An infectious disease known as catarrhal enteritis or "green mucus" is quite dangerous for adults. ferrets. Diarrhea caused by catarrhal enteritis can dehydrate the ferret within a few hours.
If you can’t immediately contact your veterinarian, start giving the animal “PedialyteTM” (the drug is designed for infants to quickly replace the lost fluid with vomiting and diarrhea), the drug is sold in pharmacies. This liquid should be dripped at the corner of the ferret’s mouth from a pipette.
An average female weighs between 700 and 800 grams and needs 70-80 milliliters of PedialyteTM per day. Males need to be given medicine twice as much.
In ferrets with severe dehydration, the skin loses elasticity, the eyes are half-closed. If the ferret is not helped in time, he will die.
Ferrets with loose, but not watery stools do not require such treatment, since soft stools can be caused by a change in diet. If the ferret’s soft stool continues for more than a day and mucus or blood appears in it, contact your veterinarian immediately.
Feline laxatives in large quantities can stimulate severe diarrhea. The ferret should always have plenty of fresh water. Never change the diet sharply in an animal so as not to cause diarrhea.
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Stages of the disease
Green and viscous stool, a specific smell of fish glue, frequent bowel movements.
You may notice that ferrets are restless or irritable, sometimes furiously rummaging in the toilet or in the sleeping place. Also, this may be exacerbated by other animals.
It lasts 24 hours. Feeding, Pedialyte + water. Dehydration in ferrets occurs very quickly. Therefore, it is necessary to quickly take measures to compensate for fluid in the body. It is also important to keep the animal warm and calm.
Liquid yellow / gold (sometimes foaming).
Very often this is the second stage, but sometimes it can be the first with or without a green stage. Because of this, many veterinarians and ferret owners do not perceive these symptoms as ECE.
Continue to give Pedialyte / water, pouring it into the drinker. Some ferrets do not have enough strength to drink from a bottle. Put the ferret on a soft diet, i.e. special mix or baby food with chicken.
Encourage the animal to lick your finger, and then, encouraging, try to give it to eat from small, shallow dishes. If refuses, feed with a syringe. Start with 10 dice every 3 hours. Increase to 30-40 cubes 3 times a day. Very important. To ferret began to eat.
If the ferret refuses to eat, consult your veterinarian for how to administer the liquid: subcutaneously or intravenously in accordance with your pet's condition. There is sufficient water in soft foods, so you may notice a decrease in water intake. DO NOT RELEASE YOURSELF! Periodically do a skin test between the shoulder blades of the animal. If the skin does not smooth out quickly, but remains in folds, your ferret may have dehydration. If necessary, consult your veterinarian about injecting fluid into the body.
Pox can be very sleepy for at least 48 hours, eyes wet and narrowed.
Very often, ferrets fall asleep right next to the tray due to frequent bowel movements. Please observe the rules of hygiene, take out the tray often! Always have a blanket or towels on hand, as with dehydration, the temperature always decreases.
If diarrhea continues, consult with your veterinarian what medicine to give and in what quantities (Immodium, Pepsid)
After 48 hours, many ferrets show signs of recovery. Again. DO NOT RELIABLE. This is the most crucial period! If the stool returns to normal and the ferret begins to eat heavy food, reduce the amount of light to 25 cubes twice a day. Many young ferrets and healthy individuals recover quickly, though. Get ready for the next stage!
Gold jelly-like heaps with granular material like seeds.
Again, you may not notice the previous two stages, but if you noticed this stage, it means that the life of the beast in SERIOUS DANGERS.
At this stage, the ferret does not absorb food and, most likely, does not eat, but exists in its fat reserve. This leads to rapid weight loss, which is sometimes not noticed until the 10th-14th day of illness.
The animal needs moisture replenishment in the body and a diet of easily digestible food. Be very vigilant and careful.
If you notice that the ferret’s teeth are noticeably worn out, then most likely he has ulcers in his mouth that prevent him from eating normally.
We found that it was very effective to inject 1 ml of Carafate 1 hour before a meal. Suki Crandall offered 1/8 to 1/10 tablets of Carafate 3 times a day + 1/8 of Cytotec give 2 times a day, separately from Carafate with a difference of at least 1 hour
The most important thing for ferret owners is to know their own animal. This can help you recognize any changes in his physical or behavioral state.
