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Large-pineapple pineapple, or ordinary (Ananas comosus)

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The soil
  • Loose, fertile, sour. Ready soil for bromeliads is ideal.
The size
  • from 50 to 100 cm
Flowering time
  • May to July
Possible colors
    Illumination
    • Many // Western, southern orientation, may require several hours of direct sunlight
    Watering
    • Medium // Heavy watering 2-3 times a week
    Difficulty of care
    • A lot // Required care (cold wintering, backlighting, shelter (in the garden), etc.)
    Air humidity
    • Medium // Moderate humidity (at least 35%, normal street humidity in the shade)
    Fertilizer frequency
    • Not enough // Enough nutrition. substances from own soil or rare fertilizer

    The most widespread and widely cultivated species for the sake of obtaining fruits, is often found on sale under the name Pineapple Candido. It can be grown from the top of ordinary pineapple, which is found in grocery stores, but to decorate the home interior, its gray-green leaves look dull.

    It is best to give preference to the decorative variety Pineapple crested motley (variegatus). It is compact and has very beautiful bright green leaves with contrasting cream or white stripes at the edges. In length, they reach about a meter, have a serrated edge.

    A large inflorescence is located at the apex of a dense peduncle, which appears from the center of the rosette of leaves. There are more than a hundred flowers in it, but they are very small and nondescript, large red bracts give decorativeness to the inflorescence.

    From the fused ovaries, a small reddish fruit with a characteristic pleasant smell is formed. The fruits of the large pineapple species are edible, but it is not recommended to eat them, because at home they simply do not have time to ripen to the end. It is best to root the top and get a new copy.

    (Analytical review)

    B. M. Zuzuk, R.V. Kutsik, L. M. Kurovets
    Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy

    The name of this plant comes from the Indian word "nana", which means "sweet."

    Rus .:A pineapple.
    English:Pineapple
    German:Ananas.
    Franz .:Ananas.

    Botanical Description

    Perennial herbaceous plant, 60–100 cm high, of the bromeliad family (Bromeliaceae). The stem is shortened, with a rosette of succulent linear succulent xiphoid leaves, which have jagged edges, reaches 1.5 m in height and 2-3 cm in width. Pineapple flowers are lilac, white or purple, collected in a simple spike. After flowering is complete, a compact golden yellow fruit is formed that resembles a cone and consists of fleshy berries and a juicy receptacle. Maturation of fertility lasts 4.5–5 months. The mass of ripe fruit in different varieties of pineapple is from 0.8 to 3.6 kg.

    Geographic distribution

    The homeland of pineapple is considered to be the semi-arid regions of northeast Latin America (Brazil, Venezuela, Guiana), where it is still found in the wild. After the discovery of America, pineapple quickly spread to the culture of other tropical countries, in particular India, where it was grown before 1576. Pineapple was later brought to Australia, Indonesia, South Africa and the Hawaiian Islands. Today, pineapple is cultivated in almost all tropical countries. The Antilles and Hawaiian Islands account for about 75% of world production. An institute for the study of pineapple is located in Hawaii, where selection and genetic studies of this exotic plant are conducted.

    The origin of cultivated pineapple is still unknown. It is believed that it arose as a result of natural hybridization of several wild species that have not been preserved to date. Among 5 species of the pineapple genus, only one species is widely known in the culture - the large-pineapple pineapple Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill.

    Biologically active substances

    The inner part of pineapple fruit contains up to 100 mg% vitamin C, 0.5–0.7% organic acids (mainly citric), vanillin, 12–15% sugars (mainly sucrose), minerals, in particular calcium, potassium, and copper salts and iron. Pineapple fruits are rich in polysaccharides. The main non-cellulose polysaccharides of cell walls are glucuronoarabinoxylans, in addition to them there are xyloglucans and a small amount of pectin polysaccharides, glucomannans or galactoglucomannans (Smith B. G. and Harris P. J., 1995).

    It was found that the polysaccharides of pineapple fruits are esterified with ferulic acid, and, when hydrolyzed, mainly O-5-O- (E-feruloyl) -α-L-arabinofuranosyl (13) -O-β-D-xylopyranosyl- (14) -D xylopyranose.

    In pineapple juice, phenolic compounds S-synapyl-L-cysteine, N-L-γ-glutamyl-S-synapyl-L-cysteine, and S-synapylglutathione were found in significant concentrations (Wen L., 1999).

