of caviar, the producers diverge. After some time, the process repeats.
Depending on the species, from a few units to several tens of eggs can be delayed per day.

Most species musicians relatively prolific (up to 150-200, or even more eggs per cycle), and caviar can easily overtake the time allotted for it to mature.

Gunther's Notobranchius pair spawning

There are several breeding methods. natobranchiusov.
1. Fish are kept in pairs in small 4-6-liter aquariums with floating plants (richchia, Thai fern), which serve as a shelter for the female from the male and purify the water from organic compounds. At the bottom of the spawning grounds, set a cuvette with boiled peat, in which fish lay eggs.
With this method of breeding, as a rule, there is not a large amount of caviar and fry. This method can be recommended to collectors whose main goal is to maintain and breed the maximum number of species musicians and having a large number of small containers.

2. Fish contain nests (one male for two or three females) in 10-20-liter aquariums. A plastic container with a height of 3-5 centimeters with a peat layer of 0.5-1 centimeter is installed at the bottom. Plants are optional. This method of breeding gives the greatest amount of caviar.

3. In a 40-70-liter aquarium, a school of fish is put into spawning at a ratio of males and females of 1: 2 or 1: 3. At the bottom put two or three boxes of peat or just pour peat in one corner. Floating plants are desirable. In this case, you can also get a large amount of caviar, but when the infection is introduced into the aquarium, there is a danger of the death of the entire population.

Producers spawn on average two to three weeks. After that, peat from the container is passed through a sieve with small holes, slightly wrung out and laid on a napkin or other absorbent paper for drying, until it becomes friable. Then it is laid out in plastic bags or tightly sealed cans, where the eggs are incubated. Do not forget to make appropriate notes on the incubation containers.
Caviar containers are recommended to be inspected every 2-3 weeks making sure that the substrate does not dry out or become covered with fungus.

In embryonic development musicians ichthyologists distinguish three phases separated by diapause.
DI (blastogenesis phase) - starting cell crushing after fertilization of eggs.
DII (embryogenesis phase) is the primary formation of the embryo.
DIII (organogenetic phase) - at this final stage, the embryo is already fully formed and is only waiting for suitable external conditions, while lowering the temperature and increasing humidity caused by rains.
The duration of the phases depends on environmental conditions and can vary for the same species over a very wide range. So u notobranchius Rakhova (N.rachovii) phase DI, in nature, can last two weeks, and can last 1.5 years.
Moreover, the above-described path of development of eggs is programmed by nature quite strictly - there will be no diapause, there will be no fry.

The egg storage temperature is affected by the storage temperature of the substrate and its humidity. So with excessively dried peat, the incubation time can increase significantly. A slight increase in storage temperature and its daily fluctuations reduce the period of diapause.

It is believed that if peat with caviar is stored at a temperature of 27-29 ° C, then it can be immersed in water after six weeks. At a lower temperature, this is done after two or more months.

Before pouring the substrate with caviar in water, it is recommended to take a look at the lumen, or with a magnifying glass, several eggs in turn. If a fully formed embryo is seen in them, with distinctly brilliant eyes, the substrate with caviar is placed in a suitable container and filled with water to a height of 1-1.5 cm above the surface of the peat, and a lamp is installed on top.

For pouring, it is better to use boiled or thawed cool water with a temperature of 15-18 ° C. The water layer should not exceed 2-3 centimeters, since hatching juveniles must rise to the surface and swallow air to fill their swim bladder.

The water level above the surface of the substrate is very important, it should not be too high.
If the fry for some reason, in particular due to the presence of a bacterial film, could not be done, then it turns into the so-called “slider”, unable to swim normally, while it grows slightly behind its peers.

Melt water can be prepared by placing in a freezer a suitable-sized container with settled water. When 2/3 of the water volume hardens, it is necessary to drain the non-frozen water, and melt the ice, heat to the desired temperature and use for pouring. If you have soft water flowing from a faucet, you can get by with just standing water.

In order to avoid the formation of a bacterial film on the surface of the water, it is recommended that the air compressor be switched on for poor purging.

