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Genus: Lepus Hares

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DetachmentLAGOMORPHA Brandt,1855 - HARE

Family LEPORIDAE Fischer, 1817 HARE

1817. Leporini Fischer, Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscou, 5: 372. Lepus Linnaeus.

1848. Lepusidae Gervais, Zool. Paleont. Franc., 1: 18. Emend?

1897. Lagidae Schultze, Helios, 14: 82. Lagos Brookes (for tautonomy).

1948. Ryctolagini Gureev, Dokl. USSR Academy of Sciences, 9, 4: 786. Ryctola-gas Lilljeborg.

Subfamily LEPORINAE s. str.

Tribe ORYCTOLAGINI Gureev, 1948

KindORYCTOLAGUS Lilljeborg, 1871 - Bunnies

1790. Cuniculus Meyer, Mag. Thierg., 1, 1: 52. Cuniculus campestris Meyer (= Oryctolagus cuniculus). Nom. praeocc., non Gronovius, 1763. Non Brisson, 1762.

1871(?). Ryctolagus Lilljeborg, Sverig. og norg. Ryggrodsdjur, 1: 417. Lepus cuniculus Linnaeus. There are discrepancies in assessing the date of publication (1871–1874).

In the genus and fauna of the USSR, 1 species.

Ryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) rabbit

1758. Lepus cuniculus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10 ed., 1: 58. "Germany."

Tribe Leporini s. str.

KindLEPUS Linnaeus, 1758— HARE

1758. Lepus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10 ed., 1: 57. Lepus timidus Linnaeus.

1828. Lagos Brookes, Cat. Anat. Zool. Mus., 1: 54. Lepus arcticus Ross (Palmer, 1904: 361).

1829. Chionobates Kaup, Entw.-Gesch. Nat. Syst. Europ. Thierwelt, 1: 170. Based on Lepus variabilis Pallas Lepus borealis Pallas.

1867. Eulagos Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 20: 222. Lepus mediterraneus Wagner (Ellerman, Morrison-Scott, 1951: 429) (= Lepus capensis).

1899. Eulepus Acloque, Faune de la France, Mamm .: 52. Lepus timidus Linnaeus (G. Allen, 1939: 272).

1929. Allolagus Ognev, Zool. Anz., 84: 72. Lepus mandshuricus Radde.

1940. Eulagus Ognev, Animals of the USSR and Adjacent Countries, 4: 109. Emend.

Not include Caprolagus (Honacki et al., 1982). There are up to 4 subgenuses and 20 species in the genus. In the fauna of the USSR, 2 subgenera and 4 species.

Subgenus ALLOLAGUS Ognev, 1929

Lepus (A.) mandshuricus Radde, 1861 —- Manchurianhare

1861. Lepus mandshuricus Radde, Melange Biol., Bull. Acad. St. Petersb., 3: 684. Khabarovsk kr., Bureinsky ridge. Type in ZIN?

1922. Lepus mandschuricus sbph. melanonotus Ognev Ann. Zool. Acad. Museum Nauk, 23, 3: 489. Primorsky kr., Khr. Sikhote-Alin, “15 in from Solsky”, Vladivostok. Types in ZMMU. Unsuitable? (proposed for the "subphase").

It is assumed conspecificity with Caprolagusbrachyurus Temm. (Gureev, 1964). For species status and systematic position, see Angermann (1966, 1983).

Subgenus LEPUS s. str.

Lepus (L.) capensis Linnaeus, 1758 hare- sandstone

1758. Lepus capensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10 ed., 1: 58. South Africa, Cape of Good Hope.

1778. Lepus tolai Pallas, Nov. Spec. Quadr. Glir. Ord .: 17. Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, p. Selenga (Ognev, 19406: 162).

1841. Lepus tibetanus Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 7. India, Jammu and Kashmir, Baltistan, Lesser Tibet, the upper river. Indus

1861. Lepus aralensis Severtzov, Acclimatization, 2, 2: 49. “Aral Sea Region” (by tauttonymia). Nom. nudum (no description).

1873. Lepus lehmanni Severtzov, Izv. The island loves, natural., Anthropol., Ethnogr., 8, 2: 83. Kazakhstan, Kzyl-Orda region, lower river. Syrdarya, Kazalinsk. Type in ZIN.

