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Under this name combine numerous varieties obtained as a result of repeated hybridization of wild species and cultivars. When describing the variety, the notation in color is used:

W (White) - White
G (Green) - Green
Y (Yellow) - yellow
P (Pink) - Pink
O (Orange) - Orange
R (Red) - Red

This variety has a complex color, therefore there are so many letters in the description of the color, and here is another, simpler example: 'Debutante' 2w-p (JL Richardson, 1956) - “Debutant”, Large-crowned group, perianth white, pink crown, author Richardson 1956

In some cases (if there is data) when describing the color of a flower, the code for this color is given on the international RHS color scale. For example: Dutch Master variety - perianth lobes are greenish-yellow (5A), the tube is bright yellow (12A).

Currently, more than 12,000 varieties of daffodils are known, which according to the International Classification are divided into:

Group 1. Tubular Daffodils (Trupet Daffodils).

The varieties of this group are characterized by the presence of one flower on a solid medium height or high peduncle. The main symptom: the tube is equal to or longer than the perianth lobe. The group is dominated by white and yellow flowers. Very elegant flowers with different colors of the tube and perianth. Varieties differ in texture of perianth lobes, tube shape, peduncle height, time and duration of flowering. Bulbous daffodils have large bulbs; most varieties reproduce well. Widely recommended for landscaping, cutting, forcing.

'Dutch Master'
Photo by Irina Mersiyanova

In the world assortment of daffodils, varieties of this group make up about 26%. This group includes, for example, the following varieties:

'Golden Harvest' ('Golden Harvest'), 1 y-y, Warnaar, before 1920. Flower with a diameter of 11 - 12 cm. Golden yellow. Tube of the same color, 5.5 cm long, 5 cm diameter, with a curved edge. Peduncle up to 40 cm. Early.

'Queen of Bicolor' ('Queen of Bicolor'), 1 w-y, E.H. Krelage, until 1925. Flower diameter 10 - 11 cm. Perianth lobes white. The tube is bright lemon yellow, the edge is bent, corrugated, the length of the tube is 4.5 cm, diameter is 5.5 cm. Peduncle is 35 cm. Early, blooms from early May. The aroma is weak. Very decorative variety, universal application.

'Birheba' ('Beersheba'), 1 w-w G.H. Engleheart, until 1923. Flower (perianth) with a diameter of 9 - 10 cm. Perianth lobes at the beginning of flowering ivory, in the middle of flowering - snow-white. A tube with a creamy tint, wavy along the edge, 4.5 cm long, 3.5 cm in diameter. Peduncle up to 30 cm. Blooms from the first ten days of May for 20 days. Suitable for cutting and forcing. The aroma is weak.

'Irish Luck' ('Irish Luck'), I y-y, G.H. Wilson, until 1948. A flower with a diameter of 8 cm. Monophonic perianth tube bright yellow. The tube is wide-crowned, with a corrugated edge, 3 cm long, 4.5 cm in diameter. Peduncle up to 30 cm. Medium late flowering period, flowering is very plentiful.

'Mount Hood'
Photo of Elena Severyakova

'Spelbinder' ('Spellbinder'), 1 y-w, G.H. Wilson, until 1944. Flower 10 cm in diameter. Perianth lobes oval, lemon yellow, lighter at the base. The tube is funnel-shaped, when blooming - lemon yellow, but on the second or third day of flowering becomes white. The length of the tube is 3.5 cm. The diameter is 4 cm. The edge is bent back. Peduncle up to 35 cm. Medium early flowering period, blooms in May. Suitable for casing and cutting.

'Empris of Island' ('Empress of Ireland'), 1 w-w, G.H. Wilson, until 1952. Diameter of a flower is up to 11 cm. Perianth is rounded, white. The tube at the beginning of flowering is very light cream, then it brightens and becomes completely white. The length of the tube is 4.5 cm. The diameter is 4 cm. The peduncle is 35 cm. The flowering period is medium early, blooms in May. Suitable for flower decoration and cutting.

'Gold Medal' ('Gold Medal'), 1 y-y G. Lubbe, until 1938. Flower diameter up to 11.5 cm, perianth bright golden yellow, the tube expanded at the top. The length of the tube is 4 cm. The diameter is 5 cm. The height of the peduncle is up to 30 cm. The flowering period is medium late.

Group 2. Large-crowned daffodils (Trumpet Daffodils)

This group includes varieties with one flower on the peduncle; the crown of this flower is shorter than the perianth lobes, but more than 1/3 of their length. The color of perianth lobes in varieties of this group is diverse: white, yellow, cream, greenish-white, orange. Crowns are also diverse: both in color and in shape. The most interesting varieties with a pink or red crown and with a crown that has a brightly colored edge (rim), the size of the crown can be very large.


'Spring Pride'
Photo by Tatyana Sladkova

'Ambergate'
Photo by Konstantin Alexandrov

'Ice Follies'
Photo by Konstantin Alexandrov

Varieties of this group differ in the timing and duration of flowering. Large-crowned varieties account for up to 50% of the total number of varieties in the International Register. We give a brief description of some varieties of this group.

'Eksent' ('Accent'), 2 w-p, G.E. Mitsch, 1960. The diameter of the flower is 9 - 9.5 cm. The perianth is white. Perianth lobes with pointed edges. The crown at the beginning of flowering is bright red-orange (CALL), in the middle of flowering is bright orange-pink (29B). The flowers are arranged vertically. Peduncle 30 cm. Flowering early and long.

'Armada' (Armada), 2 у-о (а), G.H. Wilson, until 1938. The diameter of the flower is 10 cm. Perianth lobes are golden yellow. The crown is tubular, orange, with a wide dark orange edge. The height of the crown is 2.5 cm. The diameter is 4.5 cm. Peduncle 40 cm. Early variety.

'Apricot Sensation' ('Apricot Sensation'), 2 w-ooy, Warnaar und Co, C. Breell, 1972. The diameter of the flower is 10.5 cm. The perianth is creamy white. Perianth lobes rounded. The crown is large, funnel-shaped. At the beginning of flowering, creamy with an orange-yellow fringing, when flowering, it becomes creamy white, slightly darker than the perianth. Corrugated crown with a dense texture. Peduncle 30 cm. Flowering period is average, flowering is plentiful.

'Giant New' ('Giant New'), 2 w-o. The originator and the year of elimination are unknown. The diameter of the flower is up to 11.5 cm. Perianth is creamy white, lobes are rounded. The crown is broad-crowned, very large (6 - 6.5 cm), bright orange-yellow with a red-orange edging and a wavy edge. The leaves are wide (up to 3 cm), thick. Peduncle 35 cm. Average flowering period.

'Grulemans Giant' ('Grullemans Giant'), 2 w-yyo, J.J. Grullemans, 1951. Flower diameter 10.5 cm. Perianth lobes pale cream, broadly oval. The crown is saucer-shaped, the inside is yellow, the edges are dark yellow with an orange border. The height of the crown is 2.5 cm, the diameter is 5.5 cm. The flower stalk is durable, 30 cm. The flowering period is medium, it blooms after May 10. The aroma is strong. Suitable for cutting, forcing and planting on flower beds and borders

'Green Island' ('Green Island'), 2 w-gwy, J.L. Richardson, until 1938. A flower with a diameter of 10-11 cm. Perianth lobes are white, rounded. Crown 2.5 - 3 cm high, 3 cm in diameter, creamy white, crown edge wavy, with a lemon-green edging. Peduncle 40 cm. The original color of the flower. The flowering period is medium late.

