Brief description of the family
The morphology of chironomid larvae varies somewhat with age, so the determination should be carried out by the adult stage of 4th age. The length of adult larvae is from 2 to 30 mm. The body is vermiform, clearly dissected, usually into 13 segments: 3 thoracic and 10 abdominal. The head is well designed. Inhabitants of sludge are colored red due to the presence of hemoglobin in hemolymph. Inhabitants of non-silted soils or thickets are greenish in color. Larvae living on shallow water stones often have a bright color with a pattern.
Larvae living in silt tube houses on the front seven abdominal segments have longitudinal ridges on the sides. On the VIII abdominal segment of chironomus, there are 1 or 2 pairs of more or less long outgrowths. On the I thoracic segment from the bottom there are anterior pseudopods, which are protrusions of the body, merged at the base and divided in the distal part. Their tops carry numerous chitinous hooks. The last, posterior segment of the abdomen is always narrower than the preceding one and at its distal end carries posterior pseudopods. Pushers are often in the form of a truncated cone with flat chitinous hooks on top. Inhabitants of river sand, the pushers are very elongated, almost cylindrical.
Between the pushers is the anus, near which there are 2, sometimes 3 pairs of anal gills. Their shape is finger-shaped, triangular or conical, the length varies in different species. On the dorsal side of the IX segment of the abdomen there is a pair of preanal brushes on the supports. Brushes consist of several hairy hard bristles. The coasters are outgrowths of the body, sharply isolated from it, with 2 small setae on the sides. In most types of supports, these are cylindrical, equal in height and width, in a number of species above or below their width, or conical with a spur at the base.
The head is located along the longitudinal axis of the body, ovoid, narrowed in front, in forms living on river sand, it is tube-shaped, in miners it is wedge-shaped. When determining the use of the index of the head, or the ratio of its largest width to its length. The head capsule is formed by several scleritis. Above, the frontal, or frontal, more often has the shape of a lancet facing backward, with 2 pairs of frontal setae located in front of it. The anterior margin of the frontal scleritis is limited by a not always clear epistomal, or frontoclypeal suture, separating it from the clypeus, or clypeus.
Clypeus usually has the shape of a trapezoid, facing the base of the frontal scleritis, and covers the body of the upper lip from above. As a rule, it has 3 pairs of bristles. Often the border between the frontal scleritis and the clypeus is erased, and then both sclerites are called the frontoclypeus. On the sides, the frontal scleritis is bounded by the frontal, or frontal sutures, merging behind into an unpaired coronal suture. In forms with a long frontal scleritis, it is almost absent. From the frontal and coronal sutures, paired buccal sclerites extend. On the lower side of the head, they are adjoined by a throat, or gular sclerite, passing in front into a submentum fused with it. The back of the head is bounded by the occipital, usually dark scleritis.
Antennas are located in the upper front corners of the buccal sclerites. The base of the antennae in some species is elevated and forms a base, sometimes armed with a spike. The antennae of most species consist of 5 segments, but in some species their number is reduced, or some of them undergo additional division and there are more of them. On the lateral surface of the 1st joint there are refined places surrounded by a thickening of chitin - ring organs, they are I-3. Above the ring organs there are small weakly chitinized spots with a bristle in the center, they are more often found in forms living in houses.
At the apex of the 1st segment there is an antennae seta, often split into 2 lobes. On the top of the II segment, paired opposing sensitive formations - Lauterborn organs are attached. In orthocladins they are usually small, sessile, in tanitarzin they are very large, sessile or small, but on a long stalk. When the II segment is divided into two, one of the Lauterborn organs is located on the II, and the other on the III segment, in which case they are called alternating. Lauterborn organ may be one or even absent. The Lauterborn organ is a series of delicate chitinous scales located in the same way as the bulb, inside which there is a stick with a hair on top. The ratio of the length I of the antennal segment to the length of the remaining segments is called the antenna index. On the sides of the buccal sclerites behind the antennae are larval eyes, which are an accumulation of black pigment. More often they are 2 pairs, sometimes 1 or 3.