Hatching of larvae begins at a temperature of 19–20 ° С. After twelve hours, you need to add water, preferably salted (20 liters one tablespoon), raise the temperature to 24 ° C and give the fry food.
In this regard, we can also mention that the majority of fry musicians at the time of hatching from eggs, they are quite miniature, however, from the very first hours, they are able to cope with artemia nauplii, which greatly simplifies the task for the aquarist with starting feed.

And only for those species that have very small fry, rotifers or paramecium serve as starting food.
As they grow, juveniles are transferred to cyclops, daphnia, artemia, or a cut tubule.

After two days, the peat is again dried and put on re-incubation. Nature made sure that, when suitable conditions were met, not all fry hatched from eggs at the same time, but only part. Thanks to this, the species is protected from extinction.

In an aquarium, it is difficult to simulate natural conditions, so you should pay special attention to the following points:
the temperature of the water in the aquarium with the producers and the indoor air during drying of the substrate and the first week of incubation of eggs should be as close as possible,

at elevated temperature (28–32 ° С) caviar musicians developing faster

daily diurnal temperature fluctuations of 5-7 ° C are possible, which reduces the incubation period of eggs,

if the incubation period of eggs characteristic for this species has expired, the eggs can be placed on the allotment, on the lower shelf of the refrigerator (temperature 2–4 ° С), and then kept for a week in a warm place (30–32 ° С),

The intensity of lighting does not have any effect on the development of caviar musicians and therefore can be stored both in the light and in a dark place.

The juveniles develop very quickly; it takes only 1.5–2 months to acquire adult coloration and transition to the reproductive phase. After which the fish begin to spawn actively.

This developmental rate is associated with a rather short wet season, during which fry need to not only grow, but also have time to lay eggs.

Diet of notobranchius

Diet basis musicians in nature are small aquatic invertebrates, which they catch in the bottom layers of water bodies.
At musicians fairly intense metabolism, so they should be actively fed.
Captive ration musicians It can consist of any live food: bloodworm, coronet, daphnia, cyclops, nauplii artemia, tubule.
The latter is not recommended to be abused, since it has been observed that fish that regularly eat the tubifex are more likely to suffer from tuberculosis.
In the absence of the above feed, you can give pieces of meat or fish. Dry feed music companions reluctantly take or not at all.

With uniform feeding, or sudden changes in conditions music companions may go on a hunger strike by refusing the proposed feed. To avoid this, it is necessary to ensure that the feed is completely eaten and feed the fish as diverse as possible, adding grindal, enchitrea, Drosophila and other small insects to their diet.

The most common diseases of notobranchius

From diseases musicians Of particular note is oodiniosis. The smallest gray nodules appear on the body and fins of the fish, in which powdery “dust” of golden or gray color is formed. The fins sag, stick together.
If this happened, then the treatment method in the early stages of the disease will increase the salt concentration in the aquarium, and in more serious cases, add Bicillin-5, or Bicillin-3 to the water at the rate of 500,000 units per 100 liters of water. Since bicillin in the solution quickly decomposes in the light, it is advisable to bring it into the aquarium in the evening. It is undesirable to feed fish at this moment, since food poisoning is possible. Treatment should be carried out for three days.

Another common disease is ichthyophthyroidism. The fish is anxious, rubs against stones, rises to the surface of the water and swallows air. White tubercles appear on the body and fins (it seems that the fish is sprinkled with semolina). For treatment, table salt is used at the rate of one tablespoon per 10 liters of water at a temperature in the aquarium of 30-33 ° C (within a week).
For preventive purposes, musicians it is better to contain in salted water (one tablespoon of table salt per 20 liters of water).

In overpopulated, contaminated aquariums, another disease is possible musicians - mycobacteriosis. The fish becomes lethargic, lethargic, stands in the corner with the tail down, refusing to feed, is depleted. The color turns pale, the scales begin to fall out, flat open ulcers appear. The abdomen swells, puffy eyes, clouding of the cornea of ​​the eye. There is no effective cure for this disease, and usually it all ends with the death of fish.

In recent years music companions in Russia were undeservedly forgotten, and many of the species that lived in our aquariums in the eighties were lost. But now interest in these amazingly beautiful fish is returning. Perhaps their collection will be replenished, but the main thing is not to lose what we have.