The only way to overcome the disease is to help the ferret get through this:
- It is necessary to constantly ensure the flow of fluid into the body.
- The following medicines must be mixed with the main diet: Nutri-Stat, Nutrical (a fortified medical nutritional supplement), Sustacal (a human medicine, therefore, the dosage should be per child).
- If symptoms are found, immediately show the veterinarian and start injecting antibiotics - secondary infections often kill older animals. Although antibiotics do not kill the enteritis virus, they protect the animal's body from secondary infections.
- Keep a sick animal in a warm and dry place - one of the first things that must be observed for sick animals is the thermal regime. Never leave a sick animal on an automatically heated bed! Consult your veterinarian about temperature conditions for your animal.
- If your animal still survived as a result of this disease, it is extremely necessary to do blood tests: a complete blood count, a test for hepatitis (liver) and absorption (absorption) of protein. Secondary complications arising from this disease can be fatal.
This is an invasive disease of ferrets caused by parasitization of tapeworms in the intestines. Infection occurs alimentarily when a pet is given raw or poorly digested fish and fish products. An upset stomach develops against the background of:
- mechanical damage to the walls of the intestine,
- ferret poisoning by metabolic products,
- microbes entering the wounds of the mucosa,
- impaired absorption function.
Clinically, diphyllobothriasis in ferrets is manifested by liquid feces with lumps of undigested food, often with fragments of parasites, vomiting, anemia, marked by conjunctiva. In chronic cases, with a low infection rate, an allergic form of dermatitis, lethargy, and deterioration of the coat appear.
What to do to establish and eliminate the cause:
- analyze feces for the presence of parasite eggs,
- give antiparasitic agents - praziquantel, azinox and others,
- re-examine feces for infection after a week to determine the effectiveness of treatment.
A radical method for the prevention of diphyllobothriasis is the ban on raw fish. In this case, the animal will avoid contact with a possible pathogen, but will also lose most of the vitamins, minerals and other substances after heat treatment. Therefore, it is better to freeze fish at a temperature of less than minus 15 for a week.
Adult ferret: 34 teeth, dental formula - 2 (I 3 3, C 1 1, P 3 3, M 1 2).
Puppies: 28-30 teeth - milk teeth, dental formula - 2 (I 3-4 3, C 1 1, P0 0, M 3 3.
Milk teeth grow by 20-30 days, the change to molars begins in 6-7 weeks.
The stomach is simple, characteristic of carnivores (similar to cats and dogs). The capacity of the stomach is about 100 ml. Small intestine - 2 m. Thick - 10 cm. There is no cecum. The transition from the ileum to the colon can only be detected using histology.
The pancreas is divided into the right and left lobes and is located next to the pylorus.
The liver is large, has 6 lobes. The bile duct flows into the proximal part of the duodenum along with the duct of the pancreas (similar to cat and human).
Ferrets have only one large duodenal papilla, located at a distance of 3 cm from the pylorus.
Two paraanal glands are located at 4 and 8 hours from the anus.
The physiology of the digestive system of ferrets is more like feline. The pH of the stomach is 1.5-3.5. The time of food evacuation through the gastrointestinal tract is 2.5-4 hours (in adults on a balanced meat diet). Suction puppies have an evacuation time of -1 hour. The intestinal microflora is scarce.
The diet should contain 30-40% protein, 18-20% fat. Do not include carbohydrates in the diet, this can act as a provocation of the development of IBD and insulinomas. Industrial feed (premium for kittens and ferrets): Wildcat, Acana, Boch, Ferretastic, Pro Plan, Hills, Royal canin.
- RAW system (rodents, birds, frogs, slugs, etc.).
- Muscle meat, trachea, internal organs, bones (poultry, rabbit), heat-treated fish (river, salmon) - 1 time per week. Quail eggs. Sour-milk products (lactose-free). Shrimp Multivitamins (preferably the non-tabular form).
- Berries, fruits, vegetables (in small quantities, as goodies).
Vomiting is a reflex eruption of the contents of the stomach duodenum and is carried out due to the work of the abdominal muscles, this is what distinguishes it from regurgitation (passive process of moving fluid or fodder masses through the esophagus in an unnatural direction). Before the act of vomiting, ferrets worry, rush about, can hide, scratch their paws on their mouths (they behave similarly in attacks of hypoglycemia associated with insulinoma).