The oral opening is limited by the oral organs. The upper lip above (the upper lip body itself), which is a membrane stretched in front and from the sides to strong sclerites. The upper lip is armed with various kinds of bristles and chetoids. The anterior central setae of the upper lip are especially characteristic; they are often dissected into 2 lobes or more, sometimes fringed. Around the middle of the posterior third of the border of the upper lip there is a pair of sensitive setae, the cheeks of which are often raised, the seta itself is divided into 2 parts, then they look like three-segmented ones.
Upper lip crests are located under the front central setae, well developed in chironomy and absent in almost all orthocladins. The epiglottis, or epipharynx, is attached to the lower edge of the upper lip. Its lateral sides are limited by 2 sclerites, converging with each other below. From its upper edge, the epipharynx is equipped with scallops, which are strongly developed in chironomy, while in orthocladins they are more often absent. The sides of the epipharynx are provided with chetoids. On the sides of the epipharynx at the anterior margins of the upper lip, premandibules are movably attached.
In tanipodine, the clypeus, the upper lip with epipharynx and premandibula are reduced.
The upper jaw, or mandible, is attached to the anterior margin of the buccal scleritis. From the side they look triangular, widened at the base and narrowed in the distal toothed part. The teeth distinguish between lower, or outer, dark, which are present in most species, and upper, or inner, light - only in chironomia. The lower external tooth often merges with the base of the mandible and is called a false tooth, then all other external teeth are true teeth. In predatory forms, the internal teeth are absent, and from the external often often only one terminal remains. At the base of the external teeth, Iloid chironomia has a series of bristles forming a brush. Under the outer teeth on the mandible there is a small awl-shaped or long slender bristle called the bristle under the teeth. Below it, on the inner edge of the mandible, there is an internal bristle more or less split, sometimes with feathered branches. This bristle is strongly reduced or absent in predatory forms.
The lower jaws, or maxillae, are flat lobes fused with the front edge of the buccal sclerites. On them closer to the base of the mandibles are palps. Usually these are low cylindrical formations with various small sensitive appendages at the apex. Near the palp on the surface of the maxilla there are more or less large tubercles of systematic significance. Maxilla free margin with bristles of different thicknesses. The lower edge of the mouth is bounded by a sub-chin, or submentum. It is fused with scleritis of the head capsule. Its front edge is almost always serrated.
There are median or median (with an even number of them) and lateral teeth. Sometimes the middle teeth have additional teeth. The edges of the submentum are slightly bent inside the head and therefore the extreme lateral teeth are not always visible on the non-flattened submentum. In tanipodin, the upper edge of the submentum is either without teeth or with 2 ridges on the sides of a triangular membranous formation protruding in the middle.
Inside the oral cavity under the submentum, there is a subglottis, or hypopharynx, which is associated with the lower edge of the pharyngeal opening and with the inner surface of the submentum. The surface of the hypopharynx is covered with various kinds of outgrowths. The hypopharynx tanipodin carries at its apex a large unpaired chitinous sclerite - glossa, a dentate at the anterior end. Paraglosses are located on the sides of the glosses. Under the submentum, usually at its lower edges, is a pair of throat, or gular bristles. In chironomy, on the sides of the submentum, leaning on it with edges, are paired hatched plates of the submentum. In other chironomids, they are either absent or poorly developed and always unprimed. The front edge of the plates of the submentum in some species is ribbed.
By the end of the 4th age, the thoracic segments of the larvae swell, 3 pairs of legs and mosquito wings develop in them. Through the skin of the larva, the skin of the pupa shines through. The skin of the larva bursts at the head and a pupa hatch from it. In the pupa, a poorly shaped head, chest, and 9 abdominal segments can be distinguished. Ahead on the head are paired protrusions - oral horns, or frontal tubercles, sometimes with a bristle on top. In front of the chest are respiratory organs — torcal horns — sacciform, closed on orthocladine and tanitarzine, sacciform, with a reticulate plate or pores in the tanipodine and more or less branched in chironomy.
