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BULMASTIFA STANDARD

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General form
Bullmastiff - harmoniously built, mobile dog, leaving the impression of great strength and endurance. The base of the breed is 60% mastiff and 40% bulldog. The breed was bred by huntsmen in England to protect hunting grounds from poachers.

Growth, proportions, addition
Height at the withers: males - 63.5 - 68.5 cm, females - 61 - 66 cm.
Weight: males - 50 - 59 kg, females - 45 - 54 kg.
All things being equal, a more firmly built dog is preferable.

Proportions: The length from the shoulder-blade joint to the sciatic tubercle is slightly greater than the height of the dog at the withers, leaving the dog almost square.

Head
The expression of the eyes is insightful, lively and smart. The eyes are dark, medium in size. Ears of medium size, in the shape of an equilateral triangle, fit snugly to the cheeks, wide, far and high set (between the occipital tubercle and cheeks) - give the skull a square outline. The hair on the ears is darker than the main color. The skull is large, wide, with well-developed cheeks, when the dog is alert, many folds of skin appear on the head. The forehead is flat. The transition from the forehead to the muzzle is moderately pronounced. The muzzle is wide and deep. The ratio of the length of the muzzle to the length of the head is 1: 3. The muzzle is dark. The nose is black with large and wide open nostrils. The brews are not too saggy. The bite is straight, a close snack is allowed. Fangs are large and widely spaced.
Disqualifying Defects: shortened, upturned, with high set nostrils of the muzzle, that is, like a bulldog.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is slightly convex, of medium length, muscular, in circumference almost equal to the skull. The top line is straight and even from the withers to the lower back. The case is compact. The chest is wide and deep, with rather convex ribs, well lowered between the front legs. The back is short, giving the impression of a harmoniously built dog. The loin is wide, muscular and slightly convex, the groin is moderately tightened. The tail is set high, strong at the base, tapering to the end, reaches the hock. It can be straight or curved, but in no case does not look like a gundog's tail.

Forelimb Belt
The shoulder blades are muscular, but not loaded, slightly sloping. The forelimbs are straight, with a strong skeleton, a wide set. The elbows are not turned inward or outward. The metacarpus is straight, the legs are medium in size, with round, pinched fingers. The pads are thick and hard, the claws are black.

Hind limb
Broad and muscular, with well developed, powerful, but not rough hips. The angle of articulation of the hock is moderate.
Defects: cow set, loose paws.

Wool
Short and thick, well protected from the weather.

Color
Red, deer (tawny) or brindle.
A small white spot on the chest is allowed.
Defects: white spots.

Movement
Free, smooth and powerful. When viewed from the side, the extension of the forelimbs and the push of the hind limbs indicate a balance of moderate joints angles. The back remains straight and strong. Seen from the front and rear, the dog moves in a straight line. With increasing speed, the legs converge under the body closer to the center of gravity line, but do not intersect. The joints are not turned neither in nor out.

Temperament
The dog shows fearlessness, self-confidence and is nevertheless obedient to the owner. It combines reliability, intelligence and the desire to be useful, which makes it an excellent companion and protector of the family.

Approved in September 1925

Head square format, compact, by no means long or like that of a giant Dan. The muzzle is square format. The head and relatively short neck are located on obliquely set shoulder blades. The ears should not be long and hanging, but rather intermediate between the bulldog and mastiff, giving the dog an interested look when she is alert or agitated. Eyes should be as dark as possible, although hazel eyes are not considered a vice if they are in harmony with the main color. Light dampness (sagging) of the lower eyelids is allowed. Given the origin of the breed, snacking is also not a vice. It is desirable that the skin on the cranial part be free, forming folds (wrinkles), although this is not necessary.

