Boxing (from the English box - box, box, ring) - contact sport, martial arts, in which athletes strike each other with their fists in special gloves.
The referee controls the fight, which lasts from 3 to 12 rounds. Victory is awarded if the opponent is knocked down and cannot rise within ten seconds (knockout) or if he received an injury that does not allow him to continue the fight (technical knockout). If after the set number of rounds the fight was not stopped, then the winner is determined by the judges.
Boxing, as an independent variety of martial arts, took shape several millennia BC. In Egypt, images of fighters with bandaged hands dating back to the 40th century BC were found.
For at least six millennia, images of fist fights found on the territory of modern Ethiopia. Figurines and bas-reliefs with images of pugilists were also found during excavations of temples of ancient Mesopotamia. In 688 BC fisticuffs were first included in the program of the ancient Olympic Games.
The creation of fisticuff rules is attributed to Hercules. Fights in Ancient Greece were held on a sandy square site, the fence of which was formed by the audience. The hands of the fighters were wrapped with leather belts (in the VI century BC, sfairay came into use - a thick leather ring to protect the joints, worn on the arm over the belts).
The winner of the match was the athlete who sent the opponent to the knockout or forced him to surrender by raising his hand. Compliance with the rules was monitored by a specially appointed judge - gelladonic. If in the allotted time the winner could not be identified, the judge ordered an exchange of blows without the right to defend. In 616 BC youth boxing was also included in the program of the Olympic Games.
Only free-born Greeks were allowed to compete at the Olympics, who were able to provide the organizers with evidence that they had specially prepared for them for at least ten months before the competition. Training of fighters was conducted in special schools - palestra. In training, the fighters used not only the resemblance of gloves made of soft leather straps, but also protected their heads with a mask with headphones.
After the conquest of Greece by Rome, the tradition of pugilism continued, but the rules gradually changed in the direction of increasing entertainment and tightening.
The soft leather bandages were replaced by kestus - a leather band with metal plaques, and then myrmex - a weighted glove with spikes. In 30 BC fights between the citizens of Rome were banned and fisticuffs became the inheritance of gladiator slaves.
After the ban on the Olympic Games, the tradition of competitive fist fights was interrupted, although martial arts of this kind were always popular among the common people. The revival of boxing, as an independent sport, occurred in England. The very name “boxing” arose there.
The fights between the English fighters were held without gloves and differed from the usual fight by the presence of some rules, which at first were determined immediately before the fight by the agreement of the participants themselves and their representatives. In 1734, British champion Jack Browton developed the first generally accepted set of rules, which later formed the basis of the so-called Rules of the London prize ring. These rules did not limit the duration of the fight: it ended only if one of the fighters appeared on the ground and could not continue the fight after a thirty-second break, during which he was assisted by the seconds. In addition to punches, these rules allowed captures and throws. In 1853, a new version of the Rules of the London Prize Ring was adopted.
In 1865, the Welshman John Graham Chambers developed a new set of rules, the so-called "Rules of the Marquis of Queensberry" (this name was due to the fact that these rules were supported by John Douglas, IX Marquis of Queensberry). These rules in general corresponded to those for which boxing fights are still held: a ban was placed on throws and captures, mandatory use of gloves was introduced, the duration of the round was determined in three minutes with a minute break between rounds, and concepts of knockdown and knockout in their modern form were introduced .
Sam on Sam
«Sam On Sam"- this is a duel between two fisticuffs - one of the types of fistfighting that existed in Ancient Russia as a great fun, an indispensable part of the festivities. In addition, the duel, one-on-one, was also one of the methods of litigation of complaints, mutual claims of two offended by each other.
When, through objective analysis, it was not possible to establish either the right or the guilty, “fist law” came into effect. Both disputants converged himself-on-himself, and the winner was declared right, and the vanquished - guilty.
Boxing: history of occurrence
In 668, fisticuffs were included in the Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. From this moment it can be considered that this type of martial arts was recognized as a sport. Only free Greeks could be fighters. Fist fights were very popular, were considered an example of courage, strength, dexterity, speed. They were attended by poets, writers, and statesmen. For example, the well-known Pythagoras, whose merits are considered many mathematical discoveries, was also an excellent fighter and often participated in wrestling fights.
The rules of ancient battles
The rules of battle underwent changes over time. In those days, it was believed that it was possible to beat only in the head, hands for protection were wrapped in strips of leather, the fights were very fierce, until one of the wrestlers was clearly victorious, and the number of rounds was not specified. Such battles ended with severe injuries and deaths. There is information about the legendary boxing champion of Ancient Greece of those years - Theagen. The history of boxing says that he participated in more than 2,000 battles, and killed 1,800 opponents.
Over the centuries, soft pieces of leather for wrapping hands turned into stiffer ones, and then copper and iron inserts appeared in them. They were used by athletes in the Roman Empire and served not only to protect their hands, but also turned them into a formidable weapon. That is how the hands of the fighters were wrapped during the gladiatorial battles.
The history of modern boxing is closely linked with England. This country is the founder of this sport. The first written mention of the boxing match occurred in 1681. Clear rules in those days were not established, they were agreed in advance of the fight, a judge was appointed, the winner received a reward from the cash register of the battle. No weight and time restrictions existed. They fought with their hands without gloves, hit with their heads, shoulders, legs, elbows. In fact, it was a hand-to-hand fight.