    Of particular medical importance is bromelain (or bromelain), which is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes and has the ability to clot milk. From a chemical point of view, bromelin is a high molecular weight glycoprotein. Bromelain is found in the juice of the fruit and in the stems of the plant. It is obtained from both green and ripe fruits.

    In the course of biochemical studies, it was found that pineapple contains at least 4 cysteine ​​proteinases: bromelain stems, bromelain stems and ananain and comosain stems (Rowan A. D. etc., 1990). These enzymes are immunologically different. In the fractional analysis of bromelain, it turned out that it contains 8 proteases (Harrach T. etc., 1995), among which the F4 and F5 fractions with a pH optimum of 4.0–4.5 mol% predominate quantitatively. 24397 Yes and 24472 Yes, respectively, and the most active fraction is F9 mol.m. 23427 Yes, and with a neutral pH optimum. Only half of the isolated proteins are glycosylated; F4 and F5 contain fucose, N-acetylglucosamine, xylose and mannose in a ratio of 1.0: 2.0: 1.0: 2.0. Ananaine cysteine ​​proteinase (EC 3.4.22.31) differs from other cysteine ​​proteinases in the papain superfamily by its unique amino acid sequence (Carter C. E. etc., 2000).

    Another papain-like enzyme, cysteine ​​peptidase mol.m., was isolated from the extract of the pseudo-pineapple fruit Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms, a species very close to large-pineapple. 23459 Yes, called Macrodontaine I (Lopez L. M. etc., 2000). A study of the amino acid sequence showed a high degree of homology of this enzyme with comosain (85.7%), bromelain (85.2%) and ananain (77.8%).

    History of use in medicine

    Pineapple is the most popular tropical plant after a banana.

    Eat the inside of a juicy fruit, which has a sweet and sour taste and a fragrant specific aroma. The fruits are used both in raw and in processed form. From them receive canned food, juices, alcoholic beverages, jams and preserves. Pineapple fruits improve digestion.

    Pineapple juice is used to reduce edema in diseases of the kidneys and the cardiovascular system. Due to the ascorbic acid content in the pulp of the fruit, pineapple is a good anti-zingotic and vitamin remedy. Pineapple juice has a good therapeutic effect in anemia.

    In India, pineapple juice is used as an anthelmintic.

    Bromelain is also used to give tenderness to meat in the production of protein hydrolysates in the skin industry.

    In tropical countries, pineapple leaves produce valuable spinning fiber.

    Although pineapple was widely used in folk medicine by the inhabitants of the tropics, the study of the pharmacological properties of bromelain began in 1975-1978. Only in the 80s did enzyme preparations appear, and in the 90s, indications for their use significantly expanded.

    Pharmacological properties

    Bromelain isolated from pineapple juice is a proteolytic enzyme that resembles pepsin and papain in the nature of its action. It breaks down proteins into poly- and oligopeptides. Hydrolysis of proteins under the influence of bromelain occurs at a wide range of pH (3.0–8.0). It is active both in the stomach and in the intestines, is effective for reduced, increased and normal acidity of gastric juice. Therefore, substitution therapy with bromelain significantly improves digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.

    In experiments on rabbits, it was found that bromelain, when administered orally at a dose of 5 mg / kg, exhibits anticoagulant (fibrinolytic) properties. In animals, after 30 minutes, a 2.5-fold increase in prothrombin time was observed compared with the control level. At the same time, the level of plasmin in blood serum also increased, apparently due to the ability of the enzyme to activate plasminogen (profibrinolysin). Elevated plasmin levels accelerate fibrin lysis. As shown by quantitative studies, 1 mg of bromelain activated the same amount of plasmin as 4000 IU of streptokinase. In experiments on rats, when administered per os at a dose of 1 mg / kg, bromelain inhibits platelet aggregation.

    Bromelain has anti-inflammatory and immunocorrective effects. When administered orally, it reduces inflammation and swelling, accelerates tissue repair processes. This action is associated with the depolymerization of intercellular structures and the modification of vascular permeability. In a model of experimental inflammation caused by the administration of croton oil and carrageenan, the therapeutic effect was accompanied by a decrease in the level of prostaglandin E 2 and thromboxane B 2 in exudate. Therefore, it is believed that the anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet properties of bromelain are due to its ability to influence the metabolism of arachidonic acid (Vellini M. et al., 1986).

