In recent years, due to adverse environmental conditions, the massive use of chemotherapy drugs, vaccinations, the list of infectious diseases and their etiological structure has changed dramatically.
In poultry farming, infectious diseases that are spread due to violations in poultry breeding, a significant concentration of birds in a limited area, and so on, pose a serious danger.
One of the diseases causing significant damage to farms is pasteurellosis.
As can be seen from the records, the disease has been known to people for a long time, but its nature was established only in the 19th century.
Pasteurellosis was first described in 1877 by D. Rivolt.
A year later, E.M. Zemmer discovered the causative agent of chicken disease.
Much work to identify the nature of pasteurellosis was done by L. Pasteur.
In 1880, the scientist identified the pathogen and was able to get it in a pure culture. Thanks to his work, active specific prophylaxis was developed.
It was in honor of his discoveries that the name was established Pasterella.
Pasteurellosis affects birds in all countries of the world. In Russia, the disease was detected in all regions, and the highest incidence was recorded in the middle lane.
Foci are recorded annually in several dozen places. The situation is worsening by the fact that not only the bird, but also the animals are affected by this disease. The economic damage is significant. Sick chickens dramatically reduce their productivity.
Pasteurellosis: how dangerous it is for poultry
Pasteurellosis of birds is a viral disease that takes several forms and usually results in death. Infection can affect chickens of any age, but most often epidemics break out among young animals.
Old birds are more resistant to this disease, they are more likely to survive after pasteurellosis. However, these chickens will always remain carriers of infection and cannot live with healthy individuals.
The causative agents of pasteurellosis in chickens
Pasteurellosis (cholera) of birds is manifested due to pasteurellas of P. Haemolytica and P. Multocida, which are in the form of ellipsoid rods. There is no dispute; the decomposition process is isolated. Smears from internal organs and blood have a bipolar color.
The structure of P. Multocida is heterogeneous; therefore, the vaccine is selected individually according to the form of the disease. Pasteurella, the causative agent of bird pasteurellosis, can live long in frozen foods and dead animals.
Bacteria cannot survive under ultraviolet light, so the paddock should be well lit. You should also treat the habitats of chickens with a 5% solution of pheanol and suspension. For the same purpose, you can use a 1% solution of bleaching lime.
Methods of infection, symptoms and forms of pasteurellosis
There are several ways to infect pasteurellosis bacilli among domestic birds:
- airways and nasal cavity after contact with an infected individual,
- broken skin,
- Bacillus-infected feed
- blood-sucking insects.
After the chicken enters the body, the virus begins to multiply in huge quantities almost immediately. Bacilli spread at the site of infection, after which they attack blood and lymph.
Throughout the disease, pasteurellosis produces aggressin to better spread the infection. The incubation period usually takes several days. Tolerance depends on the vital signs of the bird and the form of the disease.
The ailment is the result of the vital activity of two rod-shaped microorganisms:
The affected bird is subject to slaughter, and the house is immediately decontaminated.
For the first time, bacilli were identified and raised by Pasteur. It happened in 80 g. 19 Art.
The main risk group is chickens. In this case, the bird suffers regardless of the breed, the place of breeding (although in the northern regions the disease makes itself less common), type of economy.
There are cases when a bird is experiencing an ailment, but in this case it becomes a carrier of infection. There is no information about a complete cure.
The acute form of pasteurellosis
The most common form of the disease. The chicken shows apathy, it is inactive, with wings down. The temperature can rise to 40 ° C, from the lack of oxygen in the body manifests cyanosis.
Yellow nasal discharge appears from the nasal cavity. The chicken ceases to eat food and at the same time actively drinks water. The life span of the bird in this case is from 1 to 3 days.
Chronic form of pasteurellosis
If an individual has survived an acute form, the disease becomes chronic. That is, the ailment will return again and again.
Symptoms of this form are pronounced. The bird suffers from swollen joints of the legs and wings, the beard and comb affects necrosis.
