Family: Marantaceae (Marantaceae).
Homeland: South America.
Flowering: mainly in the summer.
Light: bright diffused. Protect from direct sunlight.
Temperature: in the spring-summer period in the region of 22-30 ° C, a little cooler at night. In winter (even at night) not lower than 18 ° С and not higher than 25 ° С.
Watering: plentiful, warm soft water, as the top layer of the substrate dries. In autumn and winter, watering is slightly reduced.
Humidity: increased (from 70 to 90%). It requires regular spraying throughout the year, species with velvet leaves should be sprayed next to the plant.
Top dressing: from spring to autumn 1 time in 2 weeks with flower fertilizer. In winter, top dressing is reduced to 1 time in 5-6 weeks. Calathea does not respond well to excess calcium and nitrogen in the soil.
Pruning: when transplanted, old dying leaves are removed.
Rest period: not expressed.
Transplantation: young calatheas annually, adults - once every two years in late spring or summer.
Reproduction: by seeds, division of the bush.
Genus Calathea (Calathea G. Mey.) ...
Calathea Makoya is a grassy perennial. Belongs to the Marantaceae family. Grows in the tropics of Brazil. Latin name: Calathea makoyana. In width and in height reaches 25-45 cm. It has a shortened stem.
A large outlet with elongated leaves departs from it. Egg-shaped leaf plate. It reaches 18-22 cm in length and 8-12 cm in width. The leaves are elegant, thin, almost translucent.
The plant is loved by flower growers for their unusual characteristic color. Top surface of emerald leaves. Snow-white strokes extend from the center of the sheet plate, forming a background. It held elongated ovoid spots.
If you look at the leaves from above, then the picture is very similar to an emerald tree against the background of snow-white ears and green grass. The wrong side of the sheet plate is identical to the upper side. But instead of an emerald pattern, there is a raspberry background. Miniature flowers, lilac. Collected in dense inflorescences.
Visually with Kalathea Makoy can be found in the photo below:
The flower does not need to form a crown. But after flowering, you can prune dried flowers or dried stems.
When watering, Calathea is very moody. She needs soft water without any chemical impurities. therefore watering the plant with tap water is strictly prohibited. Water must be boiled or filtered thoroughly.
The flower can not be filled. Otherwise, the plant will begin to rot the roots. The best option is to wait for the topsoil to dry out. It is advisable to choose an irrigation mode in which the earth in the tank will be in constant slight humidification.
Since the flower was imported from the tropics, it needs a very high humidity. The best option is 88-91%.
Moisture should not be allowed to get on the stamb and decorative leaves of Makoy.
If you start to spray it, this method will lead to severe illness and death. Therefore, the only option for maintaining humid air in the room is a tray with moistened expanded clay or moss.
The dish is placed either next to the flower, or under the container.
It is very important that there are drainage holes at the bottom of the pot in which this representative of the flora grows..
Otherwise, air will not flow to the root system of the flower.
Also, Calathea can provide a constant greenhouse regime.
Experienced growers contain the plant in terrariums and florariums.
Also, the flower grows well in winter and botanical gardens, in which professional employees create all the necessary conditions for the plant to grow.
The plant is very demanding on the soil. It must be nutritious, fortified with a large number of minerals and trace elements. The flower actively grows in a slightly acidic environment.
For planting, you can use the purchased soil for the home flowers of Saintpaulia or prepare the substrate yourself. To do this, you need sheet land, peat tablets or peat, humus and fine-grained sea sand. Also, for water permeability, coal is added to the mixture.
Holes are made at the bottom of the bowl and a drainage layer is poured. Pebbles, expanded clay, broken shards are perfect. Drainage protects the root system from unwanted stagnation of water.
Black soil is poured from above. A plant is set in the center and is filled up with the prepared substrate. After planting, the flower must be abundantly watered and put in a calm, windless room.
Fertilize very carefully.. 1 time in 14 days, top dressing is diluted in water and the plant is watered.