1875. Lepus pamirensis Gunther, Ann. Nat. Hist., 16: 229. Tajikistan, Gorno-Badakhshan AO ("Pamir"), "Lake. Sary-Kul. "

1882. Lepusbutlerovi Bogdanov, Essays on the Nature of Khivinsk. oasis: 68. Uzbekistan, p. Amu Darya. Nom. nudum.

1882. Lepus kessleri Bogdanov, ibid .: 68. Uzbekistan, p. Amu Darya. Nom. nudum.

1907. Lepus zaisanicus Satunin Ann. Zool. Acad. Museum Nauk, 11 (1906): 161. Kazakhstan, East Kazakhstan Region, Zaysan and Kenderlyk. Types in ZIN.

1912. Lepus quercerus Hollister, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 25: 182. Altai kr., Gorno-Altai Autonomous Okrug, Chui steppe. Type in IMEI.

1922. Lepus tolai buchariensis Ognev, Annually Zool. Acad. Museum Nauk, 23, 3: 475–476. Uzbekistan, Surkhandarya region, V. from Termez, Khatyn-Raboty, SE. from Bukhara, Buzachi. Types in ZMMU.

1922. Lepus bucharensis Ognev, Biol. Izv., 1: 102.

1928. Lepus tolai desertorum Ognev et Heptner, Zool. Anz., 75: 262. Turkmenistan, Ashgabat region, Gyaur district, Annau. Type in ZMMU.

1934. Lepus europaeus turcomanus Heptner, Fol. Zool. Hydrobiol., 6: 21. Turkmenistan, Krasnovodskaya obl., 60 km north from Jebel, Ak-Kuyu. Type in ZMMU.

In domestic literature L.tolai Pallas (with appropriate forms) is considered as a separate species. About his attitude towards capensis see Angermann (1983). It is also assumed that L.tolai (Mongolia, North-West China, Transbaikalia) and L.tibetanus (other areas of Central Asia, as well as Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Transcaucasia, Western Asia) - different species (Sokolov, Orlov, 1980). For their conspecificity see Luo (1981).

Lepus (L.) europaeus Pallas, 1778 hare- brown

1778. Lepus europaeus Pallas, Nov. Spec. Quadr. Glir. Ord .: 30. Poland, southwest part (Ognev, 1940: 141, with reference to Trouessart, 1910).

1811. Lepus variabilis var. hybrida Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso - Asiat.: 147. Moscow Region Nom. nudum.

1822. Lepus hybridus Desmarest, Mammalogie, 2: 349. The first suitable name for hybrida Pallas.

1833. Lepus caspicus Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys., 2: sig. at. Astrakhan region., Okr. Astrakhan.

1842. Lepus aquilonius Blasius, Amtl. Bericht XIX Versamml. Naturf. u. Aeretze, Braunschweig: 89. Central regions of the European part of the RSFSR (“Central Russia”).

1850. Lepustimidus var. hyemalisTumum Eversmann, Natural. History of Orenburg, Region, 2: 201. Nom. nudum.

1871. Lepuscampestris Bogdanov, Birds and animals of the chernozem zone of the Volga region: 175. Nom. praeocc., non Bachman, 1837.

1889. Lepus timidus tumak Tichomirov et Kortchagin, Izv. o - wa loves, nat., 56, 4:31. The first suitable name for Tumum Eversmann.

1901. Lepus transsylvanicus Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Fr Berlin: 236. Romania, Tasleu. Type in EMB.

1905. Lepus cyrensis Satunin, Izv. Kavk. Museum, 2: 60. Azerbaijan ("Elisavetpol Province., Javanshir U."), Barda. Type in the GMG.

1923. Lepuseuropaeustesquorum Ognev, in the book: Ognev, Vorobyov, Fauna of terrestrial vertebrates, Voronezh, province: 115. Voronezh region, Bobrovsky district, “Dokuchaev experimental. station (Stone steppe). " Type in ZMMU.

1929. Lepus europaeus caucasicus Ognev, Zool. Anz., 84: 75. Severo-Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Ordzhonikidze (= "Vladikavkaz"). Type in ZMMU.