The causes of nausea and vomiting can be:
- Gastritis and gastroenteritis (Helicobacter pylori, bacterial enteritis, iatrogenic - NSAIDs steroid-associated, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, ECE, IBD, rotavirus, lymphocytic, hypertrophic, stress-induced).
- IT gastrointestinal tract.
- Gastrointestinal lymphoma.
- Adenocarcinoma of the stomach and intestines.
- Metabolic disorders on the background of impaired function of other organs (pancreatitis, hepatitis, AKI).
Causes of regurgitation: congenital acquired idiopathic megaesophagus (myasthenia gravis, DIM, hypothyroidism?).
The color of the stool in ferrets with diarrhea can vary significantly (yellow, green, black, brown). However, the color of the stool or the type of diarrhea will not greatly determine the possible cause. An anorexia ferret may have a dark, green stool that looks like melena. Unlike other animals, in ferrets it is difficult to navigate in relation to the differentiation of thick and thin intestinal diarrhea.
- rotavirus gastroenteritis,
- IBD (food hypersensitivity)
- Parasitoses (coccidiosis, giardiosis, cryptosporidiosis),
- intestinal lymphoma
- IT GIT,
- Aleutian disease
- eosinophilic gastroenteritis,
- spontaneous ulcers of the stomach and duodenum.
Gray stool with inclusions of undigested food may be associated with bacterial inflammation and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.
- Anorexia Hyporexia.
- Hypomotility of the stomach.
- Weight loss.
- Fever (acute bacterial enteritis or hepatitis, coronavirus enteritis, septicemia, ulcer perforation and peritonitis).
- Melena (Aleutian ferret disease, bacterial enteritis, IBD, Helicobacter pylori, lymphoma).
- Proctitis (chronic diarrhea).
- Compaction of intestinal loops during palpation (lymphoma, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, proliferative bowel disease and rectal prolapse).
Bacterial gastroenteritis is more often associated with G-bacteria (campylobacter, Escherichia coli, salmonella, staphylococcus - St. delphini).
Stress, overcrowding and poor hygiene can be predisposing factors. Unheated meat can be a source of infection. Asymptomatic animals (bacteria carriers) are also a source of infection. In large populations, 80% of ferrets are infected with campylobacter. ST. Delphini induces hyperecretory diarrhea with colonization in the small intestine (in vitro culture shows the potential production of enterotoxin E):
Campylobacteriosis is more common in puppies up to 6 months old and rarely in adults. Colibacteriosis - more often in puppies. Salmonellosis and colibacteriosis can lead to hematochesia and septicemia. The incubation period is 24 hours for capillocytosis and several days for other bacterial enteritis. Diarrhea, caused by capylobacteriosis, can last up to 4 weeks and go away on its own. Diarrhea due to salmonellosis or colibacteriosis can lead to death within 24 hours.
- Bakposev (campylobacter - slowly growing).
- Blood tests (anemia, hypoalbuminemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, electrolyte disturbances).
- The identification of bacteria in organs that must be a priori sterile allows a diagnosis to be made.
Isolation of the pathogen from the intestine is an indicator of the disease, but all other pathological factors must be excluded.
Erythromycin is the drug of choice for campylobateriosis (aminoglycosites, tetracycline, furozalidone, clindaicin, chloramphenicol can still be used (use gloves and masks, can induce life-threatening anemia in humans)).
Resistance of AB to Escherichia coli is possible, but isolates are usually sensitive to amikacin, gentaicin, ciprofloxacin, flofenicol, chlorafenicol, enrofloxacin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, amoxiclav, imipenem.
AB for the treatment of salmonellosis: chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfanilide and amoxicillin.
Chloramphenicol acts on all three pathogens, but it is difficult to find in tablet form. In this case, the combination of amoxicles + aminoglycosites can be used as first-line therapy. Supportive therapy (infusion + digestible food) is also used.
Ferrets with these infections are potentially dangerous for children and people in an immunosuppressive state.
Coccidiosis is most often found in Eimeria Furonis. Other species of isospores and eimeria are also recorded in ferrets.
Isospore oocysts must be kept for 2 to 5 days at a temperature of 24 ° C to become capable of invasion.
