Inside after meal.
The method of preparation of the infusion. About 6 g (1 tablespoon) of the roots are placed in an enamel bowl, 200 ml (1 cup) of chilled boiled water are poured, covered with a lid and heated in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, cooled at room temperature for 45 minutes, filtered, the remaining raw material is squeezed out. The volume of the resulting infusion is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml.
Accepted 3-4 times a day: adults and children over 14 years old - 1 / 2–1 / 3 cups, children from 6 to 14 years old - 1-2 tablespoons each, children from 3 to 5 years old - 1 dess. .located.
The course of treatment is 2-3 weeks. Repeated courses are possible on the recommendation of a doctor. Before use, it is recommended to shake the infusion.
Store the prepared infusion in a cool place for no more than 2 days.
Botanical description of Althea officinalis
Medicinal marshmallow is a perennial grayish-green herbaceous plant of the family Malvaceae (Malvaceae), 60-150 cm high.
Rhizome thick, short, many-headed, with a strong pivotal, lignified root in the upper part, reaching a length of 50 cm. The roots are fleshy, whitish, up to 2-3 cm thick.
The stalks slightly branched, cylindrical, lignified in the lower part, and green and juicy in the upper part.
Leaves alternate, 5-15 cm long, petiolate, grayish-green, velvety-felt from the dense short pubescence. Marshmallow leaves look silky due to stellate hairs. The lower leaves are rounded, ovate, the upper ones are oblong-ovate, velvety, densely pubescent.
Flowers crowded in the sinuses of the upper and middle leaves and on the top of the stem in the form of cystic inflorescences. Corolla pink, five-petalled, obovate petals. Purple stamens are numerous and also fused into a common tube.
Fetus - a flat, disc-shaped fractional polyspermous seed consisting of 15–25 yellowish-gray single-seeded seedlings (achenes), which contain dark brown kidney-shaped seeds. The weight of 1000 seeds is from 2.0 to 2.8 g.
It blooms from June to September, bears fruit from July.
Distribution and habitats of marshmallow
Medicinal marshmallow is common in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European part of the former USSR, in the south of Western Siberia, Kazakhstan, some parts of Central Asia and the Caucasus.
In the forest-steppe and steppe zones of the marshmallows, the medicinal one prefers moisture-rich habitats: banks of rivers, old ladies, irrigation ditches, lakes and ponds, coastal thickets of shrubs, moist, mainly solonetzic meadows and deposits, marshy lowlands. Usually forms small groups, sometimes sparse thickets. In Ukraine, it occurs mainly in the basins of the Dnieper, Seversky Donets and Southern Bug. In small quantities, medicinal marshmallows are found in the Dniester basin.
The main areas of collection and procurement are Ukraine, Voronezh region of Russia, Dagestan.
If during the application of the drug within 1 week there is no improvement, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Influence on the ability to drive vehicles, mechanisms. The drug does not affect the ability to perform potentially dangerous activities that require an increased concentration of attention and speed of psychomotor reactions (including driving vehicles, working with moving mechanisms).
Biological features of Althea officinalis
Althaea officinalis is a hygrophilous plant. Under natural conditions, grows in areas with a humid and temperate climate. In the wild, it is found on soils with close occurrence of groundwater and has a well-developed root system and aboveground mass.
Marshmallow breeds both seeds and vegetatively. Seed germination occurs on the 7th –9th day after sowing in well-moistened and moist soil up to 16–18 ° C. Shoots appear under favorable conditions after 15-18 days. In the initial period, marshmallow shoots grow very slowly and are demanding on moisture. With a significant moisture deficit, they die.
In the first year of vegetation, the marshmallow blooms and bears little fruit. It blooms in June, and the fruits ripen in July - August. By the end of the growing season, buds form in the upper part of the root, from which branching stems grow in spring. The development of stems and their number depends on the growing conditions and plant density. In the second year of life, the marshmallows blooms profusely and bears fruit. The period of growth and fruiting of the marshmallow under favorable growing conditions continues almost until the onset of frost.
Harvesting the marshmallow of medicinal and quality of raw materials
The roots and rhizomes of the marshmallow are harvested before the start of growth, in April - the first half of May, or in the fall, in September – October, after the death of the aerial parts of the plant.
