In contrast to the previous one, it is a settled or almost settled bird, the nesting area of which lies in a forest strip south of the region F. p. leucogenys, not uncommon in the northwestern and partly in the central strip of the European part of the country, but rare in Ukraine and the Volga region, there is no peregrine falcon on the nesting site in the Turgai steppe and in the Kokchetav zoological site, then to the east F. p. brevirostris runs along the southern strip of eastern Siberia, approximately from Krasnoyarsk through the Transbaikalia, Dauria, Amur Region and Ussuri Territory, North Chinese birds probably also belong here.
This race - in comparison with the previous one - is characterized by a dark color: in adults, the head and upper back are freshly pseudopodose blackish and noticeably darker than the rest of the mantle, the black poles under the heads are strongly developed, the bottom is more speckled and streaked, and the figure itself is much rougher, the reddish plaque on the chest and grayish on the sides, belly, trousers, undertail are more developed, the head of the young is darker, usually with a noticeable predominance of brown, the light (reddish or buffy) edges of the feathers of the top are not wide, the lower side of the body with wide bubbled stripes, dark field under the eyes wide. The value is the same as the previous one, but the wings are on average a little shorter: the wing of the males of the females has a tail, respectively (i.e., the tail of this form, like the previous one, is relatively long).
(This form, which in our literature is usually given under the name F. p. Peregrinus, but English and generally Western European birds are smaller and darker than Eastern European birds and in any case are not identical with them).
Yakut Peregrine Falcon peregrinus kleinschmidti (F.P. Kleinschmidti)
Birds of middle and southern Yakutia (Vilyuya basin, Yakutsk district) differ from F. p. leucogenys has a darker and brighter color - a blackish-slate head, a dark back and a bottom with a rough, bright and contrasting black pattern, the color is more contrast than that of brevirostris, since the lower part of the mantle is a lighter bluish color, and the bottom is speckled brighter and coarser , young birds on top are very intense blackish-brown in color than they differ from leucogenys, the dark bottom pattern is narrower, less smeared than brevirostris, and slightly wider than leucogenys. Value - as in the previous one: the wing of males of females
This form, extending east to the Okhotsk coast (through the Aldan basin) and associated with the transitional tundra Anadyr peregrine falcon population, is very close to the apparently American falcon (F. p. Anatum).
Small peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus pleskei (F. p. Pleskei)
Peregrine Falcons obtained on the Shantar Islands (Bolshoi Shantar, August 21 and October 26, 1925) and at the mouth of the river. Kohl on the coast of the Sakhalin Gulf (October 11, 1931), being similar in color to the previous ones, are easily distinguished by their unusually small size: the wing of females
Apparently, the female, caught on September 11, 1910 in the Sea of Okhotsk 150 miles east of Sakhalin, which, according to the intentions of S. A. Buturlin, had a wing length of 31.5 cm, belongs to the same form. Peregrine Falcons nesting on Sakhalin should be also to the form described herein.
Caucasian Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus caucasicus (F.P.
The area of distribution of the Caucasian Peregrine Falcon - Crimea, the Caucasus, to the north, at least to Sochi and Dagestan, flies to the lower reaches of the Don and the Tauride steppes (Askania-Nova). It may be birds from the southern Caspian and Khorassan sections of the Transcaspian region (N. A. Zarudny, 1918) and from neighboring parts of Iran.
A form close to the group of Mediterranean peregrine falcons, in particular to F. p. brookei, but differs from them in a paler color. As for other races of peregrine falcons living in our country, Caucasian peregrine falcons are easily distinguished from them by small stature, dark, blackish coloration of the top and bright coloration of the bottom, and with a more intense grayish tone of the sides and abdomen and a pinkish bloom of the chest in the adult feather, on the back of the head red streaks are developed, young ones are darker - coarsely streaked from below and with a very intense red-ocher shade. The wing of males according to literature up to 30 cm, females according to literature up to 34.3 cm.
Aleutian or black peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus pealei (F. p. Drank)
This peregrine falcon is found on the land of Queen Charlotte, the Aleutian and Commander Islands, where it is not rare. Apparently, birds from the Kuril Islands are also here. In off-week time, to Japan (Hakodate) and in the western states of the North. America.