Ferrets of any age can become infected. Young ferrets are more susceptible to the disease. Coccidiosis can occur subclinically with a small invasion.
With severe disease, diarrhea, melena, lethargy, rectal prolapse, tenesmus, weight loss, dehydration, anorexia are observed. Clinically expressed signs occur from 5-10 days, then the patient either recovers or dies.
Coccidiosis may be concomitant with other bowel diseases and worsen symptoms.
Hepatic coccidiosis (rare in ferrets, usually in immunosuppressed animals) can cause an increase in liver enzymes, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperbilirubinemia.
Differential diagnosis includes rotavirus enteritis, coronavirus enteritis, bacterial gastroenteritis, and proliferative bowel disease.
Diagnosis: parasitological examination of fresh feces.
Sulfadimethoxine (usually in combination with trimethoprim - 30 mg / kg orally 1 time per day, 2-3 weeks).
Amprolium - 20 mg / kg PO, 1 time per day.
Be sure to carry out the disinfection of the room. 1,5,3
A particularly dangerous incurable viral disease of ferrets and other mustelids. Infection occurs through direct contact, as well as through an animal carrier (including humans) or care products.
It often proceeds in fulminant form with 100% mortality, and acute and subacute cases are less likely to develop, characterized by:
- purulent conjunctivitis,
- elevated temperature
- inflammation on the face, around the eyes and anus,
- vomiting blood
- rapid exhaustion.
The treatment has not been developed, the only control measure is regular annual vaccination.
Cryptosporidia can provoke diarrhea in ferrets under stress or immunosuppression. Fecal-oral transmission mechanism. The disease is extremely contagious for animals under stress. Usually the disease resolves itself within 2 to 3 weeks.
Symptoms: diarrhea, anorexia, weight loss. Diagnosed by PCR.
Paramomycin 1. Sumamed - 10 mg / kg 1 once a day for the 21st day 5 .
A specific disease with proliferation of eosinophils. The etiology is unknown. Food allergies and parasitoses can contribute.
Changes in leukoformula with severe eosinophillia (10-35%) may be noted. The diagnosis is made histologically. It is necessary to take the gut to the entire thickness (the gold standard of diagnosis). The disease proceeds with damage to the mucous layer. Sometimes you can find eosinophilic granulomas in mesenteric lymph nodes, lungs and liver.
Prednisolone - 1.25-2.5 mg / kg PO, 1 time per day.
Ivermectin - 0.4 g / kg - twice with an interval of 14 days, PC (exclusion of parasitic agent) 1.5 .
Control of eosinophilia in KLA may be a marker of disease control.
PBD (proliferative bowel disease), pathogen - Lawsonia Intracellularis
Infection provokes epithelial hyperplasia and inflammation of the mucous membrane of the large intestine. Fecal-oral transmission mechanism. Ferrets are exposed at the age of 4-6 months.
Symptoms: diarrhea, hematochesia, exhaustion may be present.
Diagnosis is by examination of feces by PCR and histological examination of a large intestine biopsy.
Chloramphenicol - 20-50 mg / kg PO 2 r / d, 10-14 days or Metronidazole - 20 mg / kg, PO 2 r / d for 10-14 days. Supportive therapy
Inflammatory bowel disease we often refer to in ferrets a large group of diseases with different pathogenesis and etiology (including epizootic catarrhal enteritis and eosinophilic gastroenteritis, etc.). A synonym for IBD is the term Crohn’s disease. 2 However, in ferrets, the pathogenesis and mechanism of this disease is different from people with Crohn's disease. In humans, all layers of the intestine are affected, and in the ferret only the mucous layer. But, despite this, the etiology and treatment will be identical: the use of local or systemic steroids and the exclusion of food hypersensitivity.
Idiopathic disease develops due to a hypersensitivity reaction of the intestinal mucosa. Histological examination usually reveals lymphoplasmocytic inflammation. 1
As a rule, young and middle-aged ferrets get sick. In a large population of ferrets, only one ferret can get sick.
- Mono-protein diet (turkey, venison, lamb)
- Industrial diet for cats with food hypersensitivity.
- Prednisone - 1 mg / kg once every 12-24 hours.