1929. Lepus europaeus caucasicus ponticus Ognev, ibid., 84: 75. Krasnodar region, Gelendzhik district, "Beta". Type in ZMMU. Unsuitable (infra-subspecific name).

1940. Lepuseuropaeuscyrensislencoranicus Ognev, Animals of the USSR and adjacent countries, 4: 158. Azerbaijan, Lankaran district, Kyzyl-Agach. Type in ZMMU. Unsuitable (infra-subspecific name).

1940. Lepus europaeus caspicus turgaicus Ognev, ibid., 4: 161. Kazakhstan, Kustanai region, Naurzum district, Sypsyn. Type in ZMMU? Unsuitable (infra-subspecific name).

1944. Lepuseuropaeusborealis Kuznetsov, in the book: N. A. Bobrinsky et al., Qualifier of a mammal. USSR: 271. Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (northern part). Nom. praeocc., non Pallas, 1778, non Nilsson, 1820.

1948. Lepus europaeus biarmicus Heptner, Dokl. USSR Academy of Sciences, 60, 4: 709. Nom. nov. pro Lepus europaeus borealis Kuznetsov.

1956. Lepus europaeus orientalis Stroganov et Yudin, Tr. Tomsk, un-that, 142: 292. Novosibirsk Region, Iskitimsky District, Borodavkino. Type in BSO.

It is assumed conspecificity with the previous species (But nacki et al., 1982). For probable species status, see Angermann (1983).

Lepus (L.) timidus Linnaeus, 1758 hare- hare

1758. Lepus timidus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10 ed., 1: 57. Sweden, Uppsala.

1778. Lepus variabilis Pallas, Nov. Spec. Quadr. Glir. Ord .: 2. Nom. nov. pro Lepus timidus Linnaeus.

1795. Leptis septentrionalis Link, Beitr. Naturg., 1, 2: 73. Nom. nov. pro Lepus variabilis Pallas.

1820. Lepus borealis Nilsson, Scand. Fauna, 1: 211. Nom. nov. pro Lepus variabilis Pallas.

1883. Lepus timidus tschuktschorum Nordquist, Vega Exped. 2: 84, fig. 8-10. Magadan Region, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Pitlekai.

1899. Lepus lugubris Kastschenko, Izv. Tomsk University: 57. Altai kr., Gorno-Altai AO, p. Biya, Ongudai.

1900. Lepus timidus altaicus Barret-Hamilton, Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 90. Altai kr., Gorno-Altai Autonomous Okrug ("Altai Mountains"). Type in BMEI.

1903. Lepus gichiganus J. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 19: 155. Magadan Region, Gizhiga. Type in AMEI.

1922. Lepus timidus kolymensis Ognev, Biol. Izv., 1: 106. Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, p. Kolyma, 80 km S. Nizhnekolymsk, Pokhodskoye. Type in ZIN.

1922. Lepus kamtschaticus Dybowski, Arch. Tovar. Naukow Lwowe, 1: 354. Kamchatka Region, Kamchatka Peninsula. Nom. nudum.

1923. Lepus timidus sibiricorum Johansen, Izv. Tomsk, University of St. Petersburg, 72: 59. Tomsk Region, p. Chulym (bass. R. Ob), Novokuskovo.

1928. Lepus timidus orii Kuroda, J. Mammal., 9: 223. Sakhalin Region, Fr. Sakhalin, Tomari ("Tomarioro, Nayoro").

1929. Lepus timidus kozhevnikovi Ognev, Zool. Anz., 84: 79. Moscow region, Noginsky district ("Bogorodsky district."), Black. Type in ZMMU.

1929. Lepus timidus transbaicalensis Ognev, ibid., 84: 81. Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Barguzinsky district, Sosnovka. Type in ZMMU.

1931. Lepus timidus saghalinensis Abe, J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ., Ser. B, 1: 49. Sakhalin Region, Fr. Sakhalin, Otomari.

1933. Lepus timidus mordent Goodwin, Amer. Mus. Novit., 681: 15. Khabarovsk kr., P. Amur, Trinity, r. Manoma Type in AMEI.