Currently, medicinal marshmallow is grown in Moldova on an area of 300-350 ha, annually receive 50-60 tons of root and 150-200 tons of grass. The yield of dry roots is 10-25 kg / ha.
The marshmallow is propagated by seeds, less often vegetatively and by seedlings. Sowing althea with seeds is carried out in early spring at the first opportunity to enter the field or in the winter, when there are no conditions for emergence of seedlings.
The roots and grass of the marshmallow are harvested in the second and third years of vegetation. Harvesting of roots is carried out early in the spring or in the fall.
Harvesting is carried out in the second year of the vegetation of the marshmallow. Mowed grass at a height of 20-30 cm from the soil surface is dried in rolls and then dried under a canopy, spreading out with a layer of not more than 50 cm thick.
According to the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia and Pharmacopoeia article FS 42–812–73, the peeled althea roots are pieces of a cylindrical shape or split lengthwise into 2–4 parts, slightly tapering towards the end. The thickness of the pieces is 0.5-1.5 cm and the length is up to 35 cm. Cut raw materials are pieces of various shapes ranging in size from 3 to 8 mm.
Raw materials should have a moisture content of not more than 14%, ashes total not more than 8%, including ashes insoluble in 10% hydrochloric acid, not more than 0.5%, woody roots not more than 3%, marshmallow roots poorly cleaned from cork, not more than 3%, organic impurities (parts of other non-toxic plants) not more than 0.5%, mineral impurities (earth, sand, pebbles) not more than 1%.
Store raw materials in dry, well-ventilated areas. The roots are hygroscopic and damp easily. Shelf life 3 years.
The dried grass of the cultivated marshmallow collected at the beginning of flowering consists of non-lignified shoots with partially showered, whole or broken leaves and flowers.
The chemical composition of Althea officinalis
The roots of the medicinal marshmallow contain about 35% of the mucus, which consists mainly of polysaccharides - pentosans and hexosans, which are split during hydrolysis into galactose, dextrose and pentose. In addition, the roots contain pectin substances up to 16%, starch up to 37%, sucrose up to 10%, asparagine 2%, betaine 4%, fatty oil 1.7%. Leaves and flowers contain mucus and about 0.2% solid essential oil.
Pharmacological properties of Althea officinalis
Marshmallow root is a typical representative of mucus-related drugs; in terms of the content of active compounds, it is almost equivalent in this regard to flax seeds. The term “plant mucus” refers to a mixture of the corresponding mucus and pectins, sometimes with the addition of aminopectins or dextrin. The composition of mucus molecules includes the so-called uronic acids (for example, galacturonic acid), some organic acids and polysaccharides.
Slimes in water swell and form characteristic colloidal systems, the therapeutic value of which depends on the physicochemical properties that determine the essentially pharmacological effect of these drugs. Plant mucus cover the mucous membranes with a thin layer that is held on them for a long time and thereby protects the mucous membranes from further irritation. As a result of this, spontaneous regeneration of damaged tissues is facilitated, and the inflammatory process is reduced. Acting as a protector, plant mucus softens a dense inflammatory plaque (for example, plaque on the mucous membranes of the throat and larynx).
In addition, mucus facilitates expectoration due to the characteristic colloid properties. The aqueous extract of the marshmallow root, taken orally in a sufficiently large dose, acts envelopingly on the gastric mucosa. Its protective effect is the more effective and longer, the higher the acidity of the gastric juice, since the viscosity of the mucus increases when it comes in contact with hydrochloric acid released during gastric secretion.
The use of Althea officinalis in medicine
The high content of mucus and the above pharmacological properties of galenic preparations from the medicinal marshmallow determine their use in diseases of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Since water extracts from the marshmallow root have enveloping, protective, emollient, anti-inflammatory properties, and also have an expectorant and some analgesic effect, they are used primarily for chronic bronchitis, tracheitis, laryngitis, bronchopneumonia and bronchial asthma.
The marshmallow root should be assigned to the group of antitussive drugs, since any effective expectorant also leads to a decrease in cough. Althea preparations calm a cough, for example, with laryngitis. The mucous broth of the marshmallow root, draining along the back wall of the pharynx, moistens the vocal cords and can penetrate the trachea, softening hard deposits and promoting the healing of affected mucous membranes. Due to the content of mucous substances, starch, polysaccharides and a number of colloidal compounds, the marshmallow preparations envelop the affected areas and protect the nerve endings of the mucous membranes of the oropharynx and trachea from various irritating factors, which not only gives a pronounced therapeutic effect, but also contributes to a longer local effect of other drugs .