    Like papain, bromelain accelerates the healing of wounds, trophic ulcers, bedsores, helping to cleanse them of necrotic tissues, stimulates the digestion of non-viable protein masses, but for viable tissues it is completely safe due to the presence of protease inhibitors in them.

    Treatment of rats with experimental burns with an enzyme complex from pineapple stems made it possible to quickly cleanse wounds (Rowan A. D. etc., 1990).

    In vitro experiments have shown that bromelain inhibits the growth of tumor cells in vitro and also prevents the occurrence of pulmonary metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice (Batkin S. etc., 1988).

    Pineapple root extract when administered orally to rats (10 mg / kg) exhibits diuretic properties, while urine production is 79% of the level achieved by a similar dose of hypothiazide (Sripanidkulchai B. etc., 2001). A study of the electrolyte composition of urine indicates that the extract acts as a saluretic.

    Phytosteroids from pineapple fruits and leaves cause spontaneous abortions in mice (Pakrashi A. etc., 1975, 1976).

    Toxicology and side effects

    Since bromelain is glycoprotein in nature, it can exhibit a sensitizing effect. Sensitization of bromelain in pharmaceutical industry workers with professional contact with it has been described (Baur X. and Fruhmann G., 1979). A provocative inhalation test (0.03 mg) of bromelain, as well as oral administration of 190 g of pineapple predetermined an asthmatic reaction in sensitized individuals, and the following provocations led to the development of dyspeptic disorders.

    Positive skin tests were observed in patients and specific Ig was detected by the radioimmune method. The results of immunological studies indicate cross sensitization with bromelain and papain.

    Clinical application

    Pineapple is highly regarded in dietetic therapy. Juice is recommended for use in gastrointestinal diseases and various dyspeptic disorders to improve digestion, since bromelain exhibits pepsin-like activity. But for patients with increased secretory activity of gastric juice, pineapple juice is not recommended.

    Today, bromelain is used as a non-toxic therapeutic agent that affects tumor growth, blood coagulation and inflammation, cleansing burns of the III degree, and improving the absorption of drugs. Due to its necrolytic and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as its ability to improve regeneration processes, bromelain has been used in surgical practice: to accelerate the healing of purulent wounds, trophic ulcers, bedsores. In gynecological practice, it gives good results in episiotomy - surgical dissection of the vulva during childbirth. Bromelain reduces swelling, prevents suppuration of the suture, promotes its rapid healing and the formation of delicate scars.

    The anti-inflammatory effect of bromelain during the tooth extraction procedure was noted (80 mg 3 times a day for 6 days, the start of the course of treatment - one day before the operation). A day after the operation, a decrease in the size of edema was established by 7.5%, and in two-dimensional analysis - by 15.9% compared with patients who received a placebo (Hotz G. etc., 1989).

    American scientists have established the ability of bromelain to regulate the body's metabolism. Therefore, it is part of the means for losing weight.

    Bromelain is part of polyenzyme preparations for systemic enzyme therapy, which is based on the complex effect on homeostasis of specially selected combinations of hydrolytic enzymes of animal and plant origin (see Carica papaya L.). The method of systemic enzyme therapy has been successfully introduced into practice in many areas of clinical medicine.

    The results of the use of Wobenzym and Flogenzim preparations (which include bromelain) indicate the high efficiency of systemic enzyme therapy in angiological practice, which allows them to be recommended for wide clinical use. A good clinical effect is achieved when phlogenzyme is prescribed in a dose of 3 tablets 3 times a day for patients with chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities. The vast majority of patients showed a decrease in edema, pain and a feeling of heaviness in the legs, a decrease in blood viscosity (on average by 10-15%) and normalization of fibrinogen level. The effectiveness of therapy was manifested after 3-4 weeks of taking the drug.

    Systemic enzyme therapy with phloenzyme is highly effective in chronic obliterating diseases of limb arteries. After 1-2 months of treatment, most patients experienced clinical improvement, which was manifested by an increase in the maximum walking distance by an average of more than 2 times.

