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Hepatic mosses as representatives of lower plants in an aquarium


In any, even the cleanest aquarium, except for fish and plants placed by an amateur, they settle numerous and diverse uninvited guests - representatives of lower plants and animals. Most of them are harmless to the population of the aquarium, but some of them can cause a lot of trouble to an amateur. Others, on the contrary, are very welcome, helping the lover to maintain cleanliness or being an excellent food for fry.

Various bacteria settle in the aquarium, contributing to the decomposition of food residues, fish waste products, dead parts of plants. Sometimes, when a large amount of organic residues accumulates (for example, when copiously fed with a cut bloodworm), they multiply in huge numbers.At the same time, the water becomes very cloudy, the amount of oxygen dissolved in it becomes insufficient, the fish begin to choke: they float on the surface, trapping air. The massive development of putrefactive bacteria is accompanied by a change in the reaction of water, which inhibits the growth of fish.

In order to get rid of excess bacteria, First of all, you need to remove the excess of organic substances. It is not necessary to completely change the water (it is enough to partially replace it). After the decaying residues are removed, the growth of bacteria stops, and the ciliates always in the aquarium quickly purify the water.

In general, in every, even a small body of water, a process of self-purification of water occurs over time, if organic substances capable of rotting do not enter in excessive quantities. The self-cleaning process is as follows. Organic matter placed in the water of the aquarium, for example, the remnants of dry food, after 1 to 2 days will cause the development of bacterial turbidity, increasing every day. Different types of putrefactive bacteria, alternating successively, for some time (depending on the temperature of the water) turn organic substances capable of decay into inorganic substances, partly dissolved in water, partly precipitated, and the water will become completely clear and transparent. Purification of water in an aquarium with fish, in addition to bacteria, is helped by beacons and ciliary ciliates.

Consumers of mineralization products of organic matter are water plants. The appearance of green dots in the new, newly equipped aquarium on the glass facing the window, gradually dragging out all the glass, indicates an established biological regime of the aquarium. This green plaque consists of microscopic algae, developing due to mineral substances resulting from the vital activity of bacteria.

The old water, which stood without a change in the aquarium for several months and even several years, is distinguished by special properties. With full transparency, it acquires a faint yellowish tint over time. This water contains almost no representatives of lower animals and plants. However, organic matter in the form of garbage and food debris, and even the corpses of fish or snails in old water, do not decompose for a long time, and fish that are injured or affected by skin parasites recover remarkably quickly. On the other hand, the vital activity of underwater plants in such water is suppressed. This is due to the presence of humic acid compounds in the old waters, giving it a yellowish color and preserving, as well as disinfecting properties.

It’s hard to keep the water clean protecting it from bacterial turbidity in vessels intended for feeding fry of spawning fish, as the latter eat the ciliates, preventing them from multiplying in the amount necessary to destroy the bacteria. Therefore, when feeding a cut bloodworm with bacterial turbidity, you have to put up with it. As soon as the fry begin to eat cyclops, the bacteria gradually disappear, eaten by ciliates. To accelerate this process, it is useful to place plants with pitcher or bryozoans in the aquarium.

To prevent clogging of the aquarium with decay products, it is useful to have snails eating the rest of the feed. The coil (Planorbis) is most useful.

Sometimes, especially in summer, in good light and high temperature, the water turns green. Blooming water is caused by microscopic algae, which often develop in large quantities in an aquarium. The most common green euglena, (Euglena viridis). Sometimes microscopic algae also appear, causing a whitish-green clouding. Unlike bacteria, microscopic algae develops only in the presence of strong light, and their reproduction is accompanied by abundant oxygen evolution.

A method for controlling flowering by dimming is described above. An old, proven way to combat flowering and bacterial turbidity is to launch daphnia or tadpoles into the aquarium. Feeding on various microorganisms, these animals (if there are enough of them in the aquarium) during the day make the water crystal clear. Of course, the launch of Daphnia in sufficient quantities is possible only in vessels that are not overfilled with fish, because with a lack of oxygen, these crustaceans die, increasing the damage to water.

Flowering does not occur when covering the aquarium from the side of the world with rare gauze or a sheet of thin white paper.

The illuminated walls of the aquarium, as well as the leaves of the plants are often covered with various filamentous algae. The following methods of struggle are possible with this phenomenon:

1. Reducing the amount of light.

2. Running a large number of snails (coils) into the aquarium.

3. Use of fish willingly eating thread.

In warm-water aquariums, filamentous algae are greedily eaten by lightning bolts, and also (to a lesser extent) by other live-bearing fish. In cold-water aquariums, the rudd and mustard are perfectly destroyed. Many fish species can be accustomed to eating fiber. For this "

it’s residual to have a few lightning bolts in the aquarium: according to their example, other fish species begin to eat thread.

Of the ciliates that inhabit the aquarium, shoes (Paramaecium) and suvoys (Vorticella) play an important role in maintaining a stable regime.

Shoes (the most common P. caudatum) are found in all, without exception, correctly equipped aquariums. Feeding on bacteria, they purify water. Being diluted in sufficient quantities, the shoes are an excellent food for fry of spawning fish.

Along with plants (most often with horseradish), an infusoria - suvoyka is introduced into the aquarium. Suvoys most often settle on plants with thin leaves and stems, toplanyak, fontinalis, pinnatifolia, kabomb, etc.

Bryozoans (the most common creeping bryozoans - Plumaella repens), in contrast to the protozoa described above, are relatively complex multicellular animals; they are introduced into aquariums with plants, live food and are not always present in them.