Large race with a wing in the male in the female with a massive beak and long tails. The color is very dark - the general tone of the top in adults is slate-blackish, with a gray transverse pattern, the bottom is rough and strongly mottled, and the speckles reach the goiter and throat, the young ones are very dark blackish-brown in color, from above - without or almost no light rims of feathers, the brown color prevails from below, since a light whitish tone appears only on the throat and then in the form of narrow rims of feathers of the chest and belly or in the form of whitish paired spots on the sides, the nails are buffy, with a rough and wide brown pattern.
Area peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) unusually wide, these birds live throughout Eurasia, North America and most of Africa, also found in Madagascar, some Pacific islands (up to Australia), in the extreme south of South America. Peregrine Falcons inhabit open areas, most often found in the tundra, forest-tundra, forest-steppes, savannas, on the rocky coasts of the seas. These falcons avoid solid forests and deserts, but willingly settle in urban landscapes, ranging from ancient cathedrals in small towns to modern skyscrapers of megalopolises. In the tropical areas they are sedentary, in the south of the temperate zone in winter they migrate to the south, in the northern parts of the range they are typically migratory birds.
Like most falcons, peregrine falcon - a bird of medium size. The length of his body reaches 40-50 cm, weight ranges from 0.6 to 1.3 kg, and the females are larger than males. The body of the peregrine falcon is streamlined, the chest with well-developed muscles, the wings are long, and the tail, on the contrary, is short. The ends of the wings are pointed, the tail is bluntly cut, the beak, although it looks small, is strong and ends with a sharp hook. The peregrine falcon's main weapon is relatively long legs with strong and clawed toes. A clawed punch at high speed rips up the victim’s body like a cutter. The color of males and females is the same: on top the body of the peregrine falcons is slate-gray, the same color of the cheeks, the underside of the body is light - from white to reddish-buffy. Streaks are scattered all over the body, almost imperceptible on the upper side of the wings and forming a clear “hawk” pattern on the lower side of the body. The base of the beak, eyelids and paws is bright yellow. Individual subspecies may have slight deviations from this color.
Nutrition and hunting features
Favorite booty peregrine falcons - birds of medium size: pigeons, seagulls, waders. During the period of feeding the chicks, peregrine falcons can also hunt unusually small prey (small waders and passerines), but sometimes their birds can become much larger than them. It is not difficult for a peregrine falcon to obtain a heron, a goose, a duck, the weight of which is several times greater than its own. Peregrine falcons rarely hunt land animals (rodents), but they do not touch larger animals at all. Peregrine Falcons are capable of taking prey both from the ground (sick or young birds that cannot fly), and from the air, but their aerial hunting is most famous. The flight of the peregrine falcon is easy with frequent flapping, while the bird develops a speed of no more than 100-110 km / h. This is a lot, but swifts, swallows and even pigeons fly with the same speed. However, the peregrine falcon has a secret weapon - a rapid pique. Here the peregrine falcon does not know equal animals in the world, because in the fall his body cuts the air at a speed of 240-300 km / h! This is the highest speed that is recorded among all living things in general.
In connection with such flight features, the peregrine falcons developed their own hunting style. These birds do not try to catch the victim in an open competition for speed, more often the peregrine falcon hunts prey from shelter (crevices in the rocks, a dry tree), and then catches it with a sudden jerk, and the peregrine falcon tries not to follow the victim in a straight line, but to dive under it or even to be on top. Then he folds his wings (this significantly increases the speed of free fall) and dives on the victim. A peregrine falcon has enough prey in its paws, which, combined with a huge collision speed, can already be fatal for the victim, if this was not enough, the peregrine falcon finishes off prey with a sharp beak.
Peregrine falcons live alone, in the nesting period they are kept in pairs. A couple of birds guard their sites very zealously, they drive out not only their relatives, but also other large species of birds, for example, eagles. Peregrine falcons are extensive, each nesting site is 3-10 km from the neighboring one. Interestingly, peregrine falcons never hunt near their nest, no matter how much prey there is, so geese, swans, geese try to settle down closer to peregrine falcon nests. In this case, they and their offspring are guaranteed to be protected not only from the attacks of falcons, but also from attacks of other birds of prey, which the peregrine falcons drive out.