    In traumatology, systemic enzyme therapy is used to quickly eliminate postoperative edema, accelerate resorption of hematomas at the sites of fractures and bruises of soft tissues, as well as during endoprosthetics and arthroscopic meniscus removal. At the same time, phlogenzyme, which exhibits the most pronounced decongestant and anti-inflammatory effect, is preferred.

    In homeopathy, preparations from pineapple are prescribed for functional disorders of the nervous system.

    Medicines

    Bromelain 200 (Ursapharm, Germany) - tablets containing 200 mg of bromelain each. It is used in inflammatory processes accompanied by edema (for example, with thrombophlebitis), to maintain fibrinolytic therapy, as an adjuvant in neoplastic processes. Take 1 tablet 3 times a day 30 minutes before meals. Tablets are taken without chewing, with a sufficient amount of liquid. If necessary, the dose can be increased to 2 tablets 3 times a day. The drug is contraindicated in coagulopathies, severe impaired renal and hepatic function.

    In addition, bromelain is part of complex enzyme preparations. Wobenzym ® (Wobenzym, Mucos Pharma, Germany) is a complex enzyme preparation. 1 coated tablet contains 100 mg of pancreatin, 60 mg of papain, 45 mg of bromelain, 10 mg of lipase, 10 mg of amylase, 24 mg of trypsin, 1 mg of chymotrypsin, 50 mg of rutin (see Carica papaya L.). Flogenzym ® (Flogenzym, Mucos Pharma, Germany) is a complex enzyme preparation containing 90 mg of bromelain, 48 mg of trypsin and 100 mg of rutoside. Available in coated tablets, 20 pieces per pack.

    Bromelain and trypsin contribute to the rapid breakdown of metabolic products of the inflammatory process, and rutin restores the permeability of the walls of blood vessels, thereby reducing pain, swelling and bruising. Phloenzyme reduces blood viscosity and thus prevents thrombosis and improves microcirculation.With the simultaneous administration of phlogenzyme with antibiotics, the local concentration of the latter in the focus of inflammation increases. But phloenzyme does not replace antibiotic treatment for infectious inflammatory processes.

    The drug is used to treat acute and exacerbation of chronic inflammatory processes, post-traumatic and postoperative edema (due to injuries, sports injuries, burns, cut and lacerated wounds), inflammatory-dystrophic diseases of the joints and spine in the acute phase, rheumatic diseases, tendon inflammation, periarthritis. In combination with other methods of therapy, it is effective for peripheral circulation disorders, trophic ulcers of the lower leg, phlebitis, arteritis, lymphangiitis, and lymphatic edema. In combination with antibiotics, phlogenzyme is prescribed for inflammatory processes in the oral cavity, nasal sinuses, respiratory tract, and organs of the genitourinary tract. As an adjunct therapy, it is indicated for inflammatory diseases of the pancreas, liver and intestines.

    In some chronic diseases, worsening is possible at the beginning of phloenzyme treatment, which should be regarded as a manifestation of a positive reaction of the body to therapy. In no case should you stop taking the drug; a temporary dose reduction is recommended.

    Typically, phloenzyme is prescribed 6 tablets per day (3 times 2 tablets or 2 times 3). In severe diseases or in shock treatment of inflammatory processes, up to 12 tablets can be taken daily (3 times 4 tablets or 4 times 3). Tablets are taken without chewing 30-60 minutes before a meal, washed down with a large amount of liquid (at least 250 ml).

    The dose of phlogenzyme in diseases of the peripheral arteries and veins is 3 tablets 3 times a day, a course of treatment of 1.5-2.5 months is recommended. In traumatology, phloenzyme is prescribed 3-4 tablets 3 times a day for 7-14 days.

    Mexaza (Mexaza) - a drug with enzymatic and antibacterial action for the treatment of digestive disorders. It is produced in Yugoslavia in the form of a dragee (in a package of 20 pieces), consisting of three layers. In the inner layer, the dragee contains 100 mg of 5-chloro-7-iodine-8-hydroxyquinoline (enteroseptol) and 10 mg of 4,7-phenanthroline-5,6-quinone, which exhibit antibacterial and antiprotozoal activity. The outer layer contains 50 mg of bromelin, and on average 150 mg of pancreatin and 25 mg of dehydrocholic acid. Stored according to list B.

