Representatives of the order Karpoobraznye belong to the class of ray-finned (Actinopterygii) fish and their characteristic feature is the presence of the Weberian apparatus. They have a swim bladder that is connected to the intestines. Carp-shaped - these are mainly freshwater fish that inhabit the most diverse continental bodies of water: ponds, lakes, rivers. Representatives of the order Karpopoobraznye in many ways similar to herring, but they are characterized by some anatomical signs that distinguish them from the latter.
This is a rather numerous detachment of fish. About 110 species of cyprinids live in freshwater bodies of Russia alone. And the number of species in the order is about 15% of all species of bone fish.
According to food preferences, among the Carp-like there are herbivorous species, both carnivorous and omnivorous. Many cyprinids are widely used by humans and are of great commercial importance. Many fish farms specially bred some of the most valuable fish species for humans.
Carp-like breeding by laying a large amount of caviar. In most species, caviar is sticky and is deposited on stones or vegetation. However, there are species whose roe develops in the water column, as, for example, in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A very peculiar breeding can be observed in the mustard (Rhodeus sericeus). A female mustard, which has a long ovipositor, lays eggs with it in the mantle cavity of bivalve mollusks, where it is completely safe.
Some species of Cyprinids went even further in caring for future offspring, demonstrating highly developed parental behavior. So, for example, black thick-headed (Pimephales promelas), northern semotilus (Semotilus atromaculatus) and other American cyprinids build a nest for their eggs, and then take care of the masonry. Among the cyprinids there are also the so-called “cuckoos”, which throw their eggs in the nests of other fish.
It is characteristic for some cyprinids the fact of the formation of interspecific and even intergeneric hybrids, for example, artificially produced karasekarpovye hybrids. At the same time, some of these hybrids are fertile and, as a result, several times the researchers erroneously described as new independent species.
Squads of carp-like, haracyniform, anthem-like and catfishes
The fish belonging to the four groups named in the title are classified by the taxonomy into one large group — the superorder of cyprinoid, or “carp-like” ones. In the conditional evolutionary “table of ranks” of bony fishes, based on the ratio of primitive and more advanced features in the structure of the body, they occupy a relatively low position.
The most characteristic feature of cyprinoid fish is the presence of the so-called Weberian apparatus, which consists of several bones that connect the inner ear to the swim bladder, which probably plays the role of enhancing the sounds of the resonator. In addition, the swim bladder of fish of this superorder, as a rule, is connected by a duct to the intestine. In total, 5–6 thousand species belong to cyprinoids, most of which are freshwater inhabitants.
Squad Carp-shaped (Cypriniformes)
Currently, this group includes more than 2,000 species of freshwater (more rarely, migratory) fish, widespread in Eurasia, North America and Africa. Their characteristic feature is the absence of teeth on the jaws. (But the so-called pharyngeal - located on the lower pharyngeal bones - their teeth are developed very well.) The mouth of the carp is often retractable, in many species with antennae. The body is usually covered with cycloid scales, less often bare. The swimming bladder is large and consists of 2-3 chambers.
The order includes several families, including, for example, the family of loachweeds (Cobitidae) But the majority of cyprinids belong to the cyprinid family (Cyprinidae) This is the largest family among fish in general, it includes about 1800 species. Most cyprinids prefer warm waters, but in some species (rudd, ide, dace), the range extends to the Arctic. The largest representative of the family is living in Southeast Asia giant barbel (Catlocarpio siamensis), reaching 3 m in length. And among the smallest can be called dyondou (Dionda diaboli), colorless notropis (Notropis perpallidus) and a number of other American cyprinids whose length does not exceed 5 cm.
Most carp-shaped caviar is sticky - fish lay it on stones, vegetation, or another suitable substrate. But in some species, for example in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), caviar develops by swimming in the water column.
A number of cyprinids are characterized by care for offspring. For example, living in America black fatheads (Pimephales promelas) lays eggs in the built nest, and then guards and takes care of the masonry. Well-known care for the offspring of our mustard (Rhodeus sericeus) - a female of this species, using a long ovipositor, lays eggs in the mantle cavity of bivalves. Among the cyprinids there are also “cuckoos”, tossing their eggs in the nests of other fish. However, for most representatives of the detachment, concern for offspring is not expressed.
A pair of mustard eggs
The juveniles of most cyprinids feed on zooplankton, but the diets of adult fish of this group are very diverse. For instance, chub (Leuciscus cephalus) and asp (Aspius aspius) - active predators hunting small fish, White amur (Ctenopharyngodon idella) prefers a plant diet, podust (Chondrostoma nasus) and templar (Varicorhinus capoeta) scraping fouling from pitfalls and snags. There are many among the cyprinids and fish that feed on benthos, collecting it from the bottom and digging it out of the ground. But bleak (Alburnus alburnus) feeds mainly on insects - and not only limited to aquatic forms and those that fall into the water, but also deftly catches, jumping out of the water, flying over the surface of mosquitoes and flies.