1935. Lepus gichiganus rubustus Urita, Karafuto Dobuts. Kansuru Bunkan: 16. Sakhalin Region, Fr. Sakhalin. Nom. nudum.

1936. Lepus timidus begitschevi Kolyushev, Tr. Biol. N.-. in-ta, Tomsk, 2:30. Krasnoyarsk territory, Taimyr Autonomous Okrug, Pyasinsky Hall. (west bank).

1938. Lepus timidus abet Kuroda, List Japan. Mamm .: 42. Sakhalin region, about. Iturup ("Yetorofu, Toshimoi").

Perhaps includes L. arcticus Ross (Honacki et al., 1982). Baker et al. (Baker et al., 1983) maintain the species status of the latter, including the Chukchi population tschuktschorum Nordq. However, judging by the nature of the geographical variability of the white hare in the Palearctic (Rossolimo, 1979), assigning the Chukchi form to another species is hardly fair.

FamilyOCHOTONIDAEThomas, 1897 FOOD

1825. Lagomina Gray, Ann. Philos., N. ser., 10: 341. Lagomys G. Cuvier.

1897. Ochotonldae Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1896): 1026. Ochotona Link

The name Lagomina Gray is not valid for the family of Pisahidae because the name of the nominative taxon Lagomys Cuvier, 1800 - junior homonym of a suitable name Lagomys Storr, 1780 (refers to the genus of marmots) (Article 39 of the Code).

KindOCHOTONA Link, 1795— SIGNATURES

1795. Ochotona Link, Beitr. Naturg., 1, 2: 74. Ochotona minor Link

1799. Pika Lacepede, Tabl. Mamm. 9. Lepus alpinus Pallas.

1800. Lagomys G. Cuvier, Lee. Anat. Coll., 1: tab. 1. Lepus alpinus Pallas (Palmer, 1904: 361).

1803. Pica Fischer, Nat. Mus. Naturg. Paris, 2: 126. Emend.

1867. Gotoma Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 20: 220. Lepus "ogotoma" (sic! = ogotona) Pallas (Palmer, 1904: 472).

1904. Conothoa Lyon, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 45: 438. Ochotona roylei Ogilby (Himalayas, Tibet).

1941. Lagotona Kretzoi, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Hung Min. Geol. Paleont., 34: 112.1985. Buchneria Erbajeva, Abstr. pap. post. Forth Internat. theriol. congr. Edmonton: abst. 0180. Based on 4 species, including Lagomysrutilus Sev. Nom. nudum (no description, type type is not fixed).

Includes about 20 species, in the fauna of the USSR 8 species. The number of species and supraspecific groupings (rank, composition) have not been finally established (Ivanitskaya, 1985, Erbajeva, 1985, Weston, 1985, Erbaeva, 1986). The system given here is adopted by the latest author.

Subgenus LAGOTONA Kretzoi, 1941

Ochotona (L.) pusilla (Pallas, 1769) steppepika

1769. Lepus pusillus Pallas, Nov. Comm. Acad. Petrop., 13: 531. Orenburg Region, r. Samara, Buzuluk (Ognev, 1940: 104).

?1771. Lepus minutus Pallas, Reise Versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 1: 155. Nom. nudum et dubium.

1932. Ochotona pusilla angustifrons Argyropulo, Tr. Zool. in-that of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1: 55. Kazakhstan, Karaganda region, Karkalinsky district, "r. Jamcha. " Type in ZIN (skull O. pallasi + skin O. pusilla - M.A. Erbayev, oral communication).

Subgenus PIKA Lacepede, 1799

Ochotona (P.) alpina (Pallas, 1773) Altaipika

1773. Lepus alpinus Pallas, Reise Versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 2: 701. The border of Altai kr. and East Kazakhstan region., Tigiretsky ridge, "Tigeretskoe".

1842. Lagomys ater Eversmann, Add. Celeber Pall. Zoogr. Rosso - Asiat.: 3. Altai kr., Gorno-Altai AO, Uimon.

1858. Lagomys hyperboreus cinereo-fusca Schrenck, Reise Forsch. Amur - Lande, 1: 148. Amur Region ("Upper reaches of the Amur").