Body. The chest is muscular and wide. Ribs are rather round, but not too long. All articles of the dog should be in harmony with each other. The limbs should be straight, but not long, so that the dog does not look upturned on its legs. A tendency toward cow-hocked hind limbs or barrel-shaped forward ones should be avoided. The tail is thick at the base, gradually tapering towards the end, but not too thin, like a bull terrier. A playful tail (raised up) is a vice. A low-set tail in the form of a crank is unacceptable, it should be straight and not move above the back line in movement. Sometimes puppies with curved, like a bulldog's tails, appear in litters. The coat is hard to touch and short, reminiscent in structure of the coat of a bulldog or mastiff. Long hair is considered a disqualifying defect.

Color deer or brindle. All shades of these colors are allowed. Small white spots on the chest or fingers are not a disadvantage, but they should not be on the remaining parts of the body. Breeders should remember that a dog with a good head and a bad body is as atypical as a dog with a good body and a bad head.

General characteristics. When breeding bullmastiff, one should focus on such qualities of the breed as fearlessness, activity and strength. Dogs should be cheerful, and first of all, make sure that they are not timid. We should not forget about the mental qualities of the animal. This breed is understandable in nature, and through careful selection and training it is possible to further develop its mental abilities.

Height and weight. Height at the withers: males - 61-66 cm, females - 58-63.5 cm. Weight: males - 41-50 kg, females - 34-41 kg. Exceeding the upper bounds is highly undesirable. Breeders should remember that large dogs such as mastiff cannot be bred.

Douglas B. Oil "Mastiff and Bullmastiff"

Approved February 8, 1992

General form. Harmoniously built, mobile dog, leaving the impression of great strength and endurance. The base of the breed is 60% mastiff and 40% bulldog. The breed was bred by huntsmen in England to protect hunting grounds from poachers.

Growth, proportions, addition. Height at the withers: males - 63.5 - 68.5 cm, females - 61 - 66 cm.

Weight: males - 50 - 59 kg, females - 45 - 54 kg. All things being equal, a more firmly built dog is preferable.

Proportions: the length from the shoulder-scapular joint to the sciatic tubercle is slightly greater than the height of the dog at the withers, as a result of which the dog looks almost square.

Head. The expression of the eyes is insightful, lively and smart. The eyes are dark, medium in size. Ears of medium size, in the shape of an equilateral triangle, fit snugly to the cheeks, wide, far and high set (between the occipital tubercle and cheeks) - give the skull a square outline. The hair on the ears is darker than the main color. The skull is large, wide, with well-developed cheeks, when the dog is alert, many folds of skin appear on the head. The forehead is flat. The transition from the forehead to the muzzle is moderately pronounced. The muzzle is wide and deep. The ratio of the length of the muzzle to the length of the head is 1: 3. The muzzle is dark. The nose is black with large and wide open nostrils. The brews are not too saggy. The bite is straight, a close snack is allowed. Fangs are large and widely spaced.

Disqualifying defects: shortened, upturned, with high set nostrils of the muzzle, that is, like a bulldog.

Neck, top line, body. The neck is slightly convex, of medium length, muscular, in circumference almost equal to the skull. The top line is straight and even from the withers to the lower back. The case is compact. The chest is wide and deep, with rather convex ribs, well lowered between the front legs. The back is short, giving the impression of a harmoniously built dog. The loin is wide, muscular and slightly convex, the groin is moderately tightened. The tail is set high, strong at the base, tapering to the end, reaches the hock. It can be straight or curved, but in no case does not look like a gundog's tail.

Belt of the forelimbs. The shoulder blades are muscular, but not loaded, slightly sloping. The forelimbs are straight, with a strong skeleton, a wide set. The elbows are not turned inward or outward. The metacarpus is straight, the legs are medium in size, with round, pinched fingers. The pads are thick and hard, the claws are black.

Belt of the hind limbs. Broad and muscular, with well developed, powerful, but not rough hips. The angle of articulation of the hock is moderate. Defects: cow set, loose paws.

Wool. Short and thick, well protected from the weather.

Color. Red, deer (tawny) or brindle. A small white spot on the chest is allowed. Defects: white spots.