Many cyprinids, even of relatively small sizes, are an important fishing target in fresh waters. it bream (Abramis brama), vobla (Rutilus rutilus caspicus), ide (Leuciscus idus), rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) and others. Some representatives of this family are objects of artificial breeding in pond farms. The most famous among them, of course, carp (Cyprinus carpio), but for a very long time - already more than 2 thousand years - in China they breed and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).
The history of breeding and breeding of decorative cyprinids - numerous breeds of goldfish, bred in China from silver carp (Carasius auratus) According to some reports, the beginning of their breeding was laid almost 2 thousand years ago, in the 1st century, and mass selection began in the 10th – 13th centuries. Approximately the same, if not longer, history is the breeding of carps and their ornamental breeds (koi) in Japan.
In addition to goldfish, aquariums also contain many other cypriniformes, which are distinguished by bright colors, for example, various barbs (genus Barbus) and brahidanio (genus Brachydanio) from the family of cyprinids, bots (genus Botia) from the family of loosers, girinohejlov (family Gyrinocheilidae) and etc.
Squad haracyniform (Characiformes)
This order includes 12 families and more than 1,400 species of exclusively freshwater fish, distributed in the warm regions of America and Africa. From the cyprinids (to which they were previously assigned as a suborder), the Kharazin-like differ in that their body is always covered with scales, they never have antennae, their mouths are not retractable, they have no pharyngeal teeth, but usually there are teeth on the jaws. In addition, most of these fish have a fat fin devoid of rays behind the dorsal fin, similar to that found in salmon. The sizes of the characiforms vary from 15–20 mm in some lebias (Lebiasinidae), for example, species of the genus Nannostomus (Nannostomus), up to 1.3 m big tiger fish (Hydrocynus goliath) from the African Alest family (Alestiidae).
The largest family in the order - over 450 species - the haracin family (Characidae) Although characins live very far from Russia, they are well known in our country due to their wide popularity among aquarists. These are neons (genus Paracheirodon), a group of genera under the general name "tetra" and many other bright fish. At the present time, the famous piranhas (genus Pygocentrusearlier - Serrasalmus).
The peculiarity of the representatives of another family of characiform - South American wedge-bellied (Gasteropelecidae) - lies in their ability, in case of danger, to glide along the surface of the water.
Lebias fish (Lebiasinidae), also living in South America, are interesting in unusual ways of reproduction. For instance, trout kopein (Copeinaguttata) buries its eggs in the sand. A copella arnold (Copellaarnoldi) lays eggs on the lower side of the leaves of coastal plants hanging low over the water. A male and a female of this species, while jumping out of the water, manage to lay down a small portion of several eggs for each jump and fertilize them. When spawning ends, the female swims away, and the male remains and regularly blows the masonry with blows of the tail with water.
Squad anthem-like (Gymnotiformes)
Like the haracyniformes, this group until recently was considered a suborder in the order of carp. Several dozens of anthem-like species are common in South America. The most famous fish of this order is electric eel (Electrophorus electricus), the only representative of a separate family Electrophoridae. It reaches 2.5 m in length, weight can exceed 20 kg, inhabits the Orinoco basin, the Amazon and some other rivers of South America. This fish has nothing to do with real eels and is named in Russian exclusively for its elongated body shape.
Electric eel is a record among animals that can generate electric current. The discharge voltage produced by these fish can reach 800 V. Despite the small current - less than 1 A - this is quite enough to stun a rather large animal. But electric acne usually does not pose a mortal danger to humans.
Another interesting representative of the squad - green knife (Eigenmannia virescens) from the family Sternopygidaereaching a length of 30 cm (now these fish can also be found in amateur aquariums). In a knifefish, unlike most other fish, it is not males that are territorial, but females. During the breeding season, the female who owns the site attracts a male to her territory, and after long mating games in the thick of the vegetation, eggs are laid and fertilized. In the midst of these events, another female who does not have her territory, imperceptibly creeps up to the spawning pair, and, before it is discovered and expelled, manages to lay several eggs as well. The male has no choice but to fertilize such a mixed clutch.
This order includes about 30 families and a total of more than 1600 species of fish, the sizes of which vary from 1 cm to 5 m. Catfish do not have scales - their bodies are bare or covered with bone plates. Many catfish have fat fin, but the Weber apparatus is not developed in all species. In most catfish, the main sensory organs are "mustaches", often long and numerous.
Most of the squad representatives are inhabitants of the tropical and subtropical territories of Asia, Africa and America. Catfish feed mainly on animal food.
The variety of catfish is amazing. Most of them are freshwater fish, but Aryan (family Ariidae) and carbon-tailed (family Plotosidae) catfish again came to life in the coastal waters of warm seas. Most catfish are kept near the bottom, however, with a translucent body, African glass catfish (Physailia pellucida) from the family of shilbovye (Schilbeidae) inhabits the thickness and surface layers of water. Among the catfish, there are inhabitants of swamped water bodies, for example, American armored catfish (family Doradidae), and residents of pure mountain rivers - ageneiosis catfish (family Ageneiosidae) Several species live in underground ponds, in caves. This, for example, Phreatobius cisternarum from the American family of pimelodovyh (Pimelodidae) and Uegitglanis zammaranoi from clari soms (family Clariidae) common in Africa and South Asia. Some catfish, for example, the same Clari, breathe largely atmospheric air (they have a special organ extending from the gill cavity, the folded walls of which are pierced by many blood vessels) and can even suffocate without access to the surface of the water. But when the pond dries up, these fish are able to creep on land in search of a new place of residence or dig into the silt.