'Belisana' ('Belisana'), 2 w-o, C.G. van Tubergen, until 1946. Flower with a diameter of up to 10.5 cm. Perianth lobes are white with a light cream tint. The crown is broad-crowned, light orange with a dark orange border. The height of the crown is 2.3 cm. The diameter is 4.5 cm. The height of the peduncle is 40 cm. The average flowering time.

Group 3. Short-Cupped Daffodils

The varieties of this group on the peduncle have one medium-sized flower, the crown of which does not exceed 1/3 of the length of the perianth lobe.


'Fresno'

'Cedar Hills'

'Printel'
Photos by Oleg Vasiliev

Most varieties of this group are characterized by the average size of plants, abundant flowering and a delicate aroma of flowers, inherited from the progenitor P. poeticus L (daffodil poetic). At present, varieties with various crown colors have appeared: pink, green, red, orange, etc. We present varieties of this group.

'Amor' ('Amor'), 3 w-yyo, W. F. Leenen, 1957. The variety belongs to this group only by the first sign: the ratio of the crown and perianth lobes. And the crown and perianth are very large. The diameter of the flower is 13 cm. The perianth is pure white. Perianth lobes rounded ovoid. Crown 2.5 cm high, 4.5 - 5 cm in diameter, bright yellow with a bright orange wavy edge. Peduncle 36 - 37 cm. Medium early flowering period.

'Coloratura' ('Coloratura'), 3 w-wwo, G.E. Mitsch, 1956. Flower diameter 9.5 - 10 cm. Perianth is rounded, smooth, white. The disk-shaped crown is white, the edge of the crown is bright apricot corrugated. Peduncle 30 - 35 cm. Average flowering period.

'Odebon' ('Audubon'), 3 w-yyp, G.E. Mitsch, 1955. The diameter of the flower is 10 cm. Perianth lobes are greenish-white. The crown is as if three-colored: inside the crown is bright yellow, closer to the edge it is light yellow, the edge of the crown is bright orange-pink. The combination of colors creates an unusually bright, delicate, amazingly beautiful flower! The diameter of the crown is 3.6 cm, height - 1.5 cm. Peduncle up to 40 cm. Flowering period is mid-late.

'Rockall' ('Rockall'), 3 w-r, J.L. Richardson, 1955. The diameter of the flower is 11 cm, the arrangement is vertical. Perianth lobes are greenish-white (4D), elliptical. Crown 1.8 cm high, 1.8 - 3.3 cm in diameter, bright orange-red (AIA), inside slightly lighter (AOD). Peduncle up to 40 - 45 cm. Flowering period is very late.

'Burma' ('Birma'), 3 yo, J.W.A. Lefeber, 1938. Flower diameter 9 cm. Perianth lobes broadly oval, yellow. Crown is bell-shaped, yellow, with a wide orange border, serrated edges. The height of the crown is 1.2 cm, the diameter is 2 cm. The height of the peduncle is 30 cm. The flowering period is medium, it blooms in mid-May.

'Edward Buxton' (Edward Buxton), 3 y-oor (a), A. Sandys-Winsch, until 1932. Flower diameter 8 cm, located vertically. Perianth lobes light greenish yellow, elliptical, smooth. The crown is greenish-yellow, along the edge it is orange-yellow, funnel-shaped, with a wavy edge, the border 0.2 cm. The height of the crown is 1 cm, diameter 2 cm. Peduncle 35 cm. Flowering early.

'Apricot Distraction' (Apricot Distinction), 3 yo, P. van Deursen, until 1942. Flower diameter 9 cm. Perianth lobes light apricot, cream petal edges. The crown is flat, bright orange, wavy. The crown height is 1.4 cm, diameter 2 cm. Peduncle fragile 40 cm. Very original color, but gradually fades in the sun. The flowering period is medium late; it blooms in the second half of May. The aroma is sharp. Suitable for cutting and group plantings.

Group 4. Terry daffodils (Double Daffodils).

The group includes varieties with a double flower, selected from different groups, so they differ from each other in morphological characteristics. Terry flowers can be of different colors, sizes and shapes.


'Indian Chief'
Photo by Konstantin Alexandrov

'Westbury'
Photo by Oleg Vasiliev

'Baldock'
Photo by Oleg Vasiliev

'Mary Copeland'
Photograph of Elena Severyakova

'Yellow Cheerfulness'
Photograph of Elena Severyakova

'Ice King'
Photo of Elena Severyakova

'Obdam'
Photo of Elena Severyakova

'Replette'
Photograph of Elena Severyakova

'Texas'
Photo of Elena Severyakova

Terry flowers can be divided into 5 conditional subgroups:

1. The tube, or crown, is completely absent in the flower and is replaced by additional perianth lobes. The whole flower is represented only by terry perianth. The typical Golden Ducat variety is yellow.

2. Perianth ordinary, tube or crown "terry" - ie completely replaced by a large number of outgrowths (segments) of the crown. Examples “Petit Four” - a terry pink flat crown, “Rosy Cloud” - a terry pink tube-crown.

3. A terry variety, selected from the group of small-crowned ones, it has a terry perianth, inside the flower there are short numerous outgrowths of the crown. An example is the Gay Chellenger.

4. Terry variety selected from the group of large-crowned or tubular. Its flowers have a terry perianth and long outgrowths of the crown inside the flower, often they are interspersed with perianth lobes. An example is Apotheose. Sometimes crown outgrowths are much larger than perianth lobes; this makes the flower appear even more beautiful - “Pink Paradise” - white with a pink crown.

5. Varieties with 3 to 5 double flowers in inflorescence. “Cheerfullness”, “Yellow Cheerfullness”.

'Irene Copland' ('Irene Copeland'), 4w-y, W.F.M. Copeland, until 1915. A flower with a diameter of 8 cm, vertically located. Perianth lobes are creamy white narrowly elliptic, smooth, gradually decreasing towards the center. Perianth lobes interspersed with elongated creamy yellow segments of the crown. Peduncle 30 cm. Average flowering period, blooms in the second half of May. The aroma is good. Suitable for cutting, forcing and group plantings.

'Acropolis' ('Acropolis'), 4 w-o, J.L. Richardson, 1955. Diameter of a flower is 9 cm. Portions of terry perianth are pure white. In the center of the flower, the crown segments are bright orange. At the beginning of flowering, they are covered by perianth lobes, then they are clearly visible. Peduncle 40 - 45 cm, durable, above the leaves. The variety is very good for cutting. The flowering period is medium late.

'Apotheosis' ('Apotheose'), 4 yo, (Oregon Bulb Farm) S. Breed, 1975. Flower diameter 9.5 - 10 cm. Perianth three-row, bright yellow. Perianth lobes rounded. The crown in the center is distinctly different. Crown outgrowths are wide, wavy, very beautiful, bright orange, the diameter of the crown is 5 - 5.5 cm. Peduncle 35 cm. Flowering time is late.

'Tahiti' ('Tahiti'), 4 yo, J.L. Richardson, 1956. Flower diameter up to 10.5 cm, terry. Perianth bright golden yellow, lobes broad, rounded. In the center of the flower are outgrowths of an orange-red crown. At the beginning and in full bloom, an unusually bright, attractive flower, brightens by the end of flowering, but keeps its shape very well. Peduncle up to 40 cm. Average flowering period.