Movement. Free, smooth and powerful. When viewed from the side, the extension of the forelimbs and the push of the hind limbs indicate a balance of moderate joints angles. The back remains straight and strong. Seen from the front and rear, the dog moves in a straight line. With increasing speed, the legs converge under the body closer to the center of gravity line, but do not intersect. The joints are not turned neither in nor out.

Temperament. The dog shows fearlessness, self-confidence and is nevertheless obedient to the owner. It combines reliability, intelligence and the desire to be useful, which makes it an excellent companion and protector of the family.

(revised March 1994)

General form. Powerful proportional addition, personifies great strength, but not bulky, strong and active.

Characteristic. Powerful, hardy, active and reliable.

Temperament. Combines good mood, concentration and devotion.

Head and cranial part. The head is large and square when viewed from any point, with small wrinkles in a wary state that disappear in a calm dog. The girth of the skull should be equal to the height of the dog at the withers, the skull is wide and deep with well-developed cheekbones, the transition from the forehead to the muzzle is pronounced. The muzzle is short, the distance from the tip of the nose to the transition from the forehead to the muzzle is one third of the total length of the head from the tip of the nose to the occiput. The muzzle is wide between the eyes and maintains a width up to the nose, with a blunt edge, forming a right angle in profile with respect to the lower line of the jaws, proportional to the size of the cranial part. The lower jaws are wide throughout. Nose with wide open nostrils when viewed from the front, flat, not upturned in profile. The lips are not saggy and do not fall below the level of the lower jaw.

Eyes. Dark or hazelnut colors of medium size, planted widely - to the width of the muzzle, separated by a median furrow. Light or yellow eyes are a vice.

The ears. V-shaped, hanging, set wide and high, on the line of the occipital protuberance, give the skull the appearance of a square, which is very important. The ears should be small and darker in color than the torso; in the alert state, the ends of the ears are at eye level. "Pink" ears are not allowed.

Jaws The bite is straight, for example a small snack, but this is undesirable. The fangs are large, widely spaced, the remaining teeth are strong, even, correctly positioned.

Neck. With a good bend, moderate length, very muscular, girth almost equal to the girth of the skull.

Forelegs and front of the body. The chest is wide, deep, well lowered, with a deep sternum. The shoulders are muscular, sloping and strong, but not overloaded. The forelimbs are powerful and straight, with a good skeleton and a wide set, representing an even frontal part. Metacarpus strong and sheer.

Torso. The back is short and straight, giving the dog a compact look, but not so short as to restrict the dog's free movements. Soft and sunken back - vices.

Hind limbs. The loin is wide and muscular, the sides are quite deep. The hind legs are strong and muscular with well-defined legs, indicating strength and activity, but without signs of clumsiness. The hocks are slightly sloping. "Korovina" - the adjacent hock joints - a vice.

Paws Well curved (cat's paw), fingers rounded, pads firm. Size is a vice.

Tail. Set high, strong at the base, tapering towards the end, reaches a hock lengthwise, holds straight or with a slight bend, but not in the manner of a hound. Broken tail is a vice.

Movement. Strength and determination should be felt in the movements. When moving forward, neither the front nor the hind limbs should overlap and intertwine, the right front and left hind legs rise and fall at the same time. Strong shocks of the hind limbs do not violate the flat top line, which indicates the balance and harmony of movements.

Wool. Short and rough, fits snugly to the body, protects the dog well from the weather. Long, silky or wavy coat is not permitted.

Color. Any tone of brindle, fawn or red, but must be clean, without impurities. A small white spot on the chest is acceptable. The appearance of white spots in other places is a vice. A dark mask is required, with a characteristic piping around the eyes, giving a special expression.

The size. Height at the withers. Males 63.5-68.5 cm (25-27 inches), females 61-66 cm (24-26 inches). Weight. Males 49.9 kg (110-130 pounds), females 41-49 kg (90-110 pounds).