Peregrine Falcons are monogamous birds; their pairs are preserved for life. The mating ritual consists of acrobatic flight, somersaults in the air, and the transmission of male prey to the female on the fly. Peregrine falcons have rather sloppy nests, the litter of the nest is always poor and consists of several branches and large feathers. Often this falcon is not built by nests themselves, but by ravens, occupying their owners impudently. Peregrine falcons always strive to build their own nests on safe hills (rocks, tall buildings), in the presence of such convenient nests they can occupy such places from generation to generation for centuries. Each pair on the site also has several spare nests, which they can use when ruining the main one. On vast plains (for example, in the tundra) peregrine falcons dig a shallow hole in the ground for a nest.
In April-May, the female lays 2-5 eggs (usually 3) of red-chestnut color with dark dots. Both parents incubate clutch for 33-35 days, but the female sits on the nest more often. Peregrine Falcon chicks are covered with white fluff and at first they are heated by a female. The male provides the family with food, the parents tear the prey into small pieces and feed the individual meat fibers to the chicks. The chicks grow rapidly and after a month they fledge, and after a year and a half they try to fly. The art of agile hunting is not given to young birds immediately, therefore, about a month after they take to the wing, young peregrine falcons are fed by their parents. Birds reach puberty by the year, but they form pairs only at the age of 2-3 years.
In the middle of the twentieth century, pesticides (preparations for the extermination of insects) began to be massively used in agriculture, and this led to tragic consequences for peregrine falcons. Harmful substances began to accumulate in the body of insects and insectivorous birds, and when the latter were eaten by peregrines, they also got into their body. High doses of DDT disturbed the metabolism of peregrine falcons, and they laid eggs with an abnormally thin shell, which led to a global reduction in the world population of these birds. Only a complete ban on DDT and breeding of peregrine falcons in special nurseries allowed the peregrine falcons to be preserved. Now they have restored their numbers and are even trying to populate such large cities as Moscow and New York. Here peregrine falcons have a rich food supply in the form of huge swarms of pigeons.
The text of the scientific work on the theme "THE CURRENT STATE OF THE CRIMEAN PAPER SAPSANA FALCO PEREGRINUS TUNSTALL, 1771"
Scientific notes of Taurida National University. V. I. Vernadsky Series “Biology” Volume 16 (55) No. 2 (2003) 114-117.
UDC 598.279.24: 591 526 (477.75)
CURRENT STATE OF THE CRIMEAN SAPSAN POPULATION FALCO PEREGRIN US TUNSTALL, 1771
Kucherenko S, H, t Kostin S, Yu.
According to modern ideas, the Caucasian subspecies of peregrine falcon nests in Crimea - Falco peregrinus brookei Sharpe, 1873 1-3. The subspecies Falco peregrinos caucasicus Kleinschmidt, 1907, cited by several authors as nesting 4-6, is synonymous with F. p. brookei. During migration and wintering in the Crimea, there is a nominative subspecies - Falco peregrinus peregrinus Tunstal 1.1771 and tundra - Falco peregrimis calidus Latham, 1790.
The settled peregrine falcons were indicated by JI.A. Molchanov, S.K. Dal I.I. Puzanov, and later this opinion was repeated by other authors. Yu.V. Kostin doubted the validity of this statement, since the latest collection specimens of local falcons were dated in October (a copy of the Zoomuseum of Moscow State University from Tamak was marked in October 1 855, and a copy of the funds of the Simferopol Museum of Local Lore No. 5430 was obtained in October 1909 from Simferopol, exact dates of production in both cases are absent). Only at the end of the 80s of the last century did the first reliable data on wintering of local birds in Crimea appear. These are observations of 3984-1986. A.C. Merchants in the area of Cape Ayia and A.B., Grinchenko in Simferopol. In the last decade, the species was repeatedly recorded in winter throughout the mountainous Crimea: in Feodosia (12/31/1996), in Alushta (02/08/1997, 02/01/1998, 01/19/2001) on the eastern cliffs of the lower plateau of Chatyrdag (2/12/2001), on the Foros wall (December 31, 2001). in the vicinity of the village of Krasnokamenka (01/26/2002) our data.