Tergites on the dorsal side and sternites on the abdominal side are distinguished on the abdominal segments. Tergites and, to a lesser extent, sternites are covered with various spines that make up different patterns. The first tergite is usually unarmed. On the second tergite, most forms have a strip of larger spines at its posterior edge. Strips of larger spines occur in other segments. In addition to large spines or spikes, there are tiny spines on the segments, which are often distinguishable only at high magnification, the accumulation of these spines is usually called shagreen. On the lateral edges of the segments (often II and IV), some species often have protrusions, sometimes provided with spines, these are "pupal legs".
Along the edges of all segments, longitudinal stripes of the cellular structure can be seen. At the lower corners of the VIII segment, chironomia has various kinds of thorns, large, simple, with additional spines or small. The IX segment of the pupa is turned into a swimming plate, or fin, divided more or less deeply into 2 blades. On the sides, these lobes of many species living in stagnant bodies of water are equipped with a dense rim of swimming hair-like bristles. Most orthocladins inhabiting flowing water do not have swimming bristles, and the distal ends of their anal lobes are often provided with three (rarely more) pairs of terminal bristles.
Through the integument of the anal lobes, the genital appendages of the mosquito are visible. In the male, they go beyond the lower border of the blades. Through the integument of the abdominal segments, the armament of the abdominal mosquito segments is often seen - very long bristles.
References: Key to freshwater invertebrates in the European part of the USSR (plankton and benthos). Hydrometeoizdat. Leningrad, 1977
Description of appearance
The ringer, the bellsman, the dergun - the mosquito received all the names because of certain features. Males gather in flocks, quickly flap their wings to attract females. As a result, there is a ringing that females hear over a few tens of meters. The insect has three pairs of legs, but does not use the front legs for support. The paws are directed upwards, do not support the body, as a result, the abdomen is constantly twitching to the sides.
Most species are mosquitoes green, but there is a color of dark brown, brown, reddish, gray. In Antarctica, the bells are dark in color, which does not reflect the sun's rays, without wings. All the rest are outwardly reminiscent of ordinary squeaks. Body size does not exceed 1 cm. A photo of the mosquito ring is presented below. Males are somewhat larger, have a fluffy mustache.
In the mosquito family, there are always more males than females.
The bells or mosquito
Ringer Mosquito Lifestyle
Green small insects are not dangerous to humans. In adults, the oral apparatus is underdeveloped, they do not eat at all. They live no longer than 1 week. The main purpose is to reproduce offspring.
Green mosquitoes bells are active in early spring, when the temperature rises to +12 degrees Celsius. Males gather in flocks, attract females, mating occurs. Females become sexually mature 20 hours after birth. Mass departure takes place at the end of May, lasts all June.
At one time, green mosquitoes lay from 900 to 1,500 eggs. They are enclosed in a kind of bag with a tourniquet at the end. The female throws eggs into the pond. The pouch attaches to plants, moist soil. Embryonic development lasts 6 days.
At a temperature of about 20 degrees Celsius, the first mosquito larvae hatch after 60 hours. Mass birth occurs after 140 hours. With increasing water temperature, the duration of development is reduced, but the likelihood of death increases. Under natural adverse conditions, 98% of the population dies.
After laying the eggs, the female dies, its life expectancy is on average 5 days, males live less. Under favorable conditions, over the entire warm season, 6 generations of green mosquito-derguns appear.
The bell larva lives in silt near ponds, large puddles. Having been born, 20 hours remain in the mucous membrane of the sac. After this, development continues in silt.
Initially, vermiform larvae are colorless, body length not more than 1 mm. Gradually acquire a dark color. In an oxygen-deficient environment, bloodworms turn red. Mobility requires a soft, liquid soil substance. Young calves live near the shores of freshwater, salt water. They have the ability to go deep up to 400 cm from the surface of the soil.
Mosquito life cycle
Green mosquito larvae are complex organisms that can withstand low, high temperatures. Young offspring hibernate in water at a temperature of 0 ° C, and when deficient in oxygen, it falls into suspended animation. Pupa can withstand temperatures above 35 ° C. When dried, they continue to show signs of life, with the onset of favorable conditions they continue to develop.
As part of the experiment, the larvae of green bells were left on the outer side of the ISS in open space. In this state, they stayed longer than a year, about 80% of individuals survived.