1912. Ochotona nitida Hollister, Smiths. Misc. Coll., 60, 14: 4. Altai kr., Gorno-Altai Autonomous Okrug, upstream, r. Feeling, per. Chegan-Bourgas. Type in Nmei.

1924. Ochotona svatoshi Turov, Dokl. Ross Acad. Science: 110. Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Barguzinsky district, Barguzinsky reserve., Sosnovka, Shumilikha pad. Type in ZMMU.

?1924. Ochotona (Gotoma) sushkini Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 13: 163. Altai Krai, Gorno-Altai Autonomous Okrug, southeast of Altai Mountains, Taldy-Air (= "Taldura"). Type in BMEI. Status according to N. A. Formozov (oral communication).

1935. Ochotona alpina scorodumovi Skalon, Izv. Irkut antiplague Institute of Siberia and the Far East. Krai, 1: 85. Chita region., Borzinsky district, Kailastuy. Type in ZIN.

Ochotona (P.)hyperborea (Pallas, 1811) - northern pika

1811. Lepus hyperboreus Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso - Asiat.: 152. Magadan Region, Chukchi Peninsula.

1858. Lagomys hyperboreus normalis Schrenck, Reise Forsch. Amur - Lande. 1: 148. Kamchatka Region, Kamchatka Peninsula (Gureev, 1964: 259).

1858. Lagomys hyperboreus ferruginea Schrenck, ibid., 1: 148. Kamchatka Region, Kamchatka Peninsula, "Halzan Mountains". Type in ZIN?

1858. Lagomys hyperboreus cinereo-flava Schrenck, ibid., 1: 150. Khabarovsky kr., Tuguro-Chumikansky district, Udskoye (= "Udsky Ostrog"). Type in ZIN?

1882. Lagomys litoralis Peters, Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Fr Berlin: 95. Magadan Region, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Cape Chukotka.

1903. Ochotona kolymensis J. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 19: 154. Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Wednesdays, River Kolyma, Zyryanka (= "Verkhnekolymsk"). Type in AMEI.

1909. Ochotona (Pika) hyperborea mantchurica Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4: 504. China, Inner Mongolia, ridge. Bol Hingan. Type in BMEI.

1922. Lagomys kamtschaticus Dybowski, Arch. Towar. Naukow Lwowe, 1: 10. Kamchatka Region, Kamchatka Peninsula. Nom. nudum.

1927. Ochotona hyperborea uralensis Flerov, Ann. Zool. Acad. Museum Nauk, 28: 138. Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, east. slope of the Ural Mountains, p. Son ("Bol. Harut"). Type in ZIN.

1932. Ochotona yoshikurai Kishida, Lansania, 4, 40: 150. Sakhalin Region, Fr. Sakhalin, the central part ("Shirotoru").

1934. Ochotona (Pika) hyperborea turuchanensis Naumov, Tr. Polyarn comis. Acad. Nauk, 17: 38. Krasnoyarsk kr., P. Lower Tunguska, Uchiha. Type in ZMMU.

Ochotona (P.)pallasi (Gray, 1867) - Mongolian pika

1867. Gotoma pallasi Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20: 220. Kazakhstan, Dzhezkazgan region, Balkhash district ("southern part of the Karkaraly mountains" - Heptner, 1941: 328). Type in BMEI.

1911. Ochotona (Ogotoma) pricei Thomas, ibid., 8: 760. Mongolia, Bayan-Ulhegey Aym., Bass. R. Kobdo to 3. from the lake. Achit Nur. Type in BMEI.

1939. Ochotona pricei opaca Argyropulo, Izv. KazFAN USSR, 1: 31. Kazakhstan, Karaganda region, Karkaraly district. Type in ZIN.

Subgenus CONOTHOA Lyon, 1904

Ochotona (C.) macrotis (Gunther, 1875) more earedpika

1875. Lagomys macrotis Gunther, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 16: 231. China, Xinjiang, Northwest outskirts Kunlun, between Yarkand and Yangidivan, Oak.