Nesting biotope - rocky cliffs of the mountain-forest part of the peninsula. Almost all ornithologists of the past characterized the peregrine falcon as a rare and even endangered species, therefore we have fragmentary information about the past distribution of the falcon in the Crimea. S.I. Ogpev got a female and a young peregrine falcon in the vicinity of Sudak 3 June 5, 1913, G.G1. Dementiev mentions a specimen of a female with large stains from 08.05., Obtained in the Balaklava area, Nesting was noted in the vicinity of Karadag (specimen, collections from Kiev University from 06.24.1946, testimonies of Yu.V. Averin and G.D. Sersky in 1952 city, Yu.V. Kostin in 1958), p. Krasnoselovki and Karabi. On the territory of the Crimean reserve in the 30s, nested in Chatyrdag (Dal, archive), on the cliffs of the Chernaya mountains
Current state of the Crimean peregrine falcon population Falco peregrmus Tunstall, 1771 5
and the Big Scarecrow (Dahl, Kiselev, archive), on the rocks of the Basman tract. In 1951-1969 still nested in some of these places, in particular, on Chatyrdag, Mount Chernaya. Basmane. Peregrine falcons were found in nesting biotopes on 04/12/1962 in Ayu-Dag and on 12/04/1964 at Kizil-Koba. In May-June 1958 M.A. Warlike observed these falcons on the rocks near the village. Rybachy, in Karadag, as well as near the cliffs of Demerdzhi near s. Radiant. According to the testimony of Yu.V. Kostina, since 1970, during nesting time, was not observed in the reserve and became very rare in the rest of the mountain forest Crimea: 18 - 20.04.1973 g, a pair was found in Ayu-Dag, and on 07.06. 1973 single - on the city of Agarmysh. This gave reason to believe that at that time the Crimean peregrine falcon population was on the verge of extinction, or had already disappeared.
In the second half of the 20th century, a catastrophic decline in the number of species was observed in all parts of the range, especially in the northern Mediterranean. Common peregrine falcon in the European part of the USSR was universally rare in the late 70s, and its number has decreased significantly over the previous 20-30 years. According to expert estimates. in nine regions of the European part of the USSR, 20-30 pairs nested. Caucasian peregrine falcon was very rare everywhere, and its meetings in these years are sporadic. According to S.P. By the end of the 80s, the Carpathian and Crimean nesting populations totaled 15-20 pairs. Such a sharp drop in the number of the falcon was the reason for its inclusion in the IUCN Red List (category I species, the number of which is declining sharply), in the European Red List, in the annexes to international conventions (Berne, Bonn, CITES), national Red Books. A number of measures to save the species in Europe led to the fact that by the beginning of the 90s its numbers had stabilized. So, in Spain, the nesting population numbers 1650 pairs, Great Britain - 1280, Russia - up to 800, France - 650, Italy - 500, Ireland -450,
Since the mid 80-ies of the XX century the number of the Crimean peregrine falcon population also began to increase. In 1986, the falcon nested in Karadag and Basman, in the vicinity of Gurzuf and s. Potter (Sevastopol City Council), on the northern slopes of Demerdzhi and in the city of Simferopol 10.
According to the accounts of 1994-1995. 5 pairs of peregrine falcons nested only in the area from the village of Novyi Svet to Karadag. In 1996 - 97 years. the pair nested on Cape Martian. In 1996, nesting pairs were recorded in the cities of Sokol and Koba-Kaya near the New World, Cape Alchak-Kaya and the Taraktash ridge in the vicinity of Sudak, Cape Rybachy and Choban-Basta on Meganom, southern cliffs of Echkidag in the okr. from. Twittering. In nesting biotopes, they were met on 05.21.1996 at s. Fishing.