In addition, the marshmallow root is widely used for gastritis and peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, especially with increased acidity of gastric juice. Mucous substances and colloidal aqueous solutions of the plant root envelop the affected ulcerous and erosive sections of the mucous membranes, creating a protective layer from the action of aggressive components and pathogenic flora, and also create favorable conditions for the healing of pathological areas, while exerting an anti-inflammatory effect. When combined with other more active anti-inflammatory drugs, marshmallow mucus slows their evacuation and thereby creates favorable conditions for a longer and more complete local therapeutic effect on the affected areas.
The mitigating properties of the marshmallow are used to soften and remove dense deposits during inflammation of the mucous membranes. Infusions of the marshmallow root are prescribed in the form of rinses, poultices and enemas. There is experience in the application of the marshmallow root and as an additive to diet with the appointment of a mucous diet.
Clinical observations on the use of the infusion and extract of the marshmallow officinalis in eczema and psoriasis are noteworthy. Patients were prescribed marshmallow in the form of infusion and extract inside 1 tablespoon 3 times a day before meals for 1-3 weeks. As a result of treatment, a significant improvement was observed in most patients. For example, in patients with psoriasis, there was a transition from a progressive stage to a stationary one, and from a stationary stage to a regressive one. The intensity and prevalence of psoriatic rashes decreased. All patients improved sleep, appetite, mood, irritability disappeared, stool returned to normal, diuresis increased. Parallelism of the regression of pathological manifestations on the skin with an improvement in the functional state of the adrenal cortex was also noted.
Techniques for the industrial cultivation of Althea officinalis
The best precursors for the marshmallow are steams and winter grains harvested for green fodder and grain.
Fertilizing the soil under the marshmallow includes the main and pre-sowing treatment and depends on the degree of contamination of the site, the predecessor, the timing of sowing and weather conditions.
The main tillage consists of autumn plowing and semi-steam cultivation. After harvesting the grain, double stubbling is carried out. Before plowing, full doses of mineral fertilizers are applied. Plowing is best done at a depth of 30-35 cm, which makes it possible to increase the root crop and reduce the loss of raw materials during harvesting. Plowing is carried out with simultaneous rolling of the soil with ring rollers. As weeds emerge and grow, a semi-steam soil treatment is carried out. For the last autumn cultivation, it is better to use the combined soil cultivating implement RVK-3.0.
Early spring and pre-sowing tillage is carried out depending on its physical properties, sowing time, main tillage methods and a number of other conditions. The main objective of the treatment is to create conditions to reduce evaporation of soil moisture, destroy weeds and provide a compacted bed for seeds in order to quickly germinate them.
The prepared field for sowing the marshmallow should have a leveled, finely crumpled surface and a sufficient supply of moisture in the upper soil layer.
The use of fertilizers under the marshmallow consists of the main, pre-sowing and fertilizing. Under the main treatment, it is necessary to make mineral fertilizers at the rate of N120P60. Simultaneously with sowing, 30 kg / ha of granular superphosphate is added. In the second year of vegetation, the feeding of the marshmallow is carried out in early spring at the rate of N60.
The main method of breeding Althea is sowing seeds. Spring sowing is carried out as soon as possible in the field. For sowing use seeders СО-4,2. The row spacing is 60–70 cm, the seeding rate is 6–8 kg / ha, and the sowing depth is 3 cm.
The winter sowing of the marshmallow is carried out at a time when there are no more conditions for the emergence of seedlings. The advantage of this sowing period is that the seeds do not require pre-sowing preparation and sowing is carried out in less stressful time. In comparison with spring sowing, seedlings appear earlier, which further contributes to their better growth and development.
More recently, a new method for pre-sowing seed treatment has been developed. It consists in the fact that the seeds of marshmallow before sowing are treated with a solution of gibberellin in a concentration (700 mg of gibberellin per liter of water) with exposure for 24 hours. The treatment of seeds with gibberellin ensures high field germination of seeds during spring sowing and increases productivity by 10-15%.