- Azathioprine - 0.9-1 mg / kg once every 24-72 hours (for azathioprine in the absence of thiopurine-s-methyl transferase an adverse reaction may develop in the form of vomiting, depression, ataxia).
- Famotidine -1 mg / kg 2 times a day. 1
Perhaps the use of 5-aminosalicylic acid (sulfasalazine), metronidazole / tylosin.
* Dexamethasone is not indicated (disrupts the expression of intestinal villi enzymes).
* Resistance to steroids and cyclosporine may develop (P-glycoprotein, belongs to the group of transporter proteins and is a product of the MDR1 gene). 3
Pathological reversal of the stomach. Typically, the stomach wraps at 90-360 0, which leads to obstruction. Predisposing factors are heredity, stress, an increase in the volume of the chest cavity, active movements, diet and competitive diseases.
Symptoms: acute pain, acute respiratory distress syndrome, lethargy, dehydration, hypothermia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, peritoneal effusion and splenomegaly are possible.
Diagnostics - X-ray. Treatmentsurgical (similar to dogs. Without with splenectomy). 1
Rotavirus enteritis is a disease that puppies are more prone to. There are two groups of rotaviruses - group A and group C. In adult animals, the disease proceeds (usually) subclinically. Puppies are younger than 8 weeks of age (usually 1-3 weeks old). The transmission of the virus occurs fecal-oral, through household items, wool, etc.
- Diarrhea (there may be a large amount of mucus in the feces, sometimes before profuse diarrhea),
- rectal prolapse,
- anorexia hyporexia (unwillingness to suck mother),
- electrolyte disturbances, hypoalbuminemia, anemia (regenerative).
Diagnostics - electron microscopy. Specific treatmentnot. Maintenance therapy, correction of electrolyte disturbances, antibiotic therapy, correction of hydration status.
Chronic atrophic gastritis
There is a theory that chronic atrophic gastritis is associated with the colonization of Helicobacter (H. Mustelae) and 100% of ferrets are its carriers. With histopathological examination, focal glandular atrophy and regeneration are observed. Ferrets do not have a polymorphonuclear cell response seen in active chronic gastritis, usually described in Helicobacter pylori in humans. However, the defeat of ferrets closely resembles diffuse antral gastritis observed in some adults with H. pylori gastritis, as well as in children infected with H. pylori. Like H. pylori, H. mustelae adheres tightly to the gastric mucosa. 6
- Amoxicillin - 20 mg / kg orally twice a day or 30 mg / kg every 8 hours for the 21st day + metronidazole - 15-20 mg / kg twice a day for 14 days + bismuth subsalicylate.
- Clarithromycin - 12.5 mg / kg every 8-12 hours for 14 days + ranitidine bismuth citrate.
- Clarithromycin - 50 mg / kg once a day for 14 days + omeprazole / ranitidine + metronidazole.
In case of increased motility of the stomach with impaired evacuation - Motilium - 4.5 mg / kg / day orally in 3-4 doses.
Most often observed in puppies, however, it can also be found in elderly ferrets with intestinal pathologies leading to tenesmus, diarrhea and inflammation of the rectum. In puppies, rectal prolapse can occur due to profuse diarrhea.
The diagnosis is made upon examination of the patient. Surgical treatment. Anesthetics are preferred. It is important to exclude the pathologies that led to this condition (parasitic, infectious bowel diseases, IBD, neoplasia). 1
The disease occurs due to polypeptides - neoplasms of the cells of the pancreatic islets.
The carcinoid syndrome develops, the cause of which is the hormonal activity of tumors originating from the neuroendocrine cells of the APUD system. Typically, such neoplasms secrete a large amount of serotonin. As a rule, there is an increase in the production of histamine, prostaglandins, bradykinin and polypeptide hormones. There is an overgrowth of the gastric mucosa, an increase in peristalsis and the speed of food evacuation, an increase in the production of stomach acid.
Diagnosis: ultrasound, CT. A test with atropine is used as a laboratory diagnosis, since the secretion of PP by the tumor is autonomous and not suppressed by this drug, as opposed to the normal release of PP. 8 Surgical treatment
* Carcinoids are possible, and hyperplasia of the gastric mucosa can occur with prolonged use of omeprazole (carcinoid tumors are rare -1-2 per 1000 individuals), but their frequency has increased, which raises concerns that the use of PPIs may increase the risk. The noted trophic effects of PPI-induced hypergastrinemia raise serious concerns during early animal safety tests when carcinoid tumors developed in rats on long-term omeprazole. Prolonged hypergastrinemia in combination with other factors, such as the genetic abnormality of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1), can cause gastric ECL carcinoids in humans. 9
- Ferret medicine and Surgery. Cathy A. Johnson-Delaney, 2017.