Famous James Figg and his student Jack Broughton
In 1719, James Figg and Ned Saton met in a duel. The winner is Figg. And he was awarded the champion title. An early title by that name did not exist. In Figg's time, boxing became even more popular. The champion wrote articles in the public press and talked about boxing techniques of attack and defense. He began to formulate the first rules. According to them, the fighters could finish off the enemy in the literal sense of the word, breaking their legs and arms, pressing on their eyes. Nails were stuck into the soles of martial arts shoes with which they could pierce the opponent’s foot during the battle. These were truly terrifying spectacles. Figg created the Boxing Academy in 1722, where he taught this kind of wrestling to all comers.
Jack Broughton became a student of Figg. In 1743, he set out the first rules of boxing fights. Gloves were put into use, competitions began to be held in the ring, the concept of rounds appeared.
Rules of the Marquis of Queensberry
The history of boxing has evolved over the centuries, undergoing changes. In 1867, new rules were introduced that radically changed the conduct of a boxing match. They were spelled out in the "Rules of the Marquis of Queensberry." They set strict limits on the actions of fighters, limited their actions, banned the use of boots with nails, introduced mandatory rounds with a time limit of 3 minutes, the kicks, elbows, knees, and suffocation were prohibited. If a boxer falls, the judge counts up to 10 seconds. If during this time the boxer did not stand up - the judge can read him a defeat. A knee touching the ring or clinging to the ropes was considered the fall of the boxer. Many of these rules still lie at the heart of modern boxing.
The duel between James John Corbett and John Lawrence Sullivan in 1892 is considered the official birth date of modern professional boxing. From that moment, boxing organizations began to appear in the United States and other countries. They have been renamed many times, although their essence has not changed. It is currently called the World Boxing Organization.
Boxing History in Russia
In ancient Russia they loved to measure strength, there were fist fights and hand-to-hand fighting. Many Russian fairy tales mention battles with the heroes Ilya Muromets, Alyosha Popovich and Dobrynya Nikitich. It is a question of their remarkable strength. In real life, fights were also held, where martial artists measured themselves against each other, often there were wall-to-wall fights, when several people participated on each side at once.
The Orthodox Church did not approve of this type of entertainment, and hand-to-hand fighting was often banned. Under Ivan the Terrible and later, under Peter the Great, boxing in any case penetrated the country, interaction with England and its culture could not be in vain. In 1894, Michael Kister published a book on English boxing. July 15, 1895 the first official match was held. This date is considered to be the date of birth of boxing in Russia.
The best boxers in boxing history
Experts often argue among themselves which of the boxers at what level is worth it. The history of boxing goes back to ancient times, so there are a lot of great fighters. Some of them have already been mentioned. If we talk about modern boxing of the 20-21 centuries, the rating of boxers according to experts is as follows.
- Joe Louis. American, they say that he is the best boxer in the world in the history of boxing. He won 72 victories, and only 3 defeats. He was considered the legendary hero and symbol of the country.
- Some truth is inclined to argue with this opinion and argue that the best boxer is Sugar Ray Robinson. Behind him are 173 victories, 19 defeats. This wrestler, in addition to having great willpower, perseverance, sang and danced very well.
- Mohammed Ali. 56 wins, 5 losses. The best boxing fights in history have often been attributed to this particular fighter. Many legendary fights have names. Mohhamed Ali, in addition to the struggle, participated in the political activities of the country, opposed the war in Vietnam. For his activities against the government he was imprisoned. But when he was released, he was again ready for battle.
This list goes on and on. Many boxers struck the world with their unprecedented strength, the will to win and the greatest power.
Thai Boxing History
There are different directions in boxing: there is professional, semi-professional, amateur, French boxing. Currently, Thai boxing is at the peak of its popularity in Russia. Although he reached our country literally at the end of the 20th century. Since then, its rapid development in Russia has gone; Thai boxing schools and the Thai Boxing Federation have appeared. In 1994, trained athletes won three first prizes at once in international competitions.
Thai boxing is also called free. It allowed blows not only with fists in gloves, but also with legs, elbows. It is currently considered one of the most brutal martial arts.
The history of Thai boxing began more than two thousand years ago. The Kingdom of Thailand has repeatedly had to fight the conquerors in close combat, and soldiers were taught the art and tactics of warfare. The first official Thai boxing battle was held in 1788.
Since 1921, stricter rules for fights were introduced. It became necessary to wear gloves, fights began to be held in special rings, from that time the battle began to have a time limit, bans in the groin were prohibited, division by weight categories appeared.
And so, from the middle of the 20th century, Thai boxing began to spread and gain popularity around the world. International associations have appeared. World championships on this sport, European championships have been regularly held.
Boxing is one of the most expensive sports.
The most expensive fight in boxing history took place in Las Vegas in May 2015. The two legends came together, the invincible Floyd Mayweather, an American, and Manny Pacquiao, a Filipino. The organizers profit from this event about 400-500 million dollars, the prices of some tickets reached 100-150 thousand dollars. These are approximate amounts of profit according to official figures, what kind of money was earned in this fight in reality - one can only guess. Mayer was offered $ 120 million, and a Filipino $ 80 million. Throughout the history of boxing, no one has ever been offered such huge fees. The highest paid athlete in the world did not disappoint his fans and won a landslide victory in this match. Although, according to many viewers, the fight itself was not very spectacular.