In 1997, in addition to the above sites, the peregrine falcon nested in the Crimean reserve in the tract Yaman-Dere. Chernoy and Basman (communication A.S. Polumeeva), on the White Rock 04.05, on the city of Koklzh at Koktebel (communication S.P. Prokopenko), in the rocks between the villages Tankovoye and Malosadovoy (Bakhchisarai district) 23.06.
In 1998, 2 pairs were noted in the northern part of Karadag, on the southern cliffs
Kucherenko V.N., Kostin S.Yu.
Karabi-yayly and on, Eklizi-Burun, a couple on the White Rock, Paragelmen, Ayu-Dag, in the upper reaches of the Avunda Gorge and Cape Fiolent 20.04. At least four pairs of peregrine falcons nestled on a section of the rocky walls of the Main Ridge from the Foros settlement to Alupka (reported by S.P. Prokopenko).
In 1999, nested in the valley of the river. Indole (Bor-Kaya city) II, on a cliff of the sea coast east of Koktebel (reported by V.V. Vetrov) and 2 pairs - north of s. Greetings, in pairs on the city of Shan Kai (east of Demerdzhi) and in the same area closer to the sea in the deepening of the "slate" ravine (reported by A. S. Polumeev). In 2000, it nested on one of the high-rise buildings in Yalta and in the rocks near the Uchan-Su waterfall.
In 2002, couples were marked on 08–10.03 on the Forossky wall, 09.05 on the city of Sokol, 06.22 in the city of Simferopol and 22.07 in the area of the Ai-Petri peak, 11–12.08 in the village. Green mountains. On the rocks at the western and eastern slopes of the Northern Demerdzhi city on 07.06, we, together with M. M. Beskaravaynom, discovered two pairs. In the same year A.A. Matus observed two pairs of peregrine falcons, the nests of which were located a kilometer apart from each other on the western and southwestern walls of Demerdzhayla.
Therefore, we can state the restoration of peregrine falcon population in the region over the past ten years. Of the features of the spatial distribution of the species settlements, it should be noted that the nests are mainly located on the southern macro slope in the coastal cliffs, on the rocks in the range of altitudes of 500 - 600 m above sea level. and Priyailinsky cliffs at an altitude of 1000 m above sea level The southeastern part of the mountainous Crimea from Koktebel to s. Fun - up to 15 pairs. In the valleys of the Raven and Shelen rivers, we assume nesting of 2-3 pairs. To the west - in the area of s. Zelenogorye, along the valley of the river. Shepherd Kule, 1-2 pairs. In the valley of the river. They will skip 2-3 pairs in the area of the Calliston pass, 2 pairs on the cliffs of the eastern part of Karabi-yayla and 1-2 pairs from the Kuchuk-Kapu pass to the Chiquinitra tract. On the cliffs of rock masses n Likon, Tai-Koba, Kara-Tau, Yayla Orta-Syrt and the Yaman-Tash ridge, nesting of up to 4 pairs of peregrine falcons is possible (bird encounters in nesting biotopes on 05/04/17/07, 08/04/2002). According to our and survey data, at least 6 pairs nest in the territory from the village of Rybachye to Alushta, on Northern, Southern Demerdzhi and Tirka, and 2-3 pairs nest in Chatyrdag. 1-2 pairs nest on the south-eastern slopes of Babugan, the cities of Paragelmen and Ayu-Dag, in the Crimean reserve - 3-4 pairs of falcons (Yaman-Dere, Chernaya and Basman). On the southern cliffs of the Gurzuf and Nikitsky yail - 2-3 pairs, in the Yalta Amphitheater - 5-6 pairs (metro Martyan, in the city, on the rocks above Massandra and Nikita, in the vicinity of the Uchan-Su waterfall), from Alupka to Foros-4 -5 pairs In the city of Simferopol, 2 pairs nest, and in the Bakhchisarai district, possibly 3-4. In the northeastern part of the mountainous Crimea, nesting was noted only on the White Rock - 1-2 pairs and a couple on the city of Agarmysh. An open question remains the existence of nests on the cliffs of Tarhankut and Lake. Donuzlav. Thus, the current population of the Crimean peregrine falcon population is estimated at 50-55 pairs.
Current state of the Crimean peregrine falcon population Falco peregrlnus Tunstall, 1771117
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