The method of presowing seed treatment with gibberellin is as follows: gibberellin is first dissolved in a small amount of ethyl alcohol (1 g of the drug in 20 ml of alcohol), and then in water to the desired concentration. An embankment of seeds with a height of not more than 0.5 m is evenly moistened with a solution of gibberellin and mixed many times. The treated seeds are moist in the embankment for 24 hours and then dried. Immediate seeding is optional. Per 100 kg of seeds, 10-12 liters of gibberellin working solution are usually consumed.
Reception of seed treatment with gibberellin successfully replaces the previously used method of presowing germination.
In the absence of gibberellin, seed preparation consists in soaking them for 3-4 hours in warm (not higher than 40 ° C) water and keeping them moist in a warm room for 30–48 hours. Then the seeds are dried to a free-flowing state.
Marshmallows can also be propagated by annual roots.
With this method of propagation of marshmallow, annual roots are pre-grown in areas where marshmallow is sown densely, with 30-cm aisles and not thinned out.They dig them out in the spring or better in the fall and plant them in a permanent place with a planting machine to a depth of 5-10 cm. This method of cultivating an marshmallow, in comparison with seed propagation, has several advantages. So, from 1 hectare of the breeding site, you can get planting material per 10 hectares of industrial plantation, while there is no need to process 10 hectares of crops without a crop in the first year.
Althaea officinalis at the beginning of the growing season is picky about soil moisture and very sensitive to weeds. Therefore, during this period it is very important to keep crops in a loose and weed-free state.
With the appearance of seedlings, the first cultivation of row-spacings is carried out to a depth of 4-5 cm by cultivators with unilateral razor paws. Further processing is performed as weeds appear. During the growing season in the first year of life, it is necessary to carry out 2-3 manual weeding and 4-5 inter-row treatments.
On plantations of subsequent years of life, in early spring, harrowing is carried out with a BP-8 harrow or other heavy harrows. During the growing season, the plantation is weeded manually and 3-4 inter-row cultivations are carried out.
Roots and grass are harvested in the second and third years of life. Harvesting the roots of the marshmallow is usually carried out in autumn or early spring. It is possible to harvest the roots in the first year of vegetation, but the yield should be at least 12-16 c / ha. Before digging the roots on the plantation, preparatory work is carried out. They consist in mowing the aerial mass with mowers and removing it from the field. The remaining stubble is cut by KIR-1,5 or other rotary mowers at soil level.
On uncompacted soils that are light in texture, harvesting roots can be done with potato diggers. On compacted and heavy soils, the roots are plowed by a plow without dumps. Then the roots are selected manually, shake them from the soil and taken out of the field. In order to avoid large losses, an additional 2-fold tilling of the roots and their manual selection are carried out. At the sink, the remaining stems are removed. The washing is carried out on root-washing machines. The root is dried on a SKM-1 dryer and other heat-drying dryers at a temperature not exceeding 50-60 ° C.
Raw materials are packed in bales of 50 kg, in bags of 20-25 kg. Shelf life 3 years.
For growing seeds, special areas are distinguished. Marshmallow seed collection begins in the second year. Particular attention in the seed plots is given to weed, disease and pest control. When drilling, 50% of the ovaries begin to harvest. The beveled mass is dried in rolls, and then transported to the sites where it is dried, and the seeds are ripened.
In sunny weather, dry mass is threshed with a grain combine. The resulting seeds are not always exempt from bracts, so they are passed through a beater. Further cleaning is carried out on machines OS-4.3, "Petkus", pneumatic sorting column OPS-1. The cleaned seeds are dried to standard humidity. Prepared seeds are stored in multilayer paper bags.
Composition and nutrients
The roots revealed a high content of starchy and mucous substances, sugar, pectin, lecithin, carotene, essential oils, mineral salts, as well as essential amino acids (betaine, asparagine). In addition to the indicated substances contained in the roots, leaves also contain vitamin C and rubbery substances. Seeds are rich in fatty oils: linolenic, linoleic and oleic.
Cultivation of marshmallow officinalis in household plots
The soil for cultivation in household plots should be fertile, sandy loam or loamy. The area reserved for the cultivation of marshmallow in the autumn is dug to a depth of 25–27 cm, after having previously introduced 5–6 g / m 2 of compost and potash fertilizers at the rate of 10–15 g / m 2.