Vices. Any non-compliance with the standard should be considered a vice, the seriousness of the attitude to the vice should be proportional to its degree.

Remarks. In males, the testes should be fully lowered into the scrotum.

"The Welsh and West of England Bullmastiff Society." Treasurer: Mrs. M. Bisatt.

Author's translation from English by E.Kazankova.

Vladimir Pilyugin "Bullmastiff. A Practical Guide for Dog Breeders". Moscow, 1999

Date of publication of the official standard - 06.24.1987

FCI classification: Group II - dogs of the Pincher and Schnauzer type, molosoids, mountain type dogs and Swiss shepherds.

Section 2.1. - Shaped molosoids. Without working trials.

Appearance. Powerful and harmonious addition. Very strong, despite its weight. Strong and active dog.

Specifications. Strong, active, reliable and very hardy.

Temperament and behavior. Energetic, alert and faithful.

Cranial region. Skull - the skull is wide and square from any angle. Many wrinkles may appear when the dog is interested in something but not at rest. The circumference of the skull may be equal to the height at the withers of the dog. The skull is wide and heavy. Cheeks are full. Nasofrontal angle (transition from the forehead to the muzzle) - clearly expressed

Front part. The muzzle is short. The length of the muzzle from the tip of the nose to the apex of the nasofrontal angle approximately corresponds to one third of the distance from the tip of the nose to the center of the occipital protuberance. The muzzle is wide under the eyes and its width remains approximately the same to the tip of the nose. The muzzle is blunt and square, makes a right angle with the upper line of the forehead and at the same time, the cranial proportions are preserved. The lower jaw is wide to its brim.

Nose - wide, with wide open nostrils. Rounded, not pointed and not raised in profile. The brews are not saggy and never fall under the lower jaw.

Eyes - dark or hazelnut colors. Situated along the width of the muzzle and separated by a small notch. Light or yellow eyes are categorically undesirable.Ears - U-shaped, high-ranking and adjacent to the head. Widely placed at the level of the occipital protuberance, giving the skull a square appearance, which is a very important point. The ears are small. Their color is darker than the color of the body. When the dog is alert, the tips of the ears are at eye level. Ear folding (pink ears) is not allowed.

Jaw / teeth - A direct bite is adequate, a small snack is allowed, but without preference. Fangs are large and widely spaced. Other teeth are strong and evenly spaced.

Neck. Arcuate, not very long and muscular, its circumference is almost equal to the circumference of the skull.

Torso. The back is short and straight, but not enough to affect movement. The back gives the dog a compact look. A humpback or sagging back is not allowed. The loin is broad and muscular, the sides are quite deep. Chest - broad and deep, well lowered between the front legs. The front of the chest is deep.

Tail. Highly set. Strong at the base and gradually tapering towards the end, reaching the level of the hock joints. Straight or slightly bent up, but not like a hound. A twisted (like a bulldog) tail is highly undesirable.

Forelimbs. The front legs are strong and straight with strong bones. Seen from the front, the legs are straight, widely spaced. The shoulders are sloping, strong, muscular, but not overloaded. The metacarpus is straight and strong.

Hind limbs. The hind legs are strong and muscular, but not heavy. Shin well developed, free in movements. Hock joints with moderate angles. Korovin is a serious vice. Paws - with a pronounced arch. Cat's paw with rounded toes and hard pillows. Dark claws are desirable. Loose paws are highly undesirable.

Movement. Strong and certain. When the dog moves in a straight line, neither the front nor the hind legs should intersect or bend. The front right foot and the back left should be raised and supported simultaneously. The top line of the back does not change with a strong push of the hind legs, which makes the movements harmonious and balanced.

Wool. Short and stiff to the touch. Protects the animal from the weather. The coat is smooth and well-fitting to the body. Long, wavy or silky hair is highly undesirable.

Color. Any brindle, deer (yellowish brown) or red color. Color should be uniformly uniform. A small white spot on the chest is allowed, but white spots elsewhere are undesirable. A black mask is required, it harmoniously combines with black spots around the eyes, enhancing the expressiveness of the dog.