Bryozoans is an undoubtedly useful animal aquarium that contains adult fish. Usually, if a lover conducts moderate feeding, colony bryozoans are few in number, but ensure, however, perfect purity of water. Some lovers, wanting to protect the aquarium water from bacterial turbidity (especially when feeding with a chopped bloodworm), specially put bryozoans and suvoles in aquariums. Bryozoans settle on plants with hard leaves, and in the absence of the latter - on the walls and less often - on the ground.

Great trouble can bring a lover the appearance of hydra. Once in an aquarium with plants taken from natural reservoirs, as well as (less commonly) with live food, hydra can multiply greatly. Its long tentacles are dotted with a mass of nettle, or stinging, cells, with the help of which the hydra kills its prey: small fry, cyclops, daphnia, ciliates. Hydra is also harmful for large fish: its tentacles irritate the integument of fish.

An old reliable way to destroy hydra is to plant monthly fry with gourami in the aquarium. All other labyrinths, as well as large swordsmen and cichlids, eat the hydra (being hungry).

Sometimes they use another method of destroying hydra: the walls of the aquarium are shaded from all sides, except for one, to which glass is applied from the inside. After two or three days, all hydras will move to this glass and can be removed with it.

Class description

Hepatic Mosses - Lower Plants, the species diversity of which is so great that the appearance of some representatives may differ significantly from other species. Some of them have a stem and leaves, while others look like a flat thallus, creeping along the ground or surface of the water.

These plants have no roots, and their functions are performed by rhizoids - unicellular filamentous formations used to attach to the substrate and absorb water and nutrients. Leaves of leafy hepatic always consist of a single layer of homogeneous cells.

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The liverworts are divided into 2 subclasses:

  • thallus or marchantium,
  • leaf-stemmed or Jungermanniales.

A subclass of leafy liverworts contains a greater number of species.

Jungermannian Mosses

The stem in most Jungermannian liverworts consists of cells of the same species. There are species whose stem cells are divided into a “cortex” at the periphery and a “core” inside.

Rhizoids depart from the surface of the lower part of the stem. They are transparent or colored and can branch at the ends. Mushrooms can settle in the branches. Attachment to the substrate also occurs due to rhizoids, at the ends of which in this case disk-shaped extensions are formed.

In Jungermanniales liverworts (Jungermanniales) the stem is built of identical cells

Propagation of these plants can occur by the type of vegetative or sexual, and often these two methods are used by the plant at the same time. There are also species that breed exclusively by spores. Jungermannian liverworts are prevalent mainly in tropical and subtropical forests.

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Liverworts in the aquarium

Until recently, the use of mossy liverworts in aquariums was limited to only one species - Riccia fluitans, but in the 90s of the twentieth century a species was introduced into Europe, easily turning into an aqueous form - Monosolenium tenerum Griffith.

Liver moss monosolenium tenerum griffith

Experienced aquarists actively use mosses to decorate fish tanks, but the main advantage of these plants in the aquarium is not only their decorativeness. The presence of hepatic mosses contributes to:

  • saturation of water with oxygen,
  • fast organic processing,
  • lower nitrate levels,
  • high-quality mineral metabolism,
  • creating favorable conditions for spawning (mainly labyrinth fish),
  • the creation of shading and shelter (for example, for fry),
  • providing favorable conditions for the reproduction of protozoa (ciliates), suitable as food for fry.

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Monosolenium (Monosolenium tenerum Griffith)

Monosolenium grows mainly in southern China and Thailand. Separate pillow-shaped colonies of this ancient and very rare plant prefer moist swampy soils. In underwater form, this moss has not yet been discovered.

When creating compositions using monosolenium, certain difficulties may arise. This plant is fragile, does not like currents and the presence of suspended matter in water. Due to the almost complete absence of rhizoids, the attachment of a colony to a substrate is rather difficult. And under favorable conditions, the colony can become covered with a lot of oxygen bubbles and float with insufficiently strong attachment to the bottom. But with a neat and reasonable approach, monosolenium colonies will help to create a unique design and improve water quality.

Moss monosolenium is a fragile plant; it does not like flow

When populating fish in an aquarium, it is worth excluding herbivorous species and large individuals that can damage moss.

For comfortable growth, monosolenium needs bright lighting. The temperature range of this moss is quite wide, and it is able to live both at 30–32 ° C, and with a decrease in water temperature to 10 ° C or even 5 ° C.

You can keep this representative of hepatic mosses and in a terrarium or wet greenhouse. On land, colonies become less fragile and take on a slightly different shade.

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Riccia fluitans L.)

The genus riccia contains about 200 species. Of these, the most popular, like an aquarium plant, urchin floating.

In nature, Riccia fluitans is widespread: Europe, Asia, North and South America, Africa and New Zealand. In Russia, liver mosses are found in the Far East and the Ciscaucasia.

Riccia moss loves slow flowing waters

Richia colonies prefer stagnant or slow-flowing waters, where they stay at the surface, forming comfortable conditions for fry of various species of fish. In aquarium fish, ricchia is used both for shading and for creating conditions for spawning. Water temperature 22−29 C and bright lighting will create rich conditions favorable for growth. When the temperature drops below 20 C, the plant dies, and with a significant increase in water hardness, growth slows down significantly.

Propagation of hepatic moss is possible by simply separating part of the colony. Also, under favorable conditions, the spores of moss present in the water can give rise to the reproduction of the species.

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