In early spring, the plot is developed with a rake and loosened with a hoe to a depth of 4-5 cm. Then the plot is slightly compacted, grooves are made and seeds are sown to a depth of 2-3 cm. The consumption rate of seeds is 1 g / m 2, the row-spacing is 45-60 cm. For sowing, it is better to use seeds that have been scarified or soaked in water for 3-5 days.
Plant care basically consists in maintaining the site in a condition free of weeds and observing the optimal number of plants per meter. The density of standing should be within 10-15 plants. Fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers is carried out during a one-year culture in the phase of a well-developed leaf outlet, and in case of a perennial one, in early spring. The consumption rate of nitrogen fertilizers 10-15 g / m 2.
Late in the fall, the root is dug up with a shovel, freed from the soil, the aerial part is removed, quickly and thoroughly washed with running water. If the root thickness is more than 2 cm, it must be cut lengthwise and dried at a temperature of not more than 50-60 ° C.
Seeds are removed manually by drilling 70-80% of the ovaries.
An infusion of marshmallow roots has an expectorant, enveloping and local anti-inflammatory effect, reduces the viscosity of bronchial secretions.
In the complex treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract, accompanied by a cough with sputum that is difficult to separate (tracheitis, bronchitis).
Dosage forms of Althea officinalis, method of administration and dose
Decoction of the roots of Althea officinalis (Decoctum radicum Althaeae): 6 g (2 tablespoons) of the raw material are placed in an enamel bowl, 200 ml (1 cup) of hot boiled water are poured, covered with a lid and heated in boiling water (in a water bath) for 30 minutes, cooled at room temperature in for 10 minutes, filter. The remaining raw materials are squeezed. The volume of the resulting infusion is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml. Cooked broth is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days.
Take hot 1 / 2-1 / 3 cup 3-4 times a day after meals.
Raw materials are not packaged. The roots are stored in a cool, dry place.
Dry Altea Root Extract (Extractum Althaeae siccum) - a powder of grayish-yellow color, a peculiar sweet taste.
Liquid Alutea Root Extract (Extractum Althaeae fluidum) - a thick liquid of dark amber color, a kind of sweet taste, almost odorless.
Syrup Altai (Syrupus Athaeae) consists of dry marshmallow root extract (2 parts), sugar syrup (98 parts). This is a clear yellowish liquid, a kind of sweet taste. It is used in potions to improve taste and as an enveloping.
Mukaltin (Mucaltinum). Tablets of 0.05 g containing a mixture of polysaccharides (dry mucus) from the herb marshmallow. Assign 1-2 tablets to a meal before meals. Indications are the same as for all preparations of the foundry root. Store in a cool, dry place.
Althaea officinalis in the collections of medicinal plants
Collection number 13
It is used for gastroenterocolitis. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Collection number 69
It is used for acute respiratory viral infections (acute respiratory viral infection). According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Collection number 70
It is used for acute respiratory viral infections (acute respiratory viral infection). The collection has an expectorant effect. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Collection number 103
It is used for laryngitis. By the method of preparation and use - inhalation.
Collection number 167
It is used for angina, pharyngitis. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Collection number 189
It is used for bronchitis. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Synonyms of nosological groups
|Heading ICD-10||The synonyms of diseases according to ICD-10|
|J04.1 Acute tracheitis||Bacterial tracheitis|
|J40 Bronchitis, unspecified as acute or chronic||Allergic bronchitis|
|Lower respiratory tract inflammation|
|Cough for inflammatory diseases of the lungs and bronchi|
|Violation of bronchial secretion|
|Impaired bronchial function|
|Chronic lung disease|
Prices in pharmacies in Moscow
|Drug name||Series||Valid until||Price for 1 unit.||Price per pack, rub.||Pharmacies|
shredded vegetable raw materials, 1 pc.
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Altea registration certificates roots
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The marshmallow is an unpretentious plant, prefers small or medium soils in mechanical composition and shallow occurrence of groundwater.
The cultivation of marshmallows is not particularly difficult. Plots are selected with fertile loose soils. In the fall, rotted manure or compost is added at the rate of 2 buckets per 1 m2. You can add up to 30 g of superphosphate and 10-15 g of potassium salt. After this, you need to do a deep digging. The roots of the marshmallow are pivotal, and for their successful penetration into the soil it must be loose. Seeds are sown in early spring to a depth of 2-2.5 cm. The distance between rows is 60-70 cm. To increase germination, the seeds are soaked before sowing in water heated to 40 ° C for 3-4 hours, and then aerated and repeated soaking 2-3 times in 1-2 days. Prepared seeds are dried to a degree of flowability and sown on the site. Sometimes seeds (dry) are scarified, previously freeing them from the amniotic membrane.