'Mary Copland' ('Mary Copeland'), 4 w-o, W.F.M. Copeland, until 1913. Flower diameter 9.5 - 10 cm. Perianth terry, spherical. Perianth lobes are oval, white, with a light yellow base. Crown segments are very short, interspersed with perianth lobes, orange, with an orange-red edge, corrugated. The flower stalk is durable - 40 cm. The variety does not fade. The flowering period is medium, blooms from mid-May. The aroma is strong. Suitable for cutting and planting in groups.

'White Lyon' ('White lion'), 4 w-wyy, de Graff-Gerharda, until 1949. Flower diameter 10–11 cm. Perianth lobes white, in the center of the flower interspersed with crown segments. The color of the crown segments is from light yellow (11B) to bright yellow (13B), with a cream base and a wavy edge. The flower stalk is durable 35 - 40 cm. The flowering period is late.

Group 5. Triandrus Daffodils (Triandrus Daffodils)

Varieties of this group have all the characteristics of the species narcissus tri-stamens (N. triandrus L).

'Thalia'
Photo by Tatyana Sladkova

The peduncle carries from two to six drooping flowers with perianth lobes slightly bent back and a small crown. The color of the flowers is white and yellow. Varieties of this group are few in number, but very peculiar; for lovers of miniature daffodils they are of great interest. Here are a few varieties:

'Havera' ('Hawera'), 5 at, W.M. Thomson, until 1928. On a peduncle four to six flowers, miniature and surprisingly elegant. Perianth and crown are light-lion-mono-yellow. Perianth lobes oval, cup-shaped crown. The diameter of the flower is 2 - 2.5 cm, the crown is 1.0 - 1.5 cm. The height of the peduncle in the soil is 15 - 17 cm. When grown in pots in a greenhouse, the peduncle is 30 - 35 cm. The flowering period is very late.

'Liberty Belle' ('Liberty Bells'), 5 yy, F. Rijnvelt and Sons, before 1950. There are two flowers on the stem, up to 9 cm in diameter. The perianth is bright greenish yellow (6B), the crown is slightly darker (6A). Perianth petals are narrowly elliptical. A crown 2 cm high, 2 cm in diameter. The flower arrangement is horizontal. Peduncle 30 cm. Flowering very late.

'Tresemble' (Tresamble), 5 w-w, P.D. Williams, until 1930. Three flowers on a peduncle. The diameter of each flower is 7.5-8 cm. The arrangement of the upper flowers is horizontal, of the lower ones it is drooping. Perianth lobes are greenish-white, narrowly elliptical. The crown is cup-shaped. Height 2 cm, diameter 2.2 cm. The color of the crown at the beginning of flowering is light lemon-but-yellow, then it brightens and becomes slightly darker than the perianth, the edge of the crown is light lemon-yellow. Peduncle 30 cm. Flowering very late.

Group 6. Cyclamen-shaped daffodils (Ciclamineus Daffodils).

This group of varieties is obtained by crossing cultural forms with a species of cyclamen daffodil.


'Jet Fire'
Photograph of Elena Severyakova

'Dove Wings'
Photo by Konstantin Alexandrov

Varieties inherited its features: perianth lobes are strongly bent back, a narrow and very long tube, the length of which sometimes exceeds the length of the perianth lobes. Flowers, as a rule, solitary, drooping. Plant height 15 - 20 cm. The varieties of this group include, for example:

'Jetfire' ('Jetfire'), 6 ooo, G.E. Mitsch, 1966. A flower with a diameter of 7.5 cm. Perianth lobes are rounded, bright yellow (9A), narrowly elliptic, bent back. The flower arrangement is horizontal. The tube is bright orange (24A), the edge is corrugated, slightly darker (26A), the height of the tube is 2.5 cm, diameter is 2 cm. Peduncle is strong, 30 cm. Flowering time is very early.

'Baby Dole' ('Baby Dole'), 6 at, M.R. Williams, G. Zandbergen-Terwegen, 1957. Perianth 7.5 cm, bright yellow (9A). The tube is 3.5 cm high, 2 - 2.5 cm in diameter, cylindrical, slightly ribbed at the base, orange-yellow (14B), the edge is corrugated. Peduncle 30 cm. Average flowering period.

Group 7. Jonquilla Daffodils.

Varieties of this group were obtained from crosses with the species daffodil Jonquilla (N. Jonquilla L) and inherited its characters.

'Suzy'
Photo by Konstantin Alexandrov

The stem carries from two to six small flowers with a short crown, which have a pleasant smell. The flowers in the hands are 2-6, the perianth lobes are elongated, the cup-shaped crown is less than 2/3 of the perianth, fragrant, the tube or crown is at least 2/3 of the perianth length, the tube or crown is less than 2/3 of the perianth. The height of plants is up to 35 - 40 cm. Here is a description of some varieties belonging to this group:

'Cherie' ('Cherie'), 7 w-p, W.F. Mitchell, until 1935. The diameter of the flower is up to b cm. Perianth lobes are white with a cream tint (155A). The crown is creamy white or very light lemon in color (4D), the height of the crown is 1.5 cm. The diameter is 1.3 cm. Peduncle 30 - 35 cm, thin. The flower is very elegant, fragile, delicate. The flowering period is late.

'Step Forward' ('Step Forward'), 7 y-w, G.E. Mitsch, 1970. The diameter of the flower is 7 cm. Two or three flowers are on the peduncle. The location is horizontal. Perianth lobes yellow (8A). At the beginning of flowering, the crown of the same color (8A), in the middle of flowering, becomes light yellow (8C), then greenish-white. A crown 2 cm high, diameter 3.5 cm. Flower stalk - 30 cm. Flowering period is average.

'Pipit'
Photo by Tatyana Sladkova

'Hillstar' ('Hillstar'), 7 yyw-yww, G.E. Mitsch, 1979. The diameter of the flower is 7 - 7.5 cm. Perianth segments are two-thirds bright yellow (12A), light yellow at the base (8C). Perianth lobes oval-pointed. Crown with a diameter of 3 - 3.5 cm, a height of 2 - 2.8 cm, light yellow or cream yellow, the crown inside is yellow (12C). On one stalk there are three flowers. Peduncle 30 cm. Flowering period is very late. It blooms for a very long time.

'Susie' ('Suzy'), 7 yo, R.V. Favell, until 1954. The diameter of the flower is 7 cm. On the peduncle two or three flowers, the arrangement is horizontal. Perianth lobes bright yellow (12V), widely elliptical. The crown is cup-shaped, height 0.8 - 1 cm, diameter 2.5 cm. The color of the crown inside is orange (2ZA), closer to the edge at the beginning of flowering is orange-red (25A), then brightens: orange (24A). Peduncle 30 cm, thin, but durable. Flowering later.

Group 8. Tacetta Daffodils (Tazetta Daffodils)

Varieties inherited many of the features of N. tacett. On one peduncle, from 2 to 5 fragrant flowers of medium size. Perianth lobes rounded, crown less than 1/3 of the length of perianth lobes. The color of the flowers is white and yellow. Varieties of this group are very sensitive to low temperatures. In the conditions of our zone, they require mandatory shelter for the winter. To the south they grow very well and bloom profusely.
The most famous variety:

'Geranium' ('Geranium'), 8 w-o, S.B. van der School, until 1930. On a peduncle 2 - 4 flowers. The diameter of the first flower is up to 5 - 5.5 cm, the second and subsequent flowers are smaller. Perianth lobes are pure white, smooth. The crown is cup-shaped bright orange, its height is 0.7 cm, diameter 1.5 cm. Peduncle 30 cm. The variety is suitable mainly for forcing.