Finally, among catfish there are species with a unique ecological specialization for fish - parasites. These are South American catfish from the Wandellian family (Trichomycteridae) - their various species can bite into the skin of large fish, stick to the gills or settle in the urogenital ducts. This family includes the smallest member of the squad - catfish Stegophilus insidiosuswhose length is about 1 cm.
Male galeichtes carrying eggs in the oral cavity
A variety of catfishes manifests itself in the methods of their reproduction. Most catfish in various forms take care of the offspring. For instance, black galeichtis (Galeichthys ater) from the marine family of Aryan catfish hatches caviar in the mouth. Female catfish aspredo (Aspredo aspredo) from the American family of aspredic (Aspredinidae) wear their masonry on their belly. Catfish hoplosternums (Hoplosternum littorale) from the American family of armored catfish (Callichthyidae) build a nest of foam, like labyrinth fish. Far Eastern violin killer whale (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) from the family of killer whales (Bagridae) digs a hole in a clay bank for laying eggs. At the same time, many dozens of fish often dig burrows nearby, as a result of which peculiar colonies are formed, similar to those that occur on shore swallows, only under water.
African barbus Despite the existence of numerous species of African barbel, they are rare in aquariums. This is explained by the fact that a number of species are either too large in size, or not interesting in color. Barbodes ablabes grows up to 10 cm long. Males are smaller than females, slimmer, with more expressive orange sections on the fins. Fish willingly spawn in pairs, ...
Barbus - sumatranus (Capoeta tetrazona tetrazona) lives in Sumatra, Thailand, on Kalimantan (Borneo). Since its appearance in Europe in 1935, it is constantly found in aquariums. Reaches 7 cm length. The ventral paired fins of males are intensely red in color, the upper part of the stigma is reddish, the dorsal fin has an edging of intense red color. APPEARANCE. Like all barbs, ...
White-eye (sopa) (Abramis sapa) Description: White-eye (Abramis sapa) (sopa) - fish of the cyprinidae family. Length up to 35 cm, weight up to 1 kg. Externally similar to a bream, but has a more flattened and elongated body. The snout is thick, dull, swollen. The eyes are large (up to 30% of the length of the head) with a white-silver iris (hence the name). Gill stamens are long, dense. ...
Belonesox (Belonesox belizanus Kner, 1860) - a fish of the pecilian family. Distributed from southern Mexico to Guatemala, from where it was first brought in 1909. The only species of the genus belonesox. In appearance resembles a pike. In nature it grows up to 20 cm, in an aquarium up to 15 cm. An example of external similarity (convergence) with a pike is clearly visible: a small, dorsal fin laid back. ...
Bystryanka (Alburnoides bipunctatus) Description: Bystryanka (Alburnoides bipunctatus) - this little-known fish has a great resemblance to ordinary bleak, but at first glance it differs from it by two dark stripes running along the middle of the body, on the sides of the so-called. lateral line, and the fact that it is noticeably wider and hunchier than it. This blackish streak starts from the eyes and, when ...
Verkhovka (Leucaspius delineatus) - Fish of the cyprinid family. Length 4-5, occasionally up to 8 cm, weight up to 7 g. It looks like a small hive, from which it differs by a wider body and head, a short lateral line (extended to the first 2-12 scales).A network of sensitive tubules located in groups enters the head: on the upper part, under the eyes, on the anterior windows. In the dorsal fin ...
Verkhoglyad (Erythroculter erythropterus) - freshwater fish. It is found in the waters of China from the Yangtze in the south to the river. Cupid in the north, lives on the island of Taiwan, in West Korea, in Liaohe. This fish is widespread in the Ussuri River and Lake Khanka. It prefers the upper eagle to be kept mainly in the water column. Reaches a length of about 102 cm and a mass of 9 kg. Predatory fish. It feeds ...
Vladislavia (Ladislavia taczanowskii) is distributed in the upper and middle reaches of the Amur basin, mainly in small rivers and streams of the foothill type, preferring open shallow areas with a fairly fast flow, pebbled or sandy-pebble soil, sometimes overgrown with sparse vegetation. It easily scrapes diatoms and detritus from stones and compacted soil with its pointed, jaw-covered cartilage. The intestinal tract ...
Vobla (lat. Rutilus rutilus caspicus) - fish of the Caspian Sea, is an important subject of fishing on the lower Volga, is a subspecies of roach. It differs from river roach in larger size (up to 30 cm or more) and in some minor morphological characters (fins of gray color with a black rim and a rainbow of silver eyes with dark spots over the pupils). The spread of Vobla is endemic ...