If the marshmallow is already growing in your area, it is easier to combine its reproduction with the harvesting of raw materials. In autumn or spring, the plant (before the start of growth) is dug up, the upper part of the root with rhizome is separated, divided into parts with several sleeping buds and planted on a site at a distance of 50-60 cm from each other to a depth of 10-15 cm.
Marshmallows are propagated mainly by seeds. It is possible and vegetatively (segments of rhizomes). Before planting in the autumn, it is necessary to introduce rotted manure (3-4 kg / m2) and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (50 g / m2). When sowing seeds, granular superphosphate (3-4 g / m2) is applied. Seeds are sown in early spring in rows to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. The distance between the rows is 50-70 cm. In order to increase germination, scarification is carried out.
Fertilizing and regular watering.
Care of crops (plantings) consists in maintaining the site in a loose and clean condition from weeds. In the second year, top dressing with slurry (1 bucket of slurry per 5 buckets of water) or humus (U2 buckets per plant) is useful. For top dressing, standard commercially available fertilizers can be used.
You can dig a crop from the second year of life. But do not keep plants for more than 5 years. It is better to separate or replace them with younger ones grown from seeds.
Marshmallow can be occupied by marshmallow aphids that damage leaves and buds, as well as bugs and flower beetles that damage buds, flowers, and fruit1. But these pests are not as aggressive as the moth moth, the caterpillars of which eat the tops of the stems, eat away the contents of the buds and flowers. In some years, they can pretty much damage plants.
Tip. When growing on a plot, it is better to place the plant in the background of the mixborder so that it does not cover more undersized plants.
Medicinal raw materials
The therapeutic use is mainly of the lateral non-lignified roots of the marshmallow and leaves, and flowers are also used in folk medicine. The roots are harvested in the fall in September-October after the death of the aerial parts of the plant or in the spring before the start of regrowth. The dug out roots are shaken off the soil, quickly washed in cold water, cut into pieces and dried. In dryers, the temperature should be 40-60 ° C.
Dry raw materials are stored in a dry place for no more than 3 years.
Attention! Before drying, the raw materials must not be soaked, since the mucus contained in it swells and the raw materials then dry poorly and decay. With slow drying, the quality of the raw material decreases.
Althea roots contain about 35% of mucous substances (polysaccharides, which decompose upon hydrolysis into galactose, arabinose, pentose and dextrose), 37% starch, 11% pectin, 8% sugars, as well as asparagine, betaine, lecithin, phytosterol, fatty oil and mineral substances, the content of malic and phosphoric acids is also noted. The aerial part also contains lipids and flavonoids.
Harvesting of raw materials.
In the culture of marshmallow blooms in the second year of life. Harvesting of roots can be carried out in the autumn of the second year, but better in the third year.
The roots are dug in the fall, cleaned from the ground, cut off the upper thickened part of the rhizome with the stem. Lignified roots and small lateral roots are removed, while non-lignified roots wilted in the air. Before drying, the roots are cut into pieces, before cutting, the upper cork portion of the bark is removed. Dried at a temperature not exceeding 45-50 ° C.
Application in official and traditional medicine
Althea medicinal preparations are used for inflammatory and catarrhal phenomena of the respiratory organs (bronchitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, tracheitis). In French medicine, they are used for bronchial asthma and emphysema. Indications for taking Althea are inflammation and irritation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) - diarrhea, acute gastritis, enterocolitis. Mucus protects the nerve endings of the digestive tract from the irritating effects of food and foreign substances.
Althea mucous membranes soften the taste of sharp and acidic foods, reduce irritation in inflammatory and ulcerative processes on the mucous membranes, protect the tissues from drying out, as a result of which they soften, which accelerates the effect of drugs. They cover the surface with a thin layer that is held on them for a long time. As a result, the conditions for the regeneration of damaged tissues are improved, the inflammatory process decreases, the enveloping effect of the marshmallow root is more effective, the higher the acidity of the gastric juice, since the viscosity of the mucus increases when it comes into contact with the acid in the stomach.