1914. Ochotona sacana Thomas, ibid., 13: 572. Kyrgyzstan, Issyk-Kul Region, Przhevalsk. Type in BMEI.

Usually combined with ABOUT.royleiOgilby. Species status is given based on the materials of M. A. Erbaeva and N. A. Formozov (oral communication).

Subgenus OCHOTONA s. str.

Ochotona (O.) rutila (Severtzov, 1873) - redpika

1873. Lagomys rutilus Severtzov, Izv. The island loves, natural., Anthropol., Ethnogr., 8, 2: 91. Kazakhstan, Alma-Ata region, hr. Zailiysky Alatau south of Alma-Ata (= "Faithful"). Type in ZMMU.

Ochotona (Oh.) daurica (Pallas, 1776) Daurianpika

1776. Lepus dauuricus Pallas, Reise Versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3: 692. Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, "mountains along the river. Selenga ”(Ognev, 1940: 62), or Chita Region, p. Onon, Kulusutai (Ellerman, Morrison - Scott, 1951: 452).

1778. Lepas ogotona Pallas, Nov. Spec. Quadr. Glir. Ord .: 59, pl. 3. Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, "mountains along the rivers Selenga, Chikoy, Jida."

1795. Ochotona minor Link, Beitr. Naturg., 1, 2: 74. Chita region. (specified here, orig. - “mountains of the south of Siberia and Mongolia to the east from Lake Baikal”).

1890. Lagomysdauricus Buchner Scientific Przewalski’s trip to the Center. Asia, 1: 172. Emend.

1911. Ochotona daurica altaina Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 8: 761. Mongolia, the border of the Ubsunur and Bayan-Ulgei Aymaks, lake. Achit Nur. Type in BMEI.

Ochotona (Oh.) rufescens (Gray, 1842) reddishpika

1842. Lagomys rufescens Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 10: 266. Afghanistan, Kabul. Type in BMEI.

1911. Ochotona rufescens regina Thomas, ibid., 8: 762. Turkmenistan, xp. Kopetdag to the west from Ashgabat. Type in BMEI.

1961. Ochotona rufescens shukurovi Heptner, Zool. Zh., 40, 4: 621. Turkmenistan, Krasnovodsk Region, Bol. Balkhans, Kendyrli. Type in ZMMU.

Literature

  • Gromov IM, Erbaeva MA, 1995. Mammal fauna of Russia and adjacent territories. Hare and rodents. St. Petersburg, 522 s.
  • Sokolov V.E., Ivanitskaya E.Yu. et al., 1994. Mammals of Russia and adjacent regions. Hare-shaped. M .: Nauka, 272 p.
  • Tavrovsky V.A., Egorov O.V. et al., 1971. Mammals of Yakutia. M .: Nauka, 660.
  • Yudin B.S., Krivosheev V.G., Belyaev V.G., 1976. Small mammals of the north of the Far East. Novosibirsk: Science, 270 p.

Abstract of a scientific article on biological sciences, author of a scientific paper - Satuchina Galiya Akhmetovna, Parshina Tatyana Yurievna

The article highlights the results of a comparison of the morphophysiological characteristics of the main representatives of the order of the rabbit-like (Lagomorpha, Brandt, 1855) brown hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778) and rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Linnaeus, 1758), belonging to different ecological groups. The basis of the work is an analysis of the results of studies conducted in 2013-2015. on the basis of the Department of Zoology and Physiology of Man and Animals, Orenburg State Pedagogical University. The material for the study was the internal organs of animals heart, liver, kidneys, stomach, intestines. The data obtained showed that rabbits, in comparison with the hare, keep the tendency of structural and functional design of the body, but are more plastic.

COMPARATIVE BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF COMMON HARE (LEPUS EVROPAEUS PALLAS, 1778) AND RABBIT (ORRYCTOLAGUS CUNICULUS) LINNAEUS, 1758)

The results of comparative studies on the morphological and physiological features of the main representatives of the lepor> common hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778) and rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Linnaeus, 1758), belonging to different ecological groups, are reported in the article . The research is based on the findings of studies conducted at the Department of Zoology and Human and Animal Physiology of the Orenburg State Pedagogical University in 2013-2015. The material for studies included the internal organs of animals heart, liver, k> common hare, maintain the tendency of structural and functional body formation but they are more plastic.

