Predators of medium size are close in a number of structural features to eagles, but differing from them in the absence of a sharp narrowing on the fly, relatively weak and elongated beak, weak legs and short fingers, the nostrils are rounded oval, their width is at least 2/3 of the height, wings are long (in our forms), their tops are also made up by the flywheels, of which the primary flywings are narrowed on the inner wearer, the tail is of moderate length, shorter than 2/3 of the wing length, slightly rounded, the metatarsus is long, variously feathered, sometimes to the toes, covered in front and behind transverse not decreasing downwardly plates (or sometimes back side flaps are larger than the front), the outer length of the inner finger. Age-related changes expressed by unsharp adults sometimes appear from below a more or less transverse pattern, in contrast to the longitudinal in young people), but individual variability is very high.
They are widespread in forests, steppes and tundra, feed on small vertebrates, mainly rodents and are therefore extremely useful, an exception, perhaps, is the bipedal buzzard Buteo lagopus, in the food regime of which birds occupy a larger place, but he, according to the living conditions, can't do much harm.
The isolation of bony buzzards, distinguished by a strongly feathered metatarsus, into the special genus Triorchis Kaup (Archibuteo Brehm) does not have sufficient grounds, since there are forms (B. hemilasius) in which this character varies greatly and it is impossible to give it great taxonomic significance.
Western European or Big Buzzard Buteo buteo buteo
The nesting region of this buzzard is western Europe from 66 ° C. w. to the Balkan Peninsula and the Carpathians, east to the Baltic states, Lithuania and Volhynia, is given for Transcaucasia. Winter specimens are known from Podolia and from the Caucasian Black Sea coast.
Like all buzzards, it is extremely variable in color. The main color is brown, from below - with transverse stripes in adults and longitudinal in youngs, tail - with a more or less developed transverse pattern, there are (rarely) monotonous brown specimens or, finally, light grayish-brown with buffy or whitish spots and rims on top and white, more or less mottled with brown bottom (the so-called Falco albidus). The wing is in males, in females. Brown rainbow, black nails, brownish-horned beak, legs and yellow wax. In all cases, the color is not red.
Small or red buzzard Buteo buteo vulpinus (B. B. vulpus)
Distributed east of the previous one, north to Arkhangelsk, 66 ° C. w. in the region of Pechora, Tomsk, Yeniseisk, east to the Usinsky and Uryankhai territories and the Tien Shan. Wintering in East Africa, Arabia, India. Being very variable, it differs on average from the previous one by a more or less significant admixture of the redhead in the plumage and a smaller size: the wing Rarely come across specimens completely dark brown (fusco-ater) go similar to B. b. buteo, only with a very small admixture of red (intermedins), but both of these changes are not geographically isolated (intermedins, for example, occurs not only in the western part of the range, but also in the Volga region and beyond the Urals) and can be considered, as it once was and suggested by M. A. Menzbir, only as “phases” (types of personal changes).
Japanese buzzard Buteo buteo burmanicus (B. B. burmanicus)
The distribution area of this buzzard is sowing. Japan, eastern Siberia, west to Pribaikalye, northwest of Khentei, Olekminsk, Yakutsk, Chinese Turkestan. Winters in Turkestan, in India, Tibet, China, Japan.
The bottom is usually painted creamy white with a more or less developed brown pattern, the top is brown with lighter borders, in adults the pattern of the belly is transverse, in young - longitudinal. Occasionally monophonic brown specimens come across. Red tone compared to previous forms - weakened. The metatarsus is feathered more than the previous ones (Fig. 7, Table VII), more than half, their fledgling part is shorter than the beak (from the forehead) and the middle finger without the claw, the nostrils are often covered with hair, the notch of the external flywheel usually lies between the vertices and flight (in vulpinus between and or on a par with the top of the wing