In European medicine, the infusion and decoction of marshmallow are used for cystitis and vaginitis. Accepted both inside and in the form of sitz baths. In the form of microclysters, decoction and infusion are used for proctitis and hemorrhoids,
Externally used for rinsing with inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity and lotions with inflammation and skin damage. Steamed leaves have long been applied to wounds as a healing agent,
Positive results were obtained when using Althea infusion with patients with psoriasis and eczema. The severity of rashes with psoriasis decreased. As it turned out during a more in-depth study, the functional state of the adrenal cortex was improved, which is extremely important for such diseases.
In the experiment, the plants showed antifungal activity (suppressed the development of fungal skin diseases) and are recommended as a remedy for trichophytosis and microsporia, for the prevention of mycoses in the treatment of extensive wounds and burns.
In clinical trials, the infusion was effective for seborrhea, recommended for spa treatment of skin diseases,
Due to the fact that marshmallow helps to normalize immunological parameters, the plant should be used in collections for food and chemical allergies. Infusion and broth had a positive effect in hypoxia.
In folk medicine Althaea officinalis is used for chronic prostatitis, as a diuretic for inflammation of the bladder, painful involuntary urination, and inflammatory processes in the kidneys. A decoction of the roots, leaves and seeds is recommended for use with stones in the bladder. A decoction of the roots is used for inflammatory diseases of the kidneys, urinary tract, and urinary incontinence. Cold root infusion is prescribed for chronic prostatitis and prostate adenoma. In a mixture with other plants, Althaea officinalis is used for prostatitis.
Industry launches marshmallow root extract (in dry and liquid form), marshmallow syrup, mucaltin - the sum of the polysaccharides from the herb marshmallow. And at home, you can also prepare several dosage forms.
In the literature, there are often recommendations for the preparation of decoction and hot infusion from marshmallow. However, experts are inclined to believe that cold extract is more effective in extracting mucus from raw materials and, accordingly, the use of this particular dosage form is more justified. When boiling, the starch contained in the roots is brewed and prevents the active substances from passing into the solution.
Cold root infusion is best used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cough and for washing wounds on the skin. To prepare it, 6.5 g of crushed raw materials are poured into 100 ml of room temperature water, insisted for 1 hour, filtered. Take 1 tbsp. spoon every 2 hours. When coughing add sugar or honey.
Syrup is used primarily for coughing. To prepare it, 40 g of crushed roots are simmered for 15 minutes in 1 liter of water, filtered, 1.5 kg of sugar are added, the broth is again brought to a boil and evaporated 2 times. After this, the syrup is poured into dark glass bottles and taken as necessary from 2 to 4 tbsp. spoons per day.
Dry flowers also contain a large number of polysaccharides and in folk medicine they are often used when coughing. 1 tbsp. spoonful of dried flowers pour 1 cup boiling water and simmer in a water bath for 15 minutes, • chickpeas. After that, the infusions are filtered and squeezed from the raw materials and add 1-2 tbsp. tablespoons of honey. The infusion with honey is heated until one of the latter is dissolved. Take 1 tbsp. spoon 3-4 times a day.
The stems of a plant are used to produce fiber. Fiber from marshmallow is less durable than from hemp, but has low hygroscopicity, can be used for the manufacture of bags and ropes.
Similarly, the Armenian marshmallow is used with the specified type. Its leaves are five-divided, the upper ones are three-divided, the fruits at the base are not pubescent, on the back are clearly transversely wrinkled.
Altai officinalis it is easy to confuse with his close relative - Mallow (Malva sylvestris). At the Mallow forest stalk, the leaves are covered with hard pubescence, and its leaves are rounded in shape and 5-7 lobed.
In traditional medicine
Althaea officinalis is quite significant in the pharmacological industry. On its basis, drugs are produced for the treatment of diseases of the respiratory and digestive organs. So the marshmallow root has anti-inflammatory and expectorant properties, relieves puffiness of the palate and tonsils, softens cough and improves sputum discharge. Due to the high content of mucous substances, marshmallows are prescribed for gastritis, stomach and duodenal ulcers and colitis.
In folk medicine
In folk medicine, the marshmallow root infusion is used as compresses, lotions and rinses for skin tumors, lichen and burns. Also, syrups, infusions, decoctions or alcohol tinctures are made from it.