The text of the scientific work on the topic "Comparative aspects of the biology of the hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778) and the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758)"

Comparative aspects of the biology of brown hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778) and rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758)

G.A. Satuchina, graduate student, T.Yu. Parshina, Doctor of Biological Sciences, FSBEI HPE Orenburg GPU

At the moment, in zoological science, much attention is paid to the problem of the study, conservation and rational use of species of wild animals. These include mammals that are of commercial importance for humans - predatory, ungulate, fur-bearing animals. Of particular interest are questions relating to the biology and ecology of small and medium commercial species. Despite the extensive work available in this area, many aspects of this problem require further study.

Harebirds have been an object of zoological research for a long time, however, surveys on the biology of the species until the middle of the twentieth century. did not have. The first works can be considered the works of S.I. Ogneva (1940), which describes the morphology and systematics of the brown hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778). Later, in-depth work was carried out in the study of the brown hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778).

A.A. Gureev summarized the accumulated material on the brown hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778).

Over time, regional reviews appear on the European part of Russia 4, 5, in the Ciscaucasia.

The rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Linnaeus, 1758) has long been a subject of interest to people. He was domesticated with the aim of breeding new breeds that are used in the fur and meat industries. Rabbit meat is rich in protein, calcium, phosphorus and contains less fat and cholesterol. It is also used as a laboratory animal.

The purpose of the study is to present a comparative description of the morphometric indicators of the main representatives of the order of the Lepidoptera (Lagomorpha, Brandt, 1855) using the example of a brown hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778) and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Linnaeus, 1758), belonging to different ecological groups.

Material and research methods. The basis of the work is an analysis of the results of studies conducted in 2013—2015. on the basis of the Department of Zoology and Physiology of Man and Animals, Orenburg State Pedagogical University.

The objects of the study were individuals of a brown hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778), caught in the Orenburg region, and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Linnaeus, 1758) of cell content.

For the collection and analysis of the main morphometric characteristics, we used such

indicators such as body length, tail length, foot length, auricle height, body weight. Measurements were also made of internal organs: heart mass, liver mass, kidney mass, stomach mass, intestinal length.

The obtained experimental data were subjected to generally accepted statistical processing according to N.A. Plokhinsky (1970), P.F. Rokitsky (1973) and G.F. Lakin (1990): the construction of variational series, the control of the normality of the distribution of the obtained data, the determination of average values ​​of indicators, the coefficient of variation of 8-10. To assess the differences between the two groups of indicators, the reliability criterion (Student's test) was used. Given the biological and environmental features of each species, conclusions were drawn from the data on the causes that determine these differences.

The results of the study. The analysis of the study made it possible to establish the morphometric parameters of the brown hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778), living in the steppes of the Orenburg region, and the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Linnaeus, 1758) with a cellular content (Table 1).

An analysis of literature showed that for a hare, the range of morphometric indicators was: body weight - from 3 to 3.5 kg, body length - 580-700 mm, tail length - 75-140 mm, length of the back foot - 120 -165 mm, length - 100-120 mm.

For a rabbit, similar parameters had the following values: body weight - 1.5 to 2.5 kg, body length - 35–45 cm, ear length - 6–7 cm.

Our results are consistent with published data.

In a comparative intragroup and intergroup analysis of the animals studied by the indicators of the coefficient of variation, we found that for the hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778), the most variable indicators that determine its functional plasticity in the conditions of the steppes of the Urals are heart mass (CV% = 0, 23), the mass of the stomach (CV% = 0.17), the mass of the liver (CV% = 0.13), body weight (CV% = 0.16) and the length of the cecum (CV% = 0.13).

In the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Linnaeus, 1758), increased functional dynamics of the indices was observed compared with the brown hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778). The highest values ​​were determined for heart weight (CV% = 0.95), liver mass (CV% = 0.91), body weight (CV% = 0.79) and kidney weight (^% ir. = 0.9 , ^% dev. = 0.88).