    The simultaneous action of antibacterial agents and enzymes determines the effectiveness of Mexase in various digestive disorders, including inadequate secretion of digestive juices, gastritis, gastroenteritis, chronic enterocolitis, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, tonic diseases of the gall bladder, chronic hepatitis (without impaired liver function) postcholecystectomy syndrome, with fermentative and putrefactive dyspepsia, flatulence, a violation of the diet, food deficiency Arena in old age.

    Prescribe the drug inside (during or immediately after a meal) with a small amount of water, 1-2 tablets 3 times a day. Dragees are swallowed without chewing. In acute diseases, treatment usually lasts 2–5 days, in chronic diseases - 2-3 weeks. The duration of treatment should not exceed 4 weeks. With increased acidity of the gastric juice, it is recommended to prescribe antacids at the same time as mexase, and dilute hydrochloric acid for achilia.

    Nutrizym ® (Merk, Germany) is a combined preparation, produced in the form of a dragee containing 50 mg of bromelain, 400 mg of pancreatin and 30 mg of bile extract.

    It is used for digestive disorders of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, which occur in case of insufficiency of exocrine pancreatic function, hypo- and anacid gastritis, putrefactive and fermentative dyspepsia, after resection of the pancreas, stomach and intestines. The drug is also used before an X-ray examination of the intestine to release it from gases. For 1 tablet during a meal or immediately after a meal, if necessary, increase the dose. Enzym-hepaduran ® (Zwintscher) - dragee containing 25 mg bromelain in the shell and 200 mg of pork pancreatin in the shell, 15 mg of dry alcoholic extract of turmeric rhizome, 15 mg of dry alcoholic extract (6.5: 1), root bark barberry, 15 mg of dry alcoholic extract of milk thistle, 15 mg of dry purified bile, 5 mg of vitamin B 1 5 mg vitamin B 2 6 mg vitamin B 6 and 10 mg of vitamin B 15 (sodium salt of pangamic acid).

    Take 1-2 tablets per day during or after a meal in violation of the exocrine function of the pancreas, accompanied by digestive disorders. Esberizym ® N (Schaper & Brummer, Germany) - dragee containing pork pancreatin (10,000 units of triacylglycerolipase, 7,500 units of amylase and 500 units of protease), 60 units of bromelain and 40 mg of dimethicone. It is used for acute and chronic digestive disorders, chronic pancreatitis, inadequate secretion of digestive juices, flatulence, fermentative and putrefactive dyspepsia, as well as for the removal of gases from the intestines before an X-ray examination. Contraindicated in acute pancreatitis. Take 1-2 tablets per meal. Meteophyt ® -V (OTW, Germany) - a dragee containing 5 mg of bromelain, 30 mg of pork pancreatin, 30 mg of papain, 30 mg of bile extract, 7 mg of aloe extract, 4 mg of dry alcoholic extract of turmeric (11: 1), 0 , 4 mg of cumin oil, 0.4 mg of fennel oil, 0.4 mg of orange oil, 0.2 mg of peppermint oil, 0.02 mg of chamomile oil and 30 mg of dimethicone 2000. 2 tablets are used without chewing while eating with digestive disorders, decreased secretion of the digestive glands, flatulence, biliary dyskinesia. Floradix ® Multipretten ® Krauter-Dragees (Salushaus, Germany) - dragee containing 8 mg of bromelain, 20 mg of a mixture of Aspergillus oryzae enzymes, 20 mg of dry alcoholic extracts of caraway seeds, fennel, aniseed essential oil, peppermint leaves, yarrow grass, 10 mg of dry alcoholic extracts of coriander fruits and cmovdy herbs, 30 mg of dry alcoholic extract of wormwood herbs, 0.8 mg of essential oils of anise, cumin, fennel, peppermint and 0.4 mg of coriander essential oil. It is used to improve the function of the stomach, digestion of proteins, with flatulence, gastric dyspepsia. Take 2 tablets before meals. Extranase ® (Rottapharm, France) - tablets containing 900 nCat units of bromelain. Assign to adults 3 tablets 3 times a day for post-traumatic and postoperative edema.

    Bromelain is part of Ananase ® manufactured by the United States.

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    Ananas comosus var. comosus

    Like other varieties, large-pineapple pineapple is a perennial herb from the bromeliad family, and the fruit beloved by many is juicy fruit, which, depending on the species and variety, can have a different shape, size and weight. If on plants of the Giant Kew variety, fruits weighing up to 10 kg ripen, then mini pineapples bred in southeast Asia have almost no rigid core, but weigh no more than 500 grams.