Top dressing must be applied half as much as indicated in the instructions. Since purchased fertilizers for perennials, you can burn the root system.
The transplant is made in the spring. You can transplant a flower annually. To do this, choose larger containers than the previous ones.
Since the roots of the flower are close to the edge, it is necessary to choose miniature wide cups.
When transplanting, it is strictly forbidden to tamp the soil. Earth must be loose and breathable.
The plant negatively refers to the sultry heat and cold. In the summer, the flower must be provided with a temperature of 19-23 ° C. In winter, the temperature should not fall below 17 ° C.
This representative of the flora negatively relates to drafts, winds. With prolonged exposure to gusts of air - can become very sick and die.
The plant loves bright natural light. Throughout the year, daylight hours should be at least 15-17 hours.
Therefore, in winter, the plant is highlighted artificially. When grown in shade and lack of light, the flower loses its decorative effect.
The plant may be affected by pests. With strong dusting, a spider mite appears. When it is detected, the leaves are washed with a solution of laundry soap. Then the flower is bathed under a stream of warm shower.
Also this representative of the flora may be subject to thrips and scabies.
Important to rememberthat the plant can not be sprayed.
Therefore, to eliminate insects, ordinary moistened cotton wool is used. With it, pests are removed manually.
Can moisten a cotton swab with alcohol or regular alcohol.
After the insects are removed from the flower, they are eliminated with the help of chemicals.
Pests are placed in a jar and sprayed onto its surface. Perfectly fit Ferrovit, Actellik, Agravertin, Fitoverm. If the pests are simply washed off with water or thrown away, they will be able to crawl back to the indoor flowers.
Also another method of getting rid of pests - folk. A transparent plastic bag is put on the flower. Cotton swabs moistened with dichlorvos are placed inside.
The procedure is very complicated.
This can adversely affect plant health. After this, the package is removed and the pests are removed manually using cotton wool soaked in alcohol.
Calathea Makoyana is a perennial herbaceous rhizome with originally colored leaves from the Marantaceae family.
The leaves are whole, broadly oval, basal; darker oval, elongated, or linear spots are located along the veins along the main velvety-green background along the veins, the underside of the leaves is purple with the same pattern.
Petioles are long, up to 15 cm, with wings.
In nature, this species, like other representatives of the arrowroot family, lives in the tropics of Brazil, in the Amazon basin, where high temperatures prevail and the air is saturated with water vapor, which determines the plant's demand for culture: shade and moisture-loving, needs constant spraying to maintain high humidity and covering the rhizome with raw moss, the winter temperature should not fall below 17 °.
It grows well with northern exposure, but when protected from direct sunlight, it can be kept on the western and eastern.
Land mixture: leaf, humus, peat, sand (4: 1: 2: 2) with the addition of a small amount of coniferous earth and chopped charcoal.
Marantov has a superficial root ...
Calathea Makoya: care and reproduction.
Calathea Makoyana (Calathea makoyana) belongs to the genus Calathea family Marantovye (Marantaceae). Its natural habitat is the tropical rainforests of Brazil.
This is a perennial rhizome of a herbaceous plant, 30 to 50 cm high and wide, with a strongly shortened stem, from which a large rosette of large long-leaved leaves leaves. The sheet plate is simple, oval, up to 20 cm long and 10 cm wide, thin as paper.
Due to its color, Makoya calathea is considered one of the most spectacular plants of the entire genus. Along the bright green surface of the sheet parallel to the lateral veins, as if with a brush held white stripes, forming a common white background. And along it pass long oval dark green spots. The completely obtained picture looks like a dark green tree against a background of white ears and in a green border. The reverse side of the sheet has the same pattern, but the spots on it are no longer dark green, but maroon.
But the flowers of this species are inconspicuous, small, purple, collected in small inflorescences.
This calathea is one of the most moody ...