The variability of the indicators of the length of the cecum of the rabbit (CV% = 0.3) is slightly reduced relative to other indicators, but at the same time

1. Morphophysiological parameters of the hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778) and the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Linnaeus, 1758)

Index Rabbit-hare Rabbit td> 1

X ± Sx CV% ± mV X + Sx CV% ± mV

Body length, cm Tail length, cm Foot length, cm Ear height, cm Body weight, g Heart weight, g Liver weight, g 59 ± 1,414 10.2 ± 0.389 14.5 ± 0.354 13.6 ± 0.459 3747 ± 214, 0 17.75 ± 1.449 91.15 ± 4.137 0.07 ± 0.035 0.11 ± 0.055 0.07 ± 0.055 0.095 ± 0.048 0.16 ± 0.057 0.23 ± 0.196 0.13 ± 0.115 44 ± 2.829 9.2 ± 0.884 11.25 ± 1.768 11.9 ± 0.071 1045 ± 292.1 6.59 ± 2.207 53.64 ± 33.07 0.18 ± 0.090 0.27 ± 0.135 0.22 ± 0.110 0.02 ± 0.007 0 , 79 ± 0.395 0.95 ± 0.336 0.91 ± 0.455 0.38 1.097 1.3 1.56 1.58 1.66 1.66

The mass is right. kidneys, g lion. 7.9 ± 0.071 7.85 ± 0.248 0.03 ± 0.015 0.09 ± 0.045 4.48 ± 1.273 4.81 ± 1.499 0.90 ± 0.450 0.88 ± 0.440 1.93 1.79

The mass of the stomach, g The length of the intestine, cm The length of the cecum, cm 42.1 ± 2.546 450.2 ± 1.768 45.0 ± 2.122 0.17 ± 0.085 0.01 ± 0.050 0.13 ± 0.065 17.92 ± 3.579 407, 5 ± 4.073 54.25 ± 5842 0.56 ± 0.198 0.28 ± 0.140 0.30 ± 0.150 1.81 1.81 1.04

reliably (td = 1.04) exceeds the similar indicator of a brown hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778) by 2.3 times.

The structural stability characterizing the morphological status of the animal was determined for such indicators in a brown hare as the length of the intestine (CV% = 0.01), kidney mass (Cv% R = 0.9, Cv% L = 0.88) , body length (Cv% = 0.07), foot length (Cv% = 0.07) and ear height (Cv% = 0.095), in a rabbit - ear height (Cv% = 0.02), body length (Cv % = 0.18), foot length (Cv% = 0.22) and tail length (Cv% = 0.22).

The revealed regularities determining the morphofunctional type of animals showed that, while maintaining the general tendency, the rabbit as a whole is more plastic compared to the brown hare.

An analysis of the main relative parameters (indices) characterizing the degree of development of the organ to the general level of development of the organism made it possible to establish that for a rabbit these values ​​are higher than for a brown hare (Table 2).

Consequently, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Linnaeus, 1758) are distinguished by relatively larger internal organs compared with the brown hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778).

Conclusions. It has been established that, while retaining the tendency of structural and functional design of the organism, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Linnaeus, 1758) are more plastic compared to the brown hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778).

2. The relative mass of organs (indices) of the hare (Lepus evropaeus Pallas, 1778) and the rabbit (Oryctolaguscuniculus, Linnaeus, 1758)

Index Index,% o

Heart Liver 4.74 23.4 6.31 51.3

“Right. Kidney lion. 2.11 2.09 4.29 4.60

Stomach 120.1 17.15

A relative increase in the internal organs of the rabbit was revealed compared with the hare

in the dark, which is confirmed by an increase in values

indices of the internal organs of the rabbit.

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7. Balakirev N.A. Rabbit breeding / N.A. Balakirev, E.A. Ti-nayeva, N.I. Tinaev, N.N. Shumilina, ed. ON THE. Balakireva. M .: KolosS, 2007.232 s.

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Features of the biological effect of silver nanoparticles in animals

I.R. Shamsutdinova, graduate student, M.A. Derkho, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, FSBEI HE South Ural State Agrarian University

In recent years, it has been established that silver is not only a biocidal metal, but also

trace element. The silver content in the body of animals and humans is 20 μg ha per 100 g of dry matter, it is deposited mainly in brain cells, endocrine glands, liver, kidneys, skeleton bones.

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