Over the entire development cycle, the offspring of mosquitoes go through up to 5 molts, constantly increasing in size. At the end of the cycle, pupation occurs. Pupa about 3 mm in size, movable in dark color. After 3 days, an adult appears. Full development of imago takes place in 20 days under favorable conditions.
The insect at the pupal stage does not feed, life processes are supported by the accumulated substances. The main diet of larvae is silt, yeast-like fungi.
Value in nature
Green bells - harmless creatures, unlike other types of mosquitoes, do not pose a danger to humans, farmland, but are important in nature. Adults do not feed at all, the larvae feed on microorganisms in liquid sludge. Bloodworms act as food for fish, crustaceans, beetles, spiders, other insects, birds, reptiles.
Green bell larvae are specially bred for aquarium fish.To get the finished feed, scoop up sludge, pass through a sieve. Larvae contain a huge amount of protein, amino acids necessary for the full development of fish.
In Berdyansk, a monument to the green mosquito ringer was erected.
Zvonets mosquito: photo
Species features of mosquito bells cannot be distinguished by eye. This can only be done in the laboratory, which is completely unnecessary if you are interested in these insects in order to effectively destroy them. The features described below will help you distinguish callers from other mosquitoes and midges.
- An adult individual of chironomid has dimensions similar to the size of an ordinary mosquito at this stage of development - from 0.5 to 1 centimeter.
- The body shape of the insect resembles a hook, bent closer to the tail part with a smooth arc upwards; in mosquitoes, the body has no bends.
- The color can be maroon, black, red, brown, green or white, depending on the environment and the depth at which the larva developed.
- The head and mustache of the bell is covered with hairs, creating a fluffy effect.
The larva of the mosquito-bell is a bloodworm familiar to fishermen and aquarium owners. It is used as bait, as well as food for reptiles, ornamental and agricultural fish.
- Only hatched larvae look like thin red worms.
- Later, the bell larva takes the form of a body in the form of a hook, which remotely resembles a shrimp if it were excessively thin.
- The body length of the insect during larval development can vary from 1-2 millimeters to 2.5 centimeters.
- Most often, the color is brown, dark, with shades of red, less often it can be greenish or whitish.
Ringing mosquito: harm to humans
Unlike blood-sucking mosquitoes, the oral apparatus of the bells is designed in such a way that they are not able to pierce their skin and drink blood, so the bells do not bite. Ordinary mosquitoes drink blood only for breeding. The callers do not have such a need, they reproduce independently of humans or other living creatures, therefore they do not consider you and your pets as a source of food. If you are bitten by an insect similar to a mosquito, then this is not a bell ring, but someone else.
The bell-ringing mosquito is unable to cause physical harm to humans, but it can irritate, interfere and create domestic problems:
- Flick, get into eyes, mouth and nose.
- To sit on the skin, provoke scratching, drive it away or slam it, cause an irritating feeling that someone is constantly creeping over you.
- Contaminate decorative garden ponds, ponds.
- Drive in sewers and drains.
If you do not want to use bloodworms for fishing purposes and as food for reptiles or fish, mosquito bells can be destroyed by special chemicals yourself or seek help from the SES.
Ringing mosquitoes: how to get rid
Regardless of which destruction method you choose, use preventative measures.
- Compensate for the excessive humidity of the entire site or its individual zones through the drainage device, changes in soil composition, bulk beds or other methods of draining the area.
- Clean and care for decorative ponds; change the water from time to time.
- Perform preventive cleaning and disinfection of sewers, drains and drainage systems.
- Dobrohim Micro
If you have mosquito bells, pest control is the fastest and most effective way to get rid of them.
- Processing in most cases is done in 1 day and takes from 1 to several hours, depending on the area.
- High-quality products are selected according to the situation, so that the procedure is not only effective, but also safe.
- The service can be scheduled on a date convenient for you or provided urgently.
In the SES “Des Group” certified by Rospotrebnadzor, with more than 13 years of experience, you can order the treatment of reservoirs, areas, territories and sewer systems from bloodworms and mosquito bells, as a private person, company or organization.