Photo of Zakutnaya Natalia

Group 9. Poetic Daffodils (Poeticus Daffodils)

Varieties of this group have characteristic features of the species narcissus (N. poeticus). One large flower on the stem Perianth lobes are snowy white, the crown is small, brightly colored, may be yellow with a very bright edge. Most varieties have a pleasant aroma, not as strong and harsh as the original species, but much more tender. Varieties of this group are very good for distillation and cutting. The most versatile variety:

'Actaea' (Actaea), 9 w-yyr, G. Lube and Son, until 1927. Flower diameter 8.5 - 9 cm. Perianth lobes snow-white, up to 3 cm. Crown at the base greenish yellow, the rest of the bright yellow and the edge is bright orange (ZZA, B to dark red 42 V). Red fringed border. The height of the crown is 0.3 cm, the diameter is 1.2 cm. The peduncle is up to 40 cm high. The flowering period is medium or medium late.

Group 10. Species and wild forms and their hybrids.
Group 11. Split-Corona Daffodils (Split-Corona Daffodils)

This very young group combines varieties with the original structure of the flower. It was singled out as a separate garden group in 1975. Varieties are distinguished by their extraordinary variety and exceptional beauty.


'Articol'
Photo by Konstantin Alexandrov

'December Bride'
Photo by Oleg Vasiliev

'Foresingt'
Photo by Tatyana Sladkova

It is difficult to imagine such interesting combinations of colors, the variety of shapes of crowns - they must be seen. We will try to emphasize the features of some varieties of an unusual, original group.
Almost all varieties are unique: of universal use, they are well driven, give an excellent cut and, of course, can be widely used in landscaping.

When describing varieties, after the number 11 (denoting a group, for example, Split-crowned), there are letters "A" or "B". “A” means that the crown segments and perianth lobes are located opposite each other, and the crown segments are in two planes of three. The flower has a shape or resembles an orchid. “B” - all crown segments are located in the same plane, the crown has the shape of a six-pointed star.


'Palmares'

'Moll's Hobby'

'Printel'
Photos of Tatyana Sladkova

'Raussillon' ('Roussillon'), 11 a w-wpp, J. Gerritsen, 1984. Flower diameter 10 cm. Vertical arrangement. Perianth lobes - greenish-creamy-white (4D), elliptical in shape, each crown segment is located above the corresponding perianth lobe and they have grown together. Crown with a diameter of 6 cm, pale cream (4D), the edge of the crown pink-cream (20D). Peduncle 30 cm. Average flowering period.

'Chanterelle'
Photograph of Elena Severyakova

'Travertine' ('Travertine'), 11 a w-gww, J. Gerritsen, 1975. The diameter of the flower is 10-10.5 cm. Perianth lobes are rounded, creamy white (4D). A crown with a diameter of 7.5 cm, slightly darker - greenish-white (2D), corrugated, cut in half, does not adhere to the perianth lobes. Peduncle 30 cm. The flower has a very light pleasant aroma. The flowering period is medium.

'Embois' ('Amboise'), 11 au-o, J. Gerritsen, 1983. Split-crowned (split-crown). The diameter of the flower is 9 cm. Perianth lobes are canary yellow. The crown is bright apricot in color, its wide edges are yellow, corrugated, indented. The height of the crown is 1.3 cm, diameter is 5 cm. Peduncle is 30 cm. The flowering period is medium late.

'Beautycol' ('Beauticol'), 11 au-uuo, J. Gerritsen, 1980. Flower diameter 12 cm. Perianth lobes greenish-white, narrowly elliptic. Above each perianth lobe there is a very indented segment of the crown; they are fused to the bases and raised at the ends. The crown is from creamy pink (13D) to light pink (23D), the edging of the crown is more pink (21D). The shape of the crown resembles an azalea flower. The fragrance is very delicate. Peduncle 30 - 35 cm. Average flowering period.

'' GabrielKleiberg ' ('Gabriel Klaiberg'), 11 aw-gro, J. Gerritsen, 1973. Flower diameter 10 cm. Perianth lobes greenish-white, large, slightly bent backward. The crown segments are very large and strongly indented, the edges rise. At the base, the crown is greenish, the middle part is dark orange, the bending parts of the segments are orange-yellow. The diameter of the crown is 5.5 - 6 cm. Peduncle 30 - 35 cm. The flowering period is medium late.

Hybrid narcissus (Narcissus hybr>

Hybrid Narcissus (Narcissus hybridus) - obtained from numerous crosses between species.

A bulbous perennial plant 30-40 cm tall, with linear basal leaves and large fragrant, solitary, less often several in a small brush, white or two-tone flowers. The bulb is large, membranous, perennial.

It blooms in May - June.

Varieties of daffodils are grouped: tubular, large-crowned, finely crowned, terry, triandrus, cyclamen-shaped, jonquillium, tacetous, poetic.

Hybrid daffodil is frost-resistant, prefers a sunny location, grows on any soil, but better on nutrient-rich.

In the middle lane, the bulbs are planted in boxes in the second half of September, at a distance of 15-18 cm from each other. Planting depth 15-17 cm depending on the size of the bulb. In spring, the boxes are put on the balcony, in May the plants bloom.

After flowering, the flower stalks and the upper part of the leaves are cut and seeds are sown between plants or seedlings of annual plants are planted - for summer and autumn flowering.

For the winter, the daffodil bulbs are covered with peat or leaf or the boxes are transferred to the basement, where they are stored at a temperature close to zero.

Numerous varieties of daffodil will surely decorate your balcony in spring.

Source: Gardening of balconies: a reference guide. Alexandrova M.S., Krestnikova A.D., M, 1991

Short description of growing

  1. Landing. In August or in the first days of September.
  2. Digging. After the foliage turns yellow and grows soft.
  3. Storage. Bulbs are stored in a well-ventilated area, the temperature in which should be kept at about 17 degrees.
  4. Bloom. In spring time.
  5. Illumination. For planting, a shaded and sunny area is suitable, as well as one that is in the shade.
  6. Priming. The earth must be nutritious, pass water and air well, be saturated with humus. And its acidity can vary from slightly alkaline to slightly acid.
  7. Watering. Narcissus should be watered sparingly, but systematically.
  8. Fertilizer. In spring, after the appearance of the first sprouts, it is complete complex, during the flower stalk emergence - nitrogen-potash, during the bud formation period - complete complex, and during flowering - potassium-phosphorus fertilizer. You can not use manure for feeding.
  9. Breeding. Propagated by seeds much less frequently than bulbs.
  10. Harmful insects. Mites, nematodes, onion beetles, slugs, daffodils.
  11. Diseases. Fusarium, gray rot, penicillosis, yellow and white viral stripes, ring spotting.
  12. The properties. All parts of the plant contain poison, since they include the narcissin alkaloid.