The course of pasteurellosis in chickens in chronic form lasts up to 3 weeks and usually ends lethally. However, if the bird managed to get sick, it becomes a lifelong carrier of infection.
When birds pasteurellosis, chickens are often bloodless. During the autopsy, the following disorders can be detected: muscle tissue becomes bluish, internal organs suffer from hemorrhage, lungs become inflamed, and foci of necrosis appear throughout the body. Treatment of these birds is not possible, therefore patients with a chronic form are usually disposed of.
How to recognize pasteurellosis in chickens
At the first stages, the disease has no pronounced signs and is determined using bacteriological analysis. Analyzes are carried out only in a veterinary clinic.
The corpses of chickens who died from acute or super-acute forms of pasteurellosis are tested in laboratories. A day after sowing blood from the body, a clear growth of the culture is visible.
A smear is taken from the liver, and at the microscopic level, it turns out to see the colored bipolar peculiar to the disease. For greater certainty, an experiment is conducted on laboratory animals, which confirms or refutes the disease.
If the symptoms of infection of the bird with pasteurellosis have been confirmed, then it is necessary to review the conditions of keeping and feeding the pets. Preventive treatment includes the use of symptomatic agents.
Doctors in such cases prescribe hyperimmune polyvalent serum and tetracycline antibiotics:
- chlortetracycline extract
The latest developments to combat pasteurellosis among poultry are:
- cobactan suspension
- levoerythrocycline extract.
However, it should be remembered that the sick bird will always be the carrier of the infection, so it is more rational to let it slaughter. After detecting the disease on the farm, the sick chicken should be instantly isolated, and the pens and walking areas should be treated with a disinfection solution.
During an outbreak in the chicken coop, it is recommended to slaughter the entire bird, as infected individuals are not suitable for divorce.
If a disease is detected, antibacterial substances should be introduced into the feeding of healthy birds:
- Chloramphenicol, 3 times a day,
- Tetracyclinum, Doxycyclin and Oxytetracyclinum, 1 time per knock,
- Norsulfazole, 2 times a day,
- Spectrum B,
If you suspect pasteurellosis, you need to act immediately. If the diagnosis is confirmed, quarantine should be introduced and prophylactic measures tightened. This is the only way to save at least some of the birds.
Healthy individuals require compulsory vaccination. For this, an inactivated adsorbed Vaccine or Aviak in the form of an emulsion is suitable. the vaccine is dosed based on the age of the bird and will help protect the farm from the epidemic.
Causative agents of the disease
Pasteurellosis occurs due to the pasteurellas of P. Haemolytica and P. Multocida, which are ellipsoidal bacilli.
They are located in isolation, do not form a dispute. They are characterized by bipolar coloration in smears of blood and organs.
Given the heterogeneity of the structure of P. Multocida, it is especially important to select vaccine strains.
Pasteurellas causing pasteurellosis can live long in frozen meat (up to 1 year), in corpses (up to 4 months), much less in cold water (2-3 weeks) and manure.
Well they kill them in direct sunlight. Processing with a 5% solution of carbolic acid and milk of lime and a solution of bleach (1%) also helps.
An alarm should begin to occur when the bird refuses to feed. The external manifestation of the disease is due to its form:
1. Super sharp. Rapid death of a bird without visible symptoms.
2. Acute. With this course, pathology is accompanied by:
- Oppressed state
- hyperthermia - up to 44 degrees,
- lack of appetite
- diarrhea containing blood clots,
- wheezing and shortness of breath
In a sick bird, earrings and scallops turn blue, the plumage loses its neat appearance, foam is released from the beak. A few days after infection, a waste is noted.
3. Chronic. This form can be identified by general weakness, exhaustion, runny nose, swelling of the limbs, jaws, inflammatory processes affecting the organs of vision, affected wings. Fatal outcome in chronic cholera is a rare occurrence.
Symptoms and forms of the disease
As a rule, chickens become infected through the mucous membrane of the pharynx and upper respiratory tract.
In this case, infection through the digestive tract and damaged skin is not excluded.