    The international trade classification is based on the existence of several large groups of pineapple varieties. These are Smooth Cayenne, Spanish, Queen, Abacaxi and Pernambuco. As breeding work is ongoing, in addition to these classes, other varieties and varieties appear.

    Group of pineapple varieties Smooth Cayenne

    The first, most extensive Smooth Cayenne group is mostly plants grown in Hawaii and Honduras. Also, exotic fruits pineapples with characteristic signs of belonging to this varietal group can be found in the Philippines and Cuba, on plantations in South Africa and in Mexico. Smooth Cayenne plants have a short stalk, on which, gradually turning yellow from the bottom to the outlet, fruits weighing 1.5 to 3 kg ripen. The pineapple pulp is dense, light yellow, with a high content of both acids and sugar, which gives the taste of the fruit some sharpness.

    Often, the harvest from plants of this varietal group goes not only for fresh sales, but also for the manufacture of canned fruit. It is not surprising that from the varieties included in the group, up to 90% of the world volume of canned fruits is produced. Compared to other varieties, pineapples of the varietal group Smooth Cayenne develop longer, and can also be attacked by common pests and crop diseases.

    The cayenne variety group includes many independent varieties:

    At the same time, plants and fruits of different varieties included in the same group can be very different from each other. For example, Champaka pineapple, which produces edible but truly dwarf fruits, is grown as a houseplant. And Kew pineapples are giants weighing from 4 to 10 kg, which grow only on plantations.

    Among the varieties of this vast group, one can distinguish Amritha pineapples with spiky pointed leaves and cylindrical, tapering to the bottom fruits weighing from 1.5 to 2 kg. From the time of planting to flowering plants of this variety of pineapple 13-15 months pass. The variety stands out by forming a small compact outlet on top of the fruit. Exotic fruits themselves pineapples in an unripe form have a smooth green color, which changes to yellow when the fruit is ready for cutting.

    The thickness of the bark reaches 6 mm, and the pale yellow pulp under it is dense, crunchy, without noticeable fibers. Pineapples of the Amritha variety stand out for their low acidity and rich aroma.

    Almost 50% of the world market for fresh pineapples arriving on the shelves falls on the grade MD-2, which, according to experts, is rightfully considered the standard for the international market.

    Pineapple cultivation in Central and South America began in 1996, and during this time the plants showed that they can stably bear fruit. High quality fruits have:

    • high sugar content
    • straight cylindrical shape
    • low acid content
    • average weight from 1.5 to 2 kg.

    The fruits of MD-2 are distinguished by a very long shelf life of up to 30 days, which makes it possible to transport exotic pineapple fruits over long distances without loss of quality.

    And yet the plant cannot be called ideal. MD-2 is more sensitive than rot of Kew pineapple to rot and late blight.

    Group of varieties of pineapple "Spanish"

    The second group of pineapple varieties is called "Spanish". Red Spanish pineapples are actively grown in Central America. The main crops are obtained in Puerto Rico. Typically, such fruits, mainly exported, weigh 1–2 kilograms. Under the firm reddish peel, due to which the group got its name, there is a pale yellow or almost white pulp with a mild aroma and a rather fibrous structure compared to cayenne varieties. In the section, the Spanish pineapple seems almost square.

    The Spanish group includes varieties:

    • Pina blanca,
    • Red spanish
    • Cabezona,
    • Canning
    • Valera Amarilla Roja,

    Plants of these and other varieties assigned to the group delight with fruits weighing from 1 to 10 kg, and these are mainly table pineapples, slightly inferior in taste to dessert varieties. This translates into stiffer pulp and lower sugar content.

    The Queen group also includes many noteworthy pineapple varieties, for example:

    Pineapples of these varieties can be recognized by the greenish color of the peel. The rosette consists of small leaves decorated with spines along the edge. The weight of such a fruit does not exceed 1.5 kg on average, and the flesh strikes with a bright yellow color.

    Gourmets note that, comparing African pineapples and South American, it is difficult to give preference to certain fruits. This is due to the dissimilarity of taste. Pineapples from South Africa are not so sweet, but their acidity is lower than that of varieties from the American continent. The finest Natal Queen pineapples with an almost orange dessert pulp are grown in South Africa.