- Clinical Veterinary Advisor / birds and exotic Pets. Jorg Mayer Thomas M. Donnelly, 2013.
- Physiological and clinical aspects of P-glycoprotein. Chubarova S.V., Kranoshina A.Yu., Sabko E.A., Demko E.V., Salmina A.B., issue 45,2012.
- Biology and diseases of the ferret. Games G. Fox and Robert P. Marini. 2014.
- Exotic animal formulary. 4th Editio. By James W. Carpenter, MS, DVM, Dipl ACZM.
- Helicobacter mustelae-associated gastritis in ferrets. An animal model of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in humans. Fox JG 1, Correa P, Taylor NS, Lee A, Otto G, Murphy JC, Rose R., Gastroenterology. 1990 Aug, 99 (2): 352-61.
- Ferret Diseases. Lloyd M., 2011.
- Pancreatic neuroendocrine and hormone-secreting tumors: pancreatic polypeptide. Mayev I.V., Kucheryavy Yu.A., 2017.
- Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2012, 28 (6): 615-620. © 2012 Lippincott williams & Wilkins.
Aleutian Mink Disease
The viral disease characteristic of fur farms is less common among pets. The infection path is contact, clinically ill and ferrets with the incubation stage of the disease are dangerous.
- exhaustion and loss of appetite,
- loose stools, feces viscous, dark, black,
- bleeding from the mouth and nose,
- increased thirst
- ruffled coat
There is no specific treatment and comes down to symptomatic therapy. The vaccine is currently missing.
Gastroenteritis and stomach ulcer
Inflammatory and dystrophic disorders in ferrets in the mucous and submucous membranes of the stomach and intestines are caused by a complex of factors. Usually this is a combination of stress on the background of a change in diet and enhanced by obligate pathogenic microflora - Helicobacter mustelae, streptococci, staphylococci. Other etiological factors are also not excluded:
- mucosal injuries
- anti-inflammatory poisoning,
- complications against the background of the underlying disease.
An ulcer often develops as a complication of inflammatory processes. Less commonly observed against the background of gastric ischemia, pathology of the muscle wall, weakening of the immune system, increased secretory function.
Clinically, inflammatory processes are manifested as follows:
- diarrhea, and with an ulcer of melena - feces are liquid, black,
- vomiting blood
- exhaustion, suppression of appetite,
- gnashing of teeth.
The diagnosis is better confirmed in the clinic, for this a gastroscopy is performed, during which the ulcer can also be operated on.
Treatment of gastritis begins with a daily hungry diet, water is given without restrictions. On the second day, it is allowed to give a third of the daily amount of feed in the form of oatmeal on the meat broth of the second cooking (veal). At the same time, Nutrical or Sustacal is introduced into the diet to normalize microflora. From the third day, low-fat boiled meat is added to the feed, and by the 10th day they try to return to their usual diet (but all possible causes of inflammatory processes should be removed from it).
As specific therapy use:
- antibiotics to suppress second (secondary) infection,
- smectum, activated carbon,
- antispasmodics for severe pain, if the diagnosis of an ulcer is confirmed, it is prohibited,
Treatment should be supervised by a veterinarian.
Acute toxicosis in ferrets is accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, often turning into constipation. The causes of the disease are the ingestion of toxic products and substances into the digestive canal. Treatment should be immediate and often with a special antidote. Particularly dangerous poisoning for puppies. Up to 6 months of age, toxicosis is accompanied by disorders in the nervous system and is manifested by convulsions and paralysis.
How is the treatment:
- elimination of toxins, gastric lavage is performed, enemas are given, intravenous and subcutaneous injections of physiological saline, 5% glucose, calcium gluconate are prescribed,
- then adsorbing substances are used - coal, white clay, enterosgel,
- diuresis increases
- when the cause is identified, an antidote is prescribed.
In severe cases, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is performed in a veterinary clinic.