The myth of the daffodil

There are many legends and myths about daffodils. But the most famous of them is the ancient Greek myth, which speaks of a beautiful, but heartless young man, his name was Narcissus. He did not want to reciprocate the love of the mountain nymph Echo. Desperate, she turned to the Gods for help, and Narcissus was punished by Aphrodite for her coldness, she made him fall in love with her reflection in the stream. With love for himself, he melted before his eyes, until, in the end, he died. Having pityed him, the gods made it so that in the place where his lifeless body was, a beautiful flower grew, which was named in his honor as a daffodil. Since then, the name "narcissus" has become a household name, there is even such a psychological term as "narcissism", which means exceptional narcissism.

Features of the daffodil

The flowering daffodil plant has dense bulbs and 2–4 leaf-shaped leaf-shaped plates of different widths. The basal leaf plates of a linear form appear before the peduncle. Leafless stems can be round or flattened, on their surface there is a film ceiling. At the top of the stem, a flower forms. In various species of daffodil, the shape of the bulb is different, it can be oval, ovoid, pointed or round. In some species, the bulbs form a nest; several bulbs, which are wrapped in colored scales, form on one bottom. Every year, the old roots of bulbs die off, and new ones grow in their place, the life span of the roots is no more than 10 months. Drooping or straight flowers can be part of an umbrella racemose inflorescence in an amount of 2-8 pieces or be single. The shape of the petal perianth is a tubular funnel passing in the upper part into a horizontally located limb. An adherent can have a tubular, bell-shaped or cup-shaped form, it is formed by outgrowths of perianth lobes, which are most often painted in a different shade. Flowers can be colored yellow or white. There are also species and varieties with a two-tone color of flowers. In diameter, they can reach 20–100 mm. The fruit is a three-nested box, inside of which there are seeds. Most often, bushes in height reach from 0.1 to 0.5 meters. You can decorate your garden plot with daffodils, and you can also grow them at home if you wish. Flowering is observed in April – May.

Preparation for landing

Daffodils belong to primroses. In the garden, they appear very early with crocuses, hyacinths and tulips. The plant itself is quite unpretentious, but if you do not have enough time to provide flowers with good care, then it is better not to decorate your site with them. The fact is that only if the daffodil is properly cared for can he grow up to be what he should be.

Site selection

Particular attention should be paid to the choice of the site on which daffodils will grow. It must be necessarily sunny, the soil needs good water and air permeability. The crop grows best on neutral loam, into which humus or compost was added for digging, note that manure cannot be used as fertilizer. Too alkaline soil is corrected by introducing dolomite flour into it (per 1 m 2 of a 200 gram plot), while wood ash is added to too acidic soil (per 1 m 2 1 tbsp).

The bad predecessors of daffodils are lilies, tulips and other bulbs, as well as perennial asters, chrysanthemums and phloxes. But the site where legumes, peonies, cereals, nightshade and cucumbers were previously grown is perfect for growing such a flower crop.

Planting bulbs in open soil is carried out after warm weather is established. In spring, most specialized stores sell stale goods very cheaply, so the gardener has the opportunity to purchase onion bulbs of rare varieties of daffodils for a pittance. However, when choosing planting material, one must take into account that the bulbs should not be weakened or soft, since there is a high probability that they will not sprout. However, if they do grow up, they will have to provide very good care. The most suitable time for the purchase of planting material is 3 months after flowering. Experts do not advise buying onions:

  • in spring time
  • extracted from the ground with shoots, roots and flowers during flowering or immediately after its completion,
  • multi-vertex, if they have one big onion, and all the rest are small,
  • with a sprout that has appeared.

Before proceeding to planting, it is necessary to conduct an examination of the bulbs, while all affected by the disease, excessively soft, with a sick bottom or injured are removed. That planting material that will pass the selection must be disinfected, for this it is immersed for 30 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate (1%) or fungicidal preparation (3%).

Etymology

There is no consensus on the origin of the name "narcissus". It is believed that it appeared in the 5th-4th centuries BC from the Greek word "narkao", which means "stun, intoxicate," and Hippocrates introduced it. According to another version, the name comes from the Persian word "nargis" - "stiffen, harden." And both opinions have a basis. The strong smell of the poetic daffodil - Narcissus poeticns (namely, he was known at that time) can stupefy, cause a headache, and Homer knew about the paralyzing effect of the narcissus juice. All daffodils are poisonous plants, not even mice eat them, big lovers of bulb crops. Nowadays, alkaloids from narcissus bulbs are isolated: narcissin, tacettin, poetin, which have narcotic properties. Apparently, the word "anesthesia" is due to the daffodil.

What time to plant

At the time of landing of daffodils in the open ground, the weather conditions of a particular region influence. Like other bulb crops, daffodils are recommended to be planted in the garden in autumn. In mid-latitudes, it is best to plant them in September, so that the bulbs are well rooted, they will need from 20 to 30 days. Planting can also be done in the winter, and at the very beginning of spring, but in any case, bulbs should be prepared before planting.To do this, they are put on the shelf of the refrigerator for 60 days, otherwise they will not be able to root properly and will not form flowers.

Bulbs that were stored in a refrigerator can be planted in open soil in the second half of April, but only if the snow cover is already gone. Daffodils planted at this time root perfectly at an air temperature of 5 to 7 degrees.

Species and varieties of daffodil

There is no consensus on the number of species; scientists call different numbers (from 50 to 150). Under natural conditions, it is found mainly in the Mediterranean basin. Wild species are found in Central Europe, East and Central Asia, and North Africa.

In floriculture, numerous varieties of plants are widely used, united by the common name Narcissus Hybrid.

Spring planting

Landing is carried out in early spring. But before embarking on it, it is necessary to prepare the site, for this it is dug up approximately to the depth of the bayonet of the shovel and fertilizers are applied to the soil: humus and nitrophosphate (60 grams per 1 square meter), and also sand. If you were not able to prepare the site properly, then planting can still be carried out, but only if the soil composition is optimal for growing this crop.

Dig on the prepared site landing pits, the depth of which should be equal to 3 diameters of the bulb. Then a handful of sand, 2 large tablespoons of wood ash are poured into the hole and put onion there. Fill the hole halfway with soil mixed with compost and pour it well, then fill it with soil to the top and compact its surface.

The distance between the planting holes depends on whether you will plant daffodils after 1 year or whether they will grow in this area for 5 years. In the event that you decide to plant them, then the distance between the holes should be from 7 to 10 centimeters. If they grow in the same place for 5 years, in this case the distance between the bushes should be from 15 to 20 centimeters. When the planting is completed, it is recommended that the soil surface be covered with a layer of mulch, which can be used as a nutshell, chopped straw, sawdust of hardwood or mowed grass. A layer of mulch is able to restrain the growth of weed grass, and yet it does not allow moisture to evaporate from the soil very quickly. Also, mulch is good in that the surface of the site, covered with it, does not need to be loosened after each watering.

Autumn landing

If the landing will be carried out in the fall, then the preparation of the site should be done in the summer. To do this, dig the soil to the depth of the bayonet of the shovel and add 2 tbsp. l superphosphate, 4-5 kilograms of peat or compost, and another 1 tbsp. l "Agricoli for flowering plants" per 1 square meter of land. If the soil is excessively heavy, then this can be corrected by introducing into the soil ½ bucket of rotted humus and sand per 1 square meter. Then re-digging is carried out to a depth of 10 to 15 centimeters and the site is left alone until the landing. Bulbs are planted and looked after in the autumn in the same way as in the spring. Remember that autumn is the most suitable time for planting daffodils, which is why experienced gardeners plant in the spring only in extreme cases.