    Coarse Pineapple Group Abacaxi

    Under a single group name Abacaxi, varieties are combined with light or almost white juicy pulp that does not have signs of lignification. The most famous varieties here are:

    Most plantings of Sugarloaf pineapples are in Mexico and Venezuela. Fruits are characterized by low acid content, high juiciness and sweetness. The weight of such a pineapple can range from 1 to 2.7 kg.

    In addition to these groups and varieties, there are many others of regional importance. For example, in Australia for over 150 years, its own breeding work has been carried out, based on experiments begun in the 19th century, in England. Today, an original varietal group is grown here, the fruits of which are in demand in the country.

    Pernambuco Pineapple variety of Brazilian origin is also known. Despite the fact that such pineapples are not too well stored, they are in demand due to the high sugar content and excellent quality of not large portioned fruits.

    Varieties of local selection are widespread in Asia, including Thai pineapples Tard Sri Thong and Sriracha, Mauritius from India, as well as extremely popular dwarf pineapples Baby, characterized by a uniform juicy and very sweet flesh.

    Mini pineapples or Baby forms fruits with a height of only 10-15 cm. The diameter of such a crumb is about 10 cm, but with a modest size, the taste of a miniature fruit is not inferior to large. Moreover, pineapple has a delicate, aromatic and sweet pulp that does not have hard inclusions, like all fruits of standard sizes.

    Ananas comosus var. comosus is not the only subspecies bearing edible fruit. Although other varieties of pineapple cannot be compared with large-pineapple pineapple in terms of sweetness and fruit size, these plants are in demand and are grown for low-alcohol drinks, fiber, as well as decorative and indoor plants.

    First of all, in this capacity are the following varieties of Ananas comosus:

    • Ananassoides,
    • Erectifolius,
    • Parguazensis,
    • Bracteatus.

    Ananas comosus var. bracteatus

    The subspecies, also known as red pineapple, is an indigenous South American plant. Even today, wild specimens of this species can be found in Brazil and Bolivia, in Argentina, Paraguay and in Ecuador.

    Plants about a meter high are distinguished by a bright color, combining stripes of almost white and dense green colors. The leaves are decorated along the edge with sharp spikes.If the pineapple of this subspecies is grown in a well-lit place, then pink tones begin to predominate in the color of its rosette and fruits. Thanks to this feature, the plant got its name.

    The flowering of red pineapple is practically no different from how the remaining subspecies of Ananas comosus bloom. And the fertility of plants is much higher than that of the large-pineapple.

    Due to the unusual appearance of foliage and the brightness of the whole plant, Ananas bracteatus is a decorative pineapple grown for small red fruits. In the garden, plants can be used as hedges or flower beds, and in the house a red pineapple will decorate any interior.

    Ananas comosus var. ananassoides

    Pineapples of this variety are also the indigenous inhabitants of South America, namely Brazil, Paraguay and Venezuela. In tropical regions and in the east of the Andes, plants from 90 to 100 cm high are quite common in savannah, where there is a lack of moisture, and in shady, moist forests along riverbeds in Guiana and Costa Rica.

    This subspecies of wild pineapple is widespread, and its dwarf fruits attract the attention of gardeners and lovers of indoor crops. A distinctive feature of the decorative pineapple is the almost complete absence of the stem, hard, sharp leaves, 90 to 240 cm long and reddish 15-centimeter inflorescences.

    The fruits of this South American pineapple can also be spherical. But more often on thin flexible stalks elongated cylindrical fertility is formed. The pulp inside is white or yellowish, fibrous, sweet with small brown seeds.

    Decorative pineapples of the varieties erectifolius and parguazensis

    A bright large variety of pineapple, like other representatives of the genus, is a native of South America and is found in several countries of the region. Although mini pineapples ripening on plants do not have commercial value, the culture is actively grown in gardens and indoors.

    There are several varieties of pineapples of this subspecies, the most popular of which is represented in the photo “Chocolate”.

    Pineapple subspecies parguazensis is not too common. Most of the wild population is found in Colombia, in northern Brazil and in Venezuela, in Guyana, and the plant is also found in French Guiana. A characteristic feature of the plant can be considered jagged soft leaves and powerful sultans on the tiny fruit of decorative pineapple.

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