Dry marshmallow flowers (1 dess. L.) Pour boiling water and let it brew for an hour. Then strain and take 2 tbsp. 3 times a day. This recipe is used for whooping cough and bronchitis.
Influenza and pneumonia can be cured if you drink 50 ml 3 times a day, an infusion of crushed dry marshmallow leaves in 200 ml of boiling water.
At the first signs of acute respiratory infections or sore throats, it is necessary to use the infusion of the marshmallow root and gargle with it. To do this, crushed dry root (2 tablespoons) should be poured with boiled water (600 ml), cooled to 30 ° C, and insisted for 8 hours. The finished solution is taken 25 ml 4 times a day, and also gargle at least 3 times a day. The same infusion can be used as compresses for prostate adenoma.
Marshmallow infusions have a beneficial effect on the skin, relieving inflammation, irritation and improving its regenerative properties.
For dry skin of the face, lotions from the infusion of the marshmallow root are used (1.5 tbsp. Dry root per 200 ml of water). Gauze folded in 3-4 layers should be moistened in a solution and applied to the face for 15-20 minutes. After removing the gauze, the remaining mask should not be washed off. Also, with this infusion, you can wipe your face after shaving or applying cosmetic procedures (for example, peeling, vacuum massage).
Althea seeds can be used to restore and treat hair. To do this, in a water bath, it is necessary to warm the seeds (1 tablespoon) with vegetable oil (150 ml) for an hour. The finished mixture is rubbed into the hair roots 2-3 times a week. The course of treatment is 15-20 times. You can repeat the use of oil after 2-3 weeks.
Origin of name
(lat. Althaéa officinális) Is a perennial medicinal plant. The name grass got from the Greek word Althaca, which in translation means "to heal" or "multi-useful." In the Russian and Ukrainian languages, there are several folk names for the marshmallow: marshmallow, mallow, Kalachik, erysipelas, wild rose, palyanitsya, dog, patient house, rusya pyatya and others.
There is a wide variety of marshmallow species, but for medicinal purposes three main types are used: medicinal marshmallow, Armenian marshmallow and hemp marshmallow. In nature, the species range extends over almost the entire territory of Europe, Asia, China, North Africa and North America, as well as in the forest-steppe areas of the Caucasus, Carpathians and Altai. For medical purposes, the plant is cultivated in Ukraine and in the steppe zones of Russia.
Reproduction and care
The marshmallow is propagated by seed or by dividing the rhizome. It is best to sow seeds in early spring and matured in a cool room for about 1-2 years. The plant prefers moist solonchak light soils with closely spaced groundwater. In the natural environment, it can be found in river floodplains, shrubs, swamps, lowlands, and along the shores of lakes.
Collection and Harvesting
For medicinal purposes, the marshmallow root is used, which is harvested from two-year-old plants. When digging the root for natural restoration of the plant, 25-30% of the root is left. The most favorable harvesting period is early spring or late autumn, when the stems are completely dry. From one plant, the root is taken no more than once every three to four years.
After digging, the marshmallow root should be cut off from the main stem, cleaned from the ground and washed thoroughly. Then it is suspended in a ventilated room for 1-3 days for drying. After this, it is necessary to cut the root lengthwise into strips of 30-35 cm. The finished tapes are dried in the oven at a temperature of no more than 50 ° C. Due to the fact that the dried root absorbs moisture very quickly, it is stored in dry, well-ventilated rooms. Sometimes leaves and thin stems are used for collection. They are harvested before the onset of flowering. The dry marshmallow retains the beneficial properties for 3 years.
The healing properties of the marshmallow have been known since ancient times, therefore its properties are reflected in many literary works, medicinal works (Dioscrid, Pilinius, Theophrastus) and myths. The ancient healer Avicenna dedicated the whole ode "Od from Men" to Althea. There is also a myth about the daughter of King Festius Alfey (Althea), who was predicted that her eldest son would die as soon as the logs burned out in the hearth. The woman was so frightened that she snatched the cinder from the flame and, putting out it, safely hid it. However, after a few years during the hunt, her son accidentally shot dead Altea's brother for death. In desperation, the woman pulled out a log and burned it. The son instantly died. This myth was complicated at a time when people considered siblings to be closer relatives than their own children.
How to harvest and use marshmallows tells Dr. Peter Popov.