If the flower grows in the same place for 4 or 5 years, and it has grown greatly, then you need to remove it from the soil, separate from the bulbs of the children and plant them. Do this after the bush fades. This method of reproduction is the most simple and reliable.

Daffodil Care

Prefers well-lit areas, but tolerates partial shade.

Narcissus needs well-drained, fertile, preferably loamy soil. Limestone, swampy, less than a year ago manmade soil for daffodils unsuitable.

In one place it grows on average about 3-5 years. A signal for a transplant is a decrease in flowering intensity. Bulbs are harvested immediately, as soon as the leaves turn yellow, and planted again in August - early September, keeping them until this time at a temperature of +17 ° C in a well-ventilated room.

Daffodils are demanding on air permeability of the soil and are sensitive to lack of moisture, therefore, plantings must be regularly loosened. Loosening prevents soil compaction, which positively affects the preservation of moisture in it. Flowers are watered only during the growing season. With yellowing of the leaves, watering is stopped, but in August, when a new root system begins to grow, they, if necessary, resume watering.

Since the period of intense nutrition in daffodils is short, they are demanding on soil fertility. The maximum consumption of nutrients is accounted for by budding and the beginning of flowering. At this time, a large number of leaves and peduncles are formed, therefore, in addition to the main filling of the soil, it is advisable to fertilize. They feed for the first time on germination - full mineral fertilizer. The second top dressing is carried out with nitrogen and potassium when a peduncle appears, the third with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium during full budding, the fourth with phosphorus and potassium during flowering.

Daffodil Care

At the very beginning of spring, daffodils should start to grow. Immediately after the emergence of the sprouts, daffodils need to be fed with mineral fertilizer for the first time (30 grams per 1 square meter of the plot). The second time the flowers are fed during the formation of buds in the last days of May, while 20 grams of mineral fertilizer is taken per 1 square meter of the plot. In order for the bushes to bloom as luxuriantly and long as possible, the second top dressing will need to be repeated after some time. When the flowering is over, the plant needs to be fed with a mixture of potassium and phosphorus fertilizers (1: 2), while from 50 to 60 grams of the nutrient mixture is taken per 1 square meter of the plot. After applying fertilizer to the soil, it should be watered, and then the surface should be loosened.

Daffodils are water-loving plants, in this regard, they need to be watered regularly and abundantly (20 liters of water are taken per 1 square meter of the plot). When the flowers are watered, do not forget to loosen the surface of the soil and tear out all the weed grass, but only if the site is not covered with a layer of mulch. Thus, it is necessary to care for the crop from the moment the shoots appear and before the flowering ends.

Care after flowering

After the bushes bloom, they should be watered and the soil loosened near them with the same frequency for another 15–20 days. If you plant different varieties of daffodil on the site, they will be able to delight you with their flowering throughout the summer. And do not forget that daffodils will be as beautiful as possible only if you feed them on time and take good care of them. Flowers that have begun to fade must be cut off, otherwise the plant will spend a lot of energy on the formation and ripening of seeds, which will negatively affect the growth and development of the bulbs.

Narcissus in history and in culture

The history of the culture of daffodils dates back to ancient times. Even before our era in the ancient gardens of ancient Egypt were cultivated bouquet daffodils - tacetta (N. tazetta), which were also grown in Iran, Ancient Greece and Italy. The first description of the daffodil was made by Theophrastus 300 years BC. Narcissus was also known to the ancient Romans, as evidenced by the works of Pliny, which describes three of its species. The botanical description of the genus belongs to Karl Linnaeus. In his monumental work, "Types of Plants," published in 1758, you can find a detailed description of daffodils. In Europe, daffodils appeared in the late XV - early XVI centuries. They were sent from Constantinople as a gift to the Lord of the English Treasury and were first grown only in his famous garden. It is England that holds the primacy in the development of this culture. By the middle of the 16th century, 24 species of daffodils were grown in Foggy Albion, and by the beginning of the 17th century their number was close to 100.

Most likely, daffodils appeared in Russia in the era of Peter the Great, when the first botanical gardens were created (drug stores, as they were called then), and plants were imported from Holland.

Transplant of daffodils

Understand that daffodils need a transplant, you can by the flowers. If they began to fade, and their quality also deteriorated, then most likely they need a transplant, during which they divide the bulbs. The transplant is carried out after the bushes bloom. Do not forget to pre-prepare a new site, for this it is dug up and fertilizers applied to the soil. Digging and dividing daffodils is necessary only after their foliage turns yellow and withers naturally. This can happen only a couple of months after the end of flowering, especially if frequent rains are observed. During the growing season, on average, 2–4 new bulbs are formed from one bulb. After the bulbs are removed from the soil, they need to cut off all the withered foliage, and they also conduct a thorough examination. Sick and damaged by pests bulbs are rejected. Dead flakes are removed from the surface of the bulbs suitable for planting, after which they are washed and disinfected for 30 minutes in a strong solution of potassium permanganate. Then carry out their division. Tear off the easily separated kids. Those bulbs that come off with difficulty, you need to try to gently loosen, but if they still separated with effort, then they process the fault points with wood ash or coal powder. In no case do not cut live roots from the bulbs. After that, they are laid out in a shaded place to dry, and then placed in storage. To do this, they are cleaned in a cool place (not warmer than 17 degrees), while they need to be laid out so that they do not touch each other, in which case their wounds can heal. You should not pull the bulbs when planting them; no more than 8 weeks should elapse from the moment they are removed from the soil before planting. About how to plant daffodils in the open ground, described in more detail above.

Narcissus in the legends

There are many legends about the daffodil. According to one of them, the beautiful son of the river god Kefissa and the mollusk Liriopa Narcissus, having once seen his reflection in the source, fell in love with him and died of loving longing. The gods turned it into a lovely flower, which gracefully bows its "head" above the water surface, as if admiring itself. The legend was immortalized by the ancient Greek thinker Ovid, who described it in his “Metamorphoses”: “He admires himself, petrified with surprise. He froze forever, like a marvelous image from Paros marble. He does not look at everything that is charming in himself.” For centuries, the daffodil has been sung by many poets. In the lyrics of the East, he was compared with the eyes of girls. Persian king Cyrus I called the daffodil "the creation of beauty, an immortal delight."

And in Turkey, an ancient saying has been preserved, attributed to the prophet Mohammed: "He who has two loaves, let him sell one to buy a daffodil flower, for bread is food for the body, and narcissus is food for the soul."

Different peoples perceived daffodils in their own way. The Greeks considered them the colors of death, the Romans the colors of victory. Images of daffodils are found on the walls of ancient Pompeii. Their flowers were sacrificed to the Furies and Pluto. In China, daffodils were given to those whom they wanted to thank for kindness, and nowadays they are used instead of the New Year tree. In Switzerland, a celebration was held in honor of the flower. In Prussia, daffodils were the personification of love and a happy marriage, and the British still consider them their national symbol, like the Japanese chrysanthemum. Daffodils loved W. Shakespeare. The great Russian writer I.S. Turgenev.