Calathea Makoya: plant description
Calathea Makoyana (calathea Makoyana, Calathea Makoyana) is a perennial herb, one of the six most popular cultivated representatives of the species Calathea family Marantovy for indoor cultivation. It is believed that the birthplace of Calathea Makoyan is Brazil, but in fact this plant can be found in forests throughout the tropical belt of the globe. Like all representatives of the species, its underground shoots form rhizomes, from which above-ground shoots extend upwards, with rosettes located on them. One photosynthetic sheet is formed from each outlet, surrounded at the base by several scaly small leaves.
In height, the kalatea Makoy stretches to 60 (in indoor cultivation up to 40) and more centimeters. Her flowers are unremarkable: small, purple, collected in small spike-shaped inflorescences. At home, this calathea almost does not bloom, it is grown, like most sisters in appearance, for the sake of magnificent leaves, whose beauty more than compensates for the nondescript flowering.
In general, the pattern on the leaves of Kaloya Makoya resembles a dark green tree in a green fringing against a background of silver-white ears.
The leaves of calathea Makoyana are smooth, thin, like paper, of an elongated oval shape with a wavy edge. They grow on long, straight, pubescent stalks of purple color. Reach 25-30 cm in length and 10-15 cm in width. The upper front side is silver, with a wide dark green stripe along the edge and fine mesh venation. A thick vein runs in the center, from which dark green spots diverge on both sides, resembling oval leaflets of various sizes or strange bird feathers in shape. The back, underside of the leaves has the same pattern, but the spots and fringing on it are dark purple.
Calathea Makoya: home care
Kalathea Makoya grows under the canopy of a humid tropical forest, through which the sun's rays hardly penetrate and where there is no change of seasons. The main conditions that must be observed when growing it come from here: approximately the same air temperature in winter and summer, high humidity and soft diffused light. In general, home care for Makoyan’s calathea is no different from care for other representatives of the species.
High humidity (85-90%) is the main condition for the successful cultivation of Makoy calathea. To achieve such an indicator in an apartment is difficult. The ideal solution is to install an air humidifier, but it does not suit everyone, so you have to spray the plant 1-2 times a day with well-filtered and settled water with fine spraying. Large drops of water should not fall on the leaves, dark spots may appear on them.
It is better to spray not the plant itself, but the space around it. Create around, something like a fog so that water droplets fall on the leaves as little as possible.
Calathea Makoya does not tolerate direct sunlight and loves partial shade. In summer, it must be protected from burns, in winter, provide additional lighting with photolamps, extending to 22. 00 light days.
On the reverse side, the pattern repeats, but the background color changes, becoming cherry. In the evening, the leaves are stretched and folded in the form of the hands of a praying person. Therefore, the people sometimes call the plant prayer.
High humidity is required. It can be provided by installing a container of water next to it.
Mandatory long daylight hours (16 hours) of diffused sunlight. In winter, it is advisable to supplement the phytolamp.
Suitable light and nutritious, slightly acidic. You can use the finished substrate for growing Senpoly, Azaleas, Rhododendrons. Expanded clay or clay shards are poured at the bottom of the pot for better drainage of the soil.
When the roots appear in the drainage hole, Makoy needs to be transplanted into a larger pot. In the future, do this every 2 years. Better - in the early spring. When transplanting you need:
- Water the flower abundantly.
- Carefully remove from the dishes, taking care not to damage the earthen lump.
- Gently release the roots from the substrate.
- Cut off the rotten roots with a sharp knife and sprinkle with chopped charcoal or activated charcoal.
- Spread the roots in a new pot.
- Fall asleep with fresh soil, making sure that the calathea is strictly horizontal.
- Lightly crush the soil without tamping.
Then water the plant and put for 2 days in a cool place. We will spend the next watering in ten days. Pot choose ceramic, wide and shallow.
