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Starling family (Sturnidae)

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FamilyStarlingSturnidae(Rafinesque, 1815)detachmentSparrow-shapedPasseriformes. Starlings are medium-sized passerines. An ordinary starling has a body length of about 230 mm, a wingspan of about 300 mm, and a weight of about 70-75 g. The Palaearctic starling species are characterized by a long and straight, pointed beak at the end, ten primary flyworms, of which the first flyworm is weakly developed, shorter than the coverts , the top of the wing is formed by the second and fourth primary flywheels, the tail of twelve helmsmen. The legs are strong, the back of the forearm is dressed with large plates. The color of the plumage is often mixed with metallic ebbs, sometimes throughout the plumage, sometimes only on the head. Sexual dimorphism is expressed mainly in size, sometimes males are colored brighter than females. Young birds in the first (nesting) outfit differ sharply from adults, mainly due to the lack of metallic luster in plumage. Shedding - once a year, in the fall, after a breeding season. Young replace the nesting outfit in the very first fall of their life. Starlings are found mainly in the cultural landscape and, in any case, adhere to the forest-steppe, in treeless areas, for example in places in Sredn. Asia, nest on cliffs of rocks and talus. They prefer valleys, but sometimes they penetrate to the lower and even to the middle zone of the mountains. Nests are located in closed places - hollows, cracks in rocks and cliffs, as well as in artificial structures - nesting boxes. Clutch of 4-6, less often up to 7-8 eggs, bluish or greenish. Incubation is about two weeks. In the temperate zone and in the south, starlings hatch, usually up to twice a year. In the Palaearctic, in addition to its southern parts, starlings are migratory birds. Starlings are fed mainly by insects and their larvae and other small invertebrates, as well as berries and fruits. Gathering in huge flocks during non-breeding time, they sometimes damage gardens, in particular vineyards, but this harm is significantly outweighed by the benefits of eating harmful insects. Common starlings in the Eastern Hemisphere - in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia. Most species are found in hot climates. The total number of species of the family is 103, of which 6 are found in the Soviet Union.

List of BIRDS of the Starling familySturnidae (Rafinesque, 1815)
According to the IOC World Bird Names checklist, version 7.3 (July 2017) by Frank Gill & David Donsker

List of Species of the Starling familySturnidae (Rafinesque, 1815)
According to the IOC World Bird Names checklist, version 7.3 (July 2017) by Frank Gill & David Donsker

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