The reproduction of daffodils

Such a flowering plant can be propagated not only by bulbs and their children. It can also be grown from seeds. For sowing, freshly harvested seed material is used, which has not yet had time to dry. Seed collection is carried out in the middle of the summer period or in the late autumn. You can sow them in drawers or cups, and if desired, in open soil. Sowing seeds does not need to be densely, while the depth of sowing should be equal to three diameters of the seed. During the first 1-2 years, experts do not advise diving or replanting seedlings, since they should form a strong good bulb. When this happens, young flowers are transplanted into the open ground in a permanent place. The first flowering of daffodils grown from seeds is observed only after 6–7 years, and small-flowered species after 3 or 4 years. Please note that seed propagation is suitable for growing only wild species. If a hybrid form is grown from seeds, then the seedlings will not be able to preserve the varietal characteristics of the parent plant.

Daffodil in perfumery and medicine

The flowers of some species of daffodils contain essential oils, and the bulbs contain alkaloids, so they have long been used in medicine and perfumery. Dioscorides already mentioned fragrant narcissus oil. Nowadays, as an ethereal plant, daffodils are cultivated in Algeria, France and Italy. The highest yield of essential oil give Jonquilla daffodil (N. jonquilla) and poetic daffodil (N. poeticus). European herbalists considered the daffodil flower a talisman that attracted the love of women, and Eastern healers used its bulbs to treat mastitis. Medicine derived from false daffodil (N. pseudonarcissus)used for eye diseases.

Pests and diseases of daffodils

The best prevention of the emergence of diseases and pests is the observance of all agrotechnical rules of culture. However, even in this case, the daffodils can be affected by the disease. Most often they suffer from fungal diseases, the signs of which are very similar to each other.

The greatest danger to daffodils is fusarium. At the very beginning, the bottom of the bulb is affected, and then the disease begins to gradually rise up the bush. A pinkish-white coating forms on the surface of the bulbs, and they soften themselves, the tips turn yellow at the leaf blades, then turn brown and eventually dry.

In some cases, the culture is affected by gray rot (botritis), which looks like a fluffy coating of gray color with black dots, which forms under the covering leaves of the bulbs. Pale brown spots appear on the foliage, increasing in size, and the buds and shoots rot.

It also happens that a flower is affected by penicillosis rot (penicillosis), as a result, in spring, sprouts do not appear from bulbs. The development of the disease is due to very high humidity.

In order to prevent fungal diseases immediately before planting the bulbs for 30 minutes should be immersed in a solution of Maxim. At the very beginning of the growing season, the emerging sprouts are treated with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1.5%).

Culture can also be affected by viral diseases, for example: yellow or white streak, mosaic virus, circular spotting, etc. The signs of all viral diseases are very similar to each other: the development of flowers worsens, bulbs grow smaller, specks, stains and dashes of various colors appear. A narcissus is affected by a viral disease through pests, soil, pollen, seed, or garden tools. Because of this, it is very difficult to deal with such dangerous diseases because today they are considered incurable. Prevention measures:

  1. For planting in open soil, it is recommended to use only absolutely healthy and large onions, which must be disinfected before. Small onions get sick much faster.
  2. It is necessary to start the fight against pests, which are the main carriers of viruses, namely: bugs, ticks, cicadas, whiteflies and nematodes in a timely manner.
  3. Dig and burn diseased bushes in time, which will prevent the spread of the disease.

Most often, bear, root ticks, nematodes, slugs and daffodils fly on the flower. In order to prevent the appearance of a daffodil fly and a nematode, immediately before planting the bulbs for several hours they are heated in hot water (43.5 degrees). If a daffodil fly has settled on a bush, then it is treated with a solution of fufanone (2%), it is fought with a nematode using such drugs as carbation and nemafos. During the formation of the buds, the bushes are treated with a Fitoverm solution (for 10 liters of water 20 milligrams), while 1 liter of the mixture is used to spray 10 square meters of plantings.

How to read the numeric and alphabetic code in the names of varieties of daffodils

Since 1977, a letter code has been used to simplify and shorten the description. The color of the flower (regardless of group) is encoded, highlighting 6 zones:

three - on perianth lobes

and three - on the crown (tube).

First, the coloration of the perianth lobes is encrypted, starting from their tips, then the middle and inner parts. The color of the crown (tube) is encoded in the reverse order: the color of the base of the crown (tube), its middle part and the outer (outer) edge.

For the code, the first letters of the word denoting color are used:

o - orange (orange),

For monotonously colored perianth and crown (tube), the color characteristic contains 2 letters with a dash between them, and for monotonously colored 3 to 6 letters.

For example w - p means that the perianth is pure white, and the crown (tube) is entirely pink, yyw - yww - perianth has a yellow-colored outer and middle parts with a white base, the crown (tube) at the base is yellow, the middle and outer parts are white.

In numbers, the flowering time is encoded:

6 - the latest

7 - blooming in autumn or winter.

This is a very relative indicator, since weather conditions significantly shift the flowering of daffodils in one direction or another.

The numbers also encode the height of the plants:

1 - miniature variety, up to 20 cm high,

2 - variety with a height of 20 to 38 cm,

3 - variety with a height of 38 to 50 cm,

4 - variety with a height of more than 50 cm.

Forcing daffodils

Almost all bulbs in which there is a flower bud are suitable for forcing, but the largest flower and strong peduncle will give a bulb with a diameter of 4-5 cm. The end of October is the most suitable time for planting daffodils for forcing on March 8. Bulbs are planted in shallow containers filled with a loose, moisture-intensive mixture, almost close to each other. The nutritional value of the soil does not matter. To avoid bulging of bulbs during rooting, they are sprinkled with sand on top so that after watering 1/3 of the bulb is above the substrate.

For successful flowering, daffodils need to go through a cooling period at a temperature of -7. -9 ° C, which lasts 3-4 months. At this time, the phytohormone gibbe-relin accumulates in the bulbs, without which the stem cannot grow during forcing. However, the need for cooling varies between varieties. Some are just 13 weeks old, others 6 weeks longer, and a cold period is not needed at all for tacet daffodils. At home, the ideal place to cool the bulbs is the lower shelf of the refrigerator. Small containers with landed daffodils can be cooled here. Do not allow them to dry out (it is better to cover with a film).

2-3 weeks before the desired flowering time, containers with daffodils are brought into a bright room with a temperature of +13. +15 C. Water the plants daily. Cut flowers along with leaves directly above the bulb.

Bulbs remaining after forcing are planted in open ground for growing. After 2-3 years, depending on the variety, they are ready for repeated winter flowering.

Wintering Features

Narcissus is quite resistant to frost. However, if the winter is not very snowy and very frosty, then the bulbs wintering in the soil may freeze. Most of all such bulbs can be affected by thaws, since during warming they awaken and begin to grow, and the returning frosts ruin the flowers. If daffodils are in the winter in the soil when the foliage completely withers and dies, the surface of the site must be carefully loosened. Then it should be covered with a layer of mulch (covered with leaves, peat, wood ash or straw), the thickness of which should be 10-15 centimeters. Instead, it can be covered with a special covering material, for example: spanbond or agrospan. Mulch should be filled up only after the soil slightly freezes in the autumn. And you need to remove the mulching layer only after the spring return frosts are left behind.

Use in garden design

Daffodils are one of the favorite flowers in Russia. They are grown in flower beds of all types. They look great in the single-species large massifs in the spring garden, in combination with other undersized ephemeroids: goose onions, scylls, crested crucians, they can be combined with bright hyacinths and tulips. With the help of daffodils, you can arrange the coastline of natural and artificial ponds, in addition, the spring flower border looks very nice from them.

What time to dig onions

If the bulbs are to be stored in a cool room in winter, then they should be removed from the soil immediately after all the leaves turn yellow in June or July, and their tips dry out, and the compact bush should begin to fall apart. From the end of flowering until the time when you can dig the bulbs, sometimes it takes about 8 weeks (it all depends on temperature and humidity).

It is also not recommended to tighten the bulbs when digging bulbs, because dried leaves may fall off and you will not find the place where the bush was located. To extract daffodils from the ground, use a small garden fork. The dug bulbs need to be cut off the foliage, and then they are laid for drying in a shaded place. After they dry out and the soil remains fly around them, carefully separate the daughter bulbs from the mother ones, while trying not to injure the roots. Inspect the bulbs and remove all deformed, diseased and soft, it is recommended to destroy them. The selected planting material is washed under running water, and then it is disinfected, for this it is placed for 10-15 minutes. in a solution of potassium permanganate dark pink color. Then it is cleaned in a dry, shaded and warm (from 22 to 25 degrees) place to dry. If you put it in a room, then it should have good ventilation.

Storage Features

Bulbs can not be stored in a plastic bag, as it does not allow them to “breathe” normally, as a result of which their middles begin to rot. They are stored for storage in a well-ventilated and cool place. It should be borne in mind that during storage the planting material emits gas, and if it accumulates a lot, then the bulbs can suffocate.

They will be perfectly stored in a shaded, well-ventilated area, with air humidity of about 70 percent and a temperature of 10 to 12 degrees. Place the bulbs in a thin layer in a pallet or trellised drawer made of wood. During the winter, conduct a regular inspection of planting material (at least 1 time in 7 days). If you notice soft or diseased bulbs, then they are removed and destroyed. If spots of yellow or white color have formed on the surface of the skin of the bulbs, this means that they have rot, and a sign of fungal disease is their darkening. In bulbs affected by bacterial rot, an unpleasant odor appears.

Types and varieties of daffodils with photos and names

Numerous varieties of daffodils are registered by the Royal Horticultural Society. To him, all garden forms of daffodils were united under the general name Narcissus hybridus in 13 groups, while 12 of them systematize garden daffodils, and one - the natural forms and types of such a flower. Below will be a brief description of garden daffodils.

Tubular Daffodils (Trumpet)

This group has 1 large flower on the peduncle, the length of the tube and perianth lobes is the same, in some cases the tube is slightly longer. The color of the flowers is two-tone, but most often it is white or yellow. Such varieties reproduce very well, their bulbs in diameter reach 50 mm or more.

Grade Gin and Lime - perianth and crown of a lemon shade. The crown gradually changes color to white with a green eye.

Large-cupped

This daffodil is solitary. The crown of the flowers can be corrugated or smooth, its length is slightly more than 1/3 of the length of the petals. The color can be very different, in some cases the crown is decorated with a rim of a saturated shade. The duration and timing of flowering, as well as the length of the peduncle in different varieties vary. Compared with tubular daffodils, large-bulbous bulbs are smaller.

Variety Jeanine - perianth color is snow-white, and crowns - deep pink.

Small-cupped

This daffodil is also solitary. The crown length does not exceed 1/3 of the length of the petals. Medium-sized flowers with a delicate aroma, as a rule, are painted in a whitish-cream color. Such varieties bloom luxuriantly.

A very beautiful variety is Sabine Hay - a not-so-large flower adorns an orange perianth and a deep-red crown. It features late flowering.

Terry (Double)

This group is highly decorative. On the peduncle, these varieties can have either one flower or several. Terry can only be a crown or the whole flower. The shape, color and size of the flowers can be different, since those varieties that corresponded to the only principle - terry were selected in this group.

Variety Tahiti - this variety has long been in a private collection, and the world has learned about it relatively recently. The size of the flower is about 80-100 mm. Saturated yellow perianth lobes in the middle connect with scallops of an orange-red crown. This variety is different in that it gradually burns out in the sun.

Triandrus

This group includes undersized varieties with bushes about 0.25 meters high. On one peduncle, 2-3 flowers are formed with a small crown and slightly bent petals.

Grade Ice Wings - a spectacular flower has a very large crown and petals of snow-white color. Flowering is long.

Cyclamenoid (Cyclamineus)

The group contains varieties obtained by crossing a cyclamen narcissus with cultural and species forms. Most often, the flowers are solitary, outwardly similar to cyclamen - the petals are bent back. A thin long crown is in some cases even longer than the petals. It blooms very early.

The variety Cotinga - the color of the petals is snowy white, and the crowns are apricot pink. Early-middle flowering.

Jonquilla (Jonquilla)

The group contains varieties created by breeders using the species Jonquil daffodil. Flowering later. The color of leaf blades is dark green, and several flowers form on one peduncle. The length of the cup-shaped crown does not exceed 2/3 of the perianth length. At the same place without a transplant, a flower can be grown from 5 to 7 years.

Suzy variety - characterized by medium flowering. The perianth is golden yellow, and the crown is orange-red.

Multi-flowered, or tatsetovidnye (Tazetta, Bunch-flowered)

Varieties of this group are frost-resistant. A racemose inflorescence is formed on the peduncle, which includes 2–20 fragrant flowers. The shape of the perianth lobes is round, the crown is not very large. The color of the foliage is dark green.

Variety Hugh Town - the yellow flower has a spectacular orange crown of elegant shape.

Poetic (Poeticus)

Only one white flower forms on the peduncle; its crown is small (about 1/3 of the perianth length) and bright. Perianth is painted in milky white. The bulbs are very small. The size, flowering time and form are completely dependent on the variety.

Variety Actaea - a flower of perfect shape has a yellow crown with a green eye and a red rim.

Split-corona (Split-Corona)

The fringed crown of the flowers seems to be torn, their petals are also fringed. This group is divided into 2 subgroups:

  1. Split crown. Crown segments, as well as perianth lobes, are located opposite each other.
  2. Papillon. A flower is similar in structure to a butterfly.

Palmares variety - pinkish-white flowers have a cut slightly compressed crown. Average flowering, prefers bright lighting.

Species (All species)

As part of this group, there are only species daffodils, as well as their hybrids.

Variety "Odorus Plenus" - spectacular double flowers have a pleasant aroma, it differs in mid-late flowering.

Of all the varieties, pink daffodil stands out. Such a plant with a pink crown appeared in England in 1921 due to the efforts of R.O. Beckhouse. It was used to develop many varieties belonging to different classes, for example: tubular, jonquillium, terry, cyclamen, etc. However, they are still called pink.

The variety Foundling is a cyclamen daffodil with snow-white petals, and also with a deep pink crown. This variety has been awarded a large number of international awards.

Healing properties

Bulbs of daffodil in eastern medicine used for mastitis. To do this, the peeled onion was crushed, and the resulting mass was combined with thick porridge from rice or rye flour. The resulting mixture was smeared on a sick chest. After complete drying, the product was removed with warm water. They smeared the breast with the drug twice or thrice a day, and this helped pretty well, but only if the woman did not have an allergy to the substances that make up the bulbs. To understand whether such a tool is suitable for a particular patient, it was possible empirically. If urticaria or redness of the skin, as well as itching, were observed after its use, then it was believed that this remedy was not suitable for treatment.

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