What to do after buying a flower
It is advisable to change the transport pot to a more suitable one and update the soil, so it is better to buy Makoy in late winter or early spring. This is the best time to replace the substrate. But before that, let the plant acclimatize at home.
We leave it for a week in a slightly shaded place without drafts, so that it gets a little used to it. After planting, you can pour zircon solution (4 drops per liter of water). This tool will help calathe without stress to move the "move".
Dividing the bush
Do this during a transplant. In addition, each separated part should have several leaves and roots. Then, plant in small pots and cover with plastic wrap. Remove after the first sprouts appear.
Sow on moist soil without deepening. Cover with a film and germinate at a temperature of 22–25 ° C, periodically ventilating the greenhouse. After the sprouts get stronger, plant in small containers. Growing Calathea from seeds, a difficult and troublesome task.
Fertilizer and fertilizing
The first top dressing should begin in early April and continue until the fall. This is a period of intensive growth when the plant needs additional nutrients.
Use special fertilizers for home flowers without calcium and nitrogen. Contribute to previously well-spilled soil, otherwise Makoi roots may suffer. Do this once every two weeks. In winter, the number of fertilizers is reduced to once every two months or not fed at all. Fertilizers such as Agricola, Gilea, Master are suitable.
Watering frequency is related to air humidity. If it is high, 80%, then it is enough to water once every 3 days. If humidity is lower, then watering should be more frequent. Focus on the top layer of the soil - if it dries 2-3 cm, then you can water it.
Water quality is also very important. It is better to use soft water without chlorine, left to stand for 2-3 days or boiled, or even better, rain or melt, at room temperature.
Avoid stagnation of moisture in the pan and drain excess water from it after 20 minutes. after watering.
If you are going on vacation
Leaving Calathea unattended for more than a week is not recommended. For the future you won’t pour it - it can lead to decay of the root system, and without watering it will die.
You can try to attach it to some neighbor-grower, providing him with detailed instructions or take it to the nearest botanical garden for the time of absence.
Therefore, all diseases appear only from improper care. The leaves may dry and turn yellow due to an excess of moisture, unwanted spraying with water, lack of light. Also from moisture on the leaves and boles of the plant.
Calathea Makoya is a very moody perennial. Requires special care. The plant needs systematic irrigation with boiled water, constant lighting even in the winter, additional fertilizing.
The flower must not be poured and sprayed from the sprayer. You can not make chemicals from pests. The plant prefers peace, light warm rooms without winds and drafts.
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Problems and mistakes when growing
Calathea Makoya is considered a capricious domestic plant that is not suitable for beginners. It is difficult to maintain high humidity, ambient light for 12–16 hours, and appropriate temperature.
The earthen lump should not be cold, so a cold window sill will not work, even if the room is hot. Experienced growers create the necessary conditions for this flower by placing it in a special florarium. But, since not everyone can afford it, Makoe happens and get sick.
The disease. Table
|Title||Reasons and Description||Control measures||Prevention|
|Brown rot||It is caused by fungi, manifested by brown spots, the presence of rot. Caused by high humidity at low temperature.|
|Title||Signs and Causes||Control measures||Prevention|
|Spider mite||1. The appearance of white plaque on the back of the leaves. In the future, a web forms, the leaves turn yellow, fall off.|
2. Too dry air.
2. Too high temperature and low humidity
2. Excess nitrogen, infection from a sick specimen.
Leaf problems. Table
|Description of the problem||Causes||What to do||Preventive measures|
|Leaves turn yellow and fade||Possible overcooling of the earth in a pot or overmoistening||Rearrange the pot from the cold windowsill. Reduce watering.||Increase air temperature, adjust watering|
|Leaves dry and curl.||Inadequate watering, excessively dry air||Cut dry leaves, put the pot on poured expanded clay and cover with a plastic bag. Leave until new shoots appear.||Increase humidity, adjust watering|
|The appearance of sticky crystals on the back of the sheet||Sharp temperature changes||Avoid drafts, too strong changes in air temperature|