Another way is disease transmission through bloodsucking parasites.
As soon as microbes enter the bird's body, they immediately begin to multiply.
First, at the injection site, then entering the circulatory and lymphatic systems. During pasteurellosis, aggressins play a role, increasing the infectious ability of bacteria and inhibiting anti-aggression.
The incubation period can last a different number of days. The nature of the course of the disease depends on the form of the disease.
The fact of the disease is confirmed in the laboratory. If a pathology is suspected, the bird is immediately slaughtered. The veterinarian takes bioassays, which, together with the corpse, are sent to the laboratory. In order to confirm the disease, a bacteriological analysis is performed.
The disease in question can be confused with bird flu, salmonellosis and Newcastle disease.
Internal changes include:
- Heart, spleen and liver with hemorrhages.
- Organs with necrotic foci.
An obligatory condition is that an accurate diagnosis requires a pathological study of at least four corpses.
Ways of struggle and prevention
The infection is incurable. The affected part of the livestock is rejected. We remind you that a sick bird is a peddler of an infection.
After recycling the carcasses of dead birds, they immediately begin prophylaxis based on giving antibiotics to healthy hens:
1. Chloramphenicol. The average dose per kilo of weight is 70 mg. It is given in the composition of the feed mixture a couple of times a day.
2. Tetracycline. Such a drug for every kilogram of poultry accounts for about 55 mg.
3. Aquaprim. It is added to water at the rate of 1.5 ml per liter of H2O.
For the purpose of prevention, Floron is also prescribed and other drugs based on spectinomycin and lincomycin.
Naturally, disinfection of the house is indispensable. To do this, use "Ecocide C" and "Monclavite." Alternative disinfectants:
- 5 percent bleach
- 10 percent iodine monochloride,
- 20 percent freshly slaked lime. A 3-fold whitewash with an hourly interval is recommended.
The walking platform eliminates the grass stand (you can just mow it) and do not use it for 14 days. During this time, UV rays will do their job. Walking is irrigated with lime. After plowing, it is important to wait for the drying out of all moistened areas.
Vaccination in LPH is justified when the problem is not solved by preventive measures.
The bird gets sick suddenly. Outwardly, it looks healthy, does not show any signs of the disease, but at one point it falls dead due to intoxication.
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This form is the most common. The bird is lethargic, it seems that she is depressed. At the same time, her temperature rises to 43 ° C, pronounced cyanosis appears on the crest and beards.
Perhaps the release of a foamy yellowish liquid from the nose. The bird stops eating, but drinks a lot and eagerly. The acute form is characterized by mucous diarrhea. With this form, hens do not live more than 1-3 days.
Due to the fact that pathoanatomical changes and the clinical picture are not specific enough, the bacteriological diagnosis plays the main role in the diagnosis of the disease.
The corpses of birds are delivered to the laboratory and examined. In the acute form of the disease, a clear culture growth is visible one day after seeding blood from a corpse.
A smear is taken from the liver and spleen., and with a microscopic examination, it turns out to see the colored bipolar, characteristic of pasteurellosis.
In addition, experimental animals are infected with the isolated culture to ensure that the analysis obtained is correct.
Treatment is reduced to improving the conditions of feeding and feeding, as well as the use of symptomatic agents.
More modern drugs for the treatment of pasteurellosis in chickens include trisulfone, a suspension of cobactan, levoerythrocycline.
Prevention and control measures
Prevention consists in proper observance of sanitary hygiene standards, timely isolation and neutralization of hens carrying the infection, as well as preventive vaccinations.
When detecting sick birds need to separate them from healthy, stop the movement of birds inside and outside the farm. Poultry houses, paddocks and all equipment are thoroughly disinfected.
Overgrown walks necessarily coughare insolated and plowed. Vitamin feed and top dressing are included in the diet of birds.
Pasteurellosis is better to prevent than to deal with it later. The disease is dangerous, characterized by mass death of chickens. Owners of poultry should be knowledgeable about this disease in time to protect the laying hens from trouble.
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