Size and weight. The height at the withers is from 63.5 to 68.5 cm (25.0-27.0 inches) in males and from 61.0 to 66.0 cm (24.0-26.0 inches) in females. Males weigh between 50.0 and 59.0 kg (110.0-130.0 pounds) and females between 41.0 and 50.0 kg (90.0-110.0 pounds).

Disadvantages. Any deviation from the above criteria is considered a drawback and the severity of these drawbacks depends on the degree of deviation from the standard. Note

Males should have two testes of normal appearance, fully descended into the scrotum.

Comments in pictures.

1. Muzzle 2. Transition from the forehead to the muzzle (feet) 3. Nape (occipital protuberance) 4. Cheek 5. Suspension 6. Neck (top line) 7 Withers 8. Croup 9. Hock joint 10. Metatarsus 11. Fingers 12. Elbow 13. Upper arm 14. Chest 15. Shoulder 16. Chest 17. Groin 18. Upper thigh 19. Lower thigh (lower leg) 20. Knee joint 21. Tail

(transition from forehead to muzzle) -

clearly defined below; smoothed above

and not developed

Wrong set of ears

Correct ear set

Correct standard head

Very flat muzzle with excessively large brylls

Very narrow muzzle

Cow Posture

Incorrect (crescent) posture of limbs

Correct posture of the hind limbs

The correct position of the tail when moving (the left and center figures are correct, the right one is not correct)

On the left there is a long loin and a short croup, which results in a weak, fallen top line, on the right - a very short loin as a result of which the limbs are far apart, which interferes with free movements

On the left - the right thigh, a sufficient angle of the hock, in the middle - the irregular, short thigh and the right angle of the hock, on the right - the wrong angles of the knee and hock

Forefeet: on the left is the sagging metacarpus, in the center is the correct position of the feet, on the right is the loose paw

Chest: on the left - deep chest is correct, on the right - shallow shallow chest

Shoulder angle: wrong on the left (straight shoulder), right - a good angle of the shoulder

Correct bite when viewed from the front and side

Wrong bite - snack (bulldog)

viewed from front and side

Wrong bite - overshot when viewed from front and side

Kennel Club Official Standard

General characteristics of the breed. Temperament of bullmastiff combines high fortitude, reliability, activity, endurance and alertness.

General form. Bullmastiff - a massive, harmoniously built dog, giving the impression of incredible strength, but not rudeness.

Head and skull. When viewed from either side, the skull is large, square in shape, the skin adheres tightly to it, but when the dog is excited or interested in something, it is covered with many folds. The circumference of the skull (measured at the widest point, immediately in front of the ears) can equal the height of the dog at the withers. The skull is wide and deep, with well-defined cheekbones. The muzzle is short, in length (from the nose to the transition point to the forehead), approximately equal to one third of the length of the head (from the nose to the occiput). It is well filled under the eyes, the back of the nose is almost the same width along its entire length (its edges are parallel to each other from the nose to the nose), blunt, as if cut off, of a square format, forms a right angle with the forehead and at the same time proportional to the skull. The lower jaw is wide, not tapering to the chin. When viewed from the front, the nose is wide, with well-spaced and well-opened nostrils, and on the side is flat, not pointed and not upturned. Drums are not loose and do not hang over the edge of the lower jaw. The transition from the forehead to the muzzle is well defined.

Eyes dark or hazel, medium size, spaced apart by the width of the muzzle and separated by a groove.

Defects: light or yellow eyes.

The ears hanging, in the form of an isosceles triangle, and deployed posteriorly, set wide and high, at the back of the head, giving the skull a square format, which is very important. They should be small, painted darker than the main color. If the dog is alert or agitated, the ends of the ears may be at the level of the outer corners of the eyes.

Defects: rose ears.

To fall. The bite is straight, a close snack is allowed, although it is not welcome. The fangs are large, widely spaced. The teeth are strong, arranged linearly.

Defects: irregular arrangement of teeth.

Neck convex, medium length, very muscular, its circumference is almost equal to the circumference of the skull.

Belt of the forelimbs. The chest is wide, deep, lowered between the forelimbs, and the chest is deep. The shoulder blades are muscular, obliquely set and massive, but not loaded. The forelimbs are massive and straight, with a strong skeleton, set wide apart, the front is straight. The pasterns are sheer and strong.

Body. The back is short and straight, providing a compact structure, but not excessive, otherwise the dog will be less active.

Defects: a hunchbacked and arched back.

Belt of the hind limbs. The loin is wide and muscular, the groin is deep and picked up. The hind limbs are strong and muscular, especially in the shin region, which emphasizes the strength and activity of the dog, but not rough. The angles of the hocks are moderately pronounced.

Defects: cow setting of limbs.

Paws small, round, arched (feline), hard pads.

Vices: loose paws.

Tail set high, strong at the base, tapers towards the end, which reaches the hock. The dog carries it down or slightly lifts, but not like a hound.

Vices: a low set tail resembling a crank handle.

Wool short and stiff to the touch, well protecting from the weather.

Defects: long, silky to the touch or curly coat.

Color - any shade of pure and clear tones: brindle, deer or red. A small white spot on the chest is allowed, but undesirable. Requires a dark mask on the face and around the eyes, giving the dog proper expression, and dark claws.

Defects: white spots located on any part of the body, except for a small spot on the chest.

Weight and height. Height at the withers: males - 63.5-68.5 cm, females - 61-66 cm. Weight: males - 50-59 kg, females - 41-50 kg. It should be borne in mind that the height of the dog at the withers should correspond to its weight. Particular attention should be paid to the strong build and activity of the animal.

Movement serve as an indicator of the power and purpose of the dog. During movement, the limbs should not be connected or crossed. The right front and left hind limbs should rise and fall at the same time, the back should remain straight, only then will it withstand the powerful repulsive force of the hind legs, providing balanced and harmonious movements.

Douglas B. Olif "Mastiff and Bullmastiff"

Comments on Standards

Temperament. At present, the bullmastiff breed is being bred for use as a guard dog, effective during the day and especially sensitive at night. The character is restrained, without a pronounced aggressive reaction, but at the same time, dogs of this breed should be able to distinguish the owners' friends from their possible enemies.

General form. Bullmastiff must combine the power of a mastiff, mobility and vitality of a bulldog. By power is meant a strong skeleton, good development of musculature poured by strength, and a wide and deep chest. Weight must be within the limits specified in the standard. But at present, a lot of dogs with lightweight bones, especially bitches, have appeared at exhibitions in Russia. In order to somehow hide these shortcomings, the owners begin to overfeed them intensely: they try to cover up poverty with a "fat coat". It seems that in this case the weight has reached the desired, but the dog’s functionality is sharply reduced. Also, in a number of cases, a pronounced body volume of bullmastiff is noted, especially in males, due to an increase in muscle mass. And here it must be remembered that the figure of the bullmastiff should be muscular, but not very voluminous, as the criterion is the functionality of the dog. Bitches, despite their femininity, must maintain a powerful bullmastiff figure.

Head and cranial part. The head is square in shape, wide and powerful with a slightly rounded cranial part and is covered with wrinkles. Wrinkles are typical of bullmastiff, especially on the cheeks. According to most expert dog handlers, bullmastiff wrinkles are always present, and not "only in a wary state," as written in the standard. The forehead is wide, square. The size of the muzzle should be about one third in relation to the length of the head. And here it is necessary to know that if the muzzle of the bullmastiff is shorter than the indicated sizes, then it approaches its shape to the shape of the muzzle of the bulldog. Accordingly, such a change also affects other parts of the head, namely, shortening, first of all, of the upper jaw, impaired free passage through the nasal passages, protrusion of the lower jaw, and the correct position of the teeth. The result of this will be a pronounced folding of the skin and an increase in the number of wrinkles on the head and cheeks, overhanging eyebrows, increased snacking. Otherwise, say, a bulldog appearance is manifested. Therefore, the muzzle is slightly longer than one third from the tip of the nose to the occipital tubercle is more desirable, since this will not entail possible disturbances in physiological respiration. But, of course, clearly a long, and even more narrow muzzle is also undesirable. Therefore, the size of the muzzle of at least one third of the length of the head with a smooth transition to the frontal part is the most optimal option. The nose is wide, square, its height is equal to the width, with wide open nostrils of black color.

Eyes. Widely spaced and deep set eyes, having an average size and almond shape. Gross flaws are closely spaced eyes, as well as large and rounded. The last signs are persistently transmitted to offspring. A noticeable third eyelid (ectropy), an inversion of the eyelids with signs of eyelashes wrapped inside (entropy) and increased discharge from the eyes are disadvantages. Bright eyes change the expression on the face of a bullmastiff. This is a vice that is steadfastly inherited and very difficult to eradicate. Eyes should always be dark.

The ears. V-shaped, widely and high set at the level of the occipital protuberance, small, tight-fitting to the head, darker than the color of the body. When alert, the ends of the ears should be at eye level.

Bite. Big even teeth are white. The bite is straight. A small snack is acceptable, but undesirable. Nowadays, bullmastiffs with an incomplete set of teeth, with a significant bite and a narrowed lower jaw, protruding in front so that even the lower teeth are exposed, are very common. An excessive snack, in which the muzzle cannot have the desired shape and resembles a bulldog in profile, is completely unacceptable. But this problem also has a second, no less important, significance. A normal set of teeth for a bullmastiff is 42. There are 20 in the upper jaw and 22 teeth in the lower jaw. Each jaw has 6 incisors. On each side of the incisors are large teeth, curved like sabers - fangs. Behind them are located on both sides 4 premolars (the smallest teeth behind the fangs). On each side in the upper jaw behind the premolars are 2 large molars and three molars on each side in the lower. In the process of eating food, in the presence of a snack or "bulldog", the purpose of the teeth changes. So, the incisors with a direct and slight snack are used to bite off pieces of food. With a significant snack, the incisors serve as fangs, performing the functions of capturing and holding prey, and the large premolars in the upper jaw and the first molar in the lower jaw affect the food like incisors: bite off the pieces and grind them. The degree of wear of the dental system with a pronounced snack in the bullmastiff is much higher than with normal bites.

Neck. With a good bend, moderate length, very muscular, in volume almost equal to the circumference of the skull, smoothly passes into the muscular trunk. It is important that its proportions are maintained. A slightly elongated neck in dogs with a powerful physique gives them a certain originality. But here a short loaded neck is often accompanied by a pronounced suspension in combination with short stature.

Chest. Wide, deep, lowered to the elbows. But dogs with low stature and such breasts cause thoughts of too developed muscles that prevent them from moving. Narrow chest is often combined with the size of the forelimbs. This is a serious flaw. Now we have to observe bullmastiffs, most often from European populations and their descendants, with a shallow chest depth. This is a serious drawback, which is reflected in its functional ability - the lung capacity of such individuals is much less and, accordingly, its endurance is lower.

Forelegs and front of the body. The front legs should be straight and parallel to each other. Only with such legs will the movements of the forepaws be straightforward.

Back. Straight, short, strong. A slightly elongated back is not a disadvantage if the dog moves freely. A sagging back is a flaw. The back should be balanced with the front. The top line gradually fades away. The loin is broad and muscular. The hind legs should be well spaced, strong and muscular, as well as the front.The hocks are slightly inclined, the distance from the ground to them should be small. Bullmastiff is a compact dog, her figure should be dense. Common disadvantages include narrow hips, eversion of the hock joints outward when walking, and with all this, the rotation of the paws inward.

Hind limbs. Tall, feline, with a pronounced arch. A common drawback - loose legs - is associated with long claws and insufficient training of the dog on hard ground.

Tail. It reaches the hocks in length. Powerful at the base, it gradually decreases in volume to the tip. The tail is set high and, as it were, is slightly bent upward, being a natural extension of the back. In a calm state, it should deviate slightly to the right or left, but should not hang like a hound, and in movements should not rise vertically. Tail deformation, in my opinion, is a serious flaw. The degree and form of deformation may vary. According to my data, such a defect is often combined with hip dysplasia, narrow pelvic bones, and a pronounced snack. This vice is persistently transmitted to offspring. The standard says that the tail is straight, that is, it does not rise above the back, only the end is turned slightly upward. But the deformed tail cannot even be in a calm position in this position, not to mention its negative effect on the movements of the dog itself.

Wool. Short, coarse and dense. Long and wavy hair is considered a vice. Color, except for the tiger color, should be monophonic, pure. A small white spot on the chest is allowed, but it is also undesirable, except for dogs with a tiger color. Today we are witnessing a dangerous trend of an increase in the number of bullmastiffs with a red two-ton color and not only with a lightened color to fawn, but also almost white on the chest, abdomen and inner surface of the legs. Douglas Oliff warned of this alarming situation back in the mid-80s. The "sable" coat color, that is, a dirty color due to the black ends of the hair, is a serious drawback.

Movement. Bullmastiff should be a good runner and maintain stability during movement. Legs move straight, pushing off the ground. Forelegs should not protrude either inward or outward. They accordingly directly produce tremors from the earth. The hind legs are also extended forward when moving parallel to each other with sufficient intensity. There should be no hovering of the back while running.

When fulfilling all the requirements of the standard, American canine experts prefer more massive specimens.

Vladimir Pilyugin "Bullmastiff. A Practical Guide for Dog Breeders". Moscow, 1999

FCI-based breed standard

Country of origin. Great Britain.

General form. In its origin lies 60% of the blood of mastiffs and 40% - of bulldog type dogs. Massive, somewhat squat, but not bulky dog.

Sexual type. It is expressed. Males with a more massive head, larger, more courageous. Bitches are slightly easier to build.

Disadvantages. A slight deviation from the sexual type.

Vices. Sharp deviations from the sexual type, males in the bitch type.

Featuresbehavior and character. A well-balanced, watchful, distrustful of strangers, with a sense of dignity, with an unbridled courageous, but friendly character dog.

Disadvantages. Inhibition, timidity, nervousness.

Vices. Phlegm, cowardice, excessive aggression towards outsiders.

Type of constitution. Strong, with elements of dampness. The backbone is strong, massive, muscular relief, well developed. The skin is elastic, freely lying, but without wrinkles and wrinkles. Small folds are allowed at the withers and on the head (when the dog is excited and disappearing at rest).

Disadvantages. Some lightness or rudeness of addition, weak muscles.

Vices. Significant lightness or roughness of build, loose muscles, obesity or exhaustion, excessively damp or dry head.

Height and weight. Height at the withers: for males - 63.5 -68.5 cm, for females - 61-66 cm. Weight: for males - 50-59 kg, for females - 41-50 kg.

Disadvantages. For males, the growth fluctuation is 1 cm, for females 2 cm.

Vices. Male growth 70 cm or 62.5 cm, female - 59 cm or 68 cm.

Format. Approaching the square. The format index is 102 - 104.

Disadvantages. Minor deviations from the specified format.

Vices. Shortened or stretched format.

Coat. The coat is straight, shiny, short, tight-fitting, thick, without undercoat.

Disadvantages. Harsh, not thick enough coat.

Vices. Tough, long, wavy coat

Color. Fawn, red, tiger - with a black mask and deer. Color should be clear and vibrant. A white mark on the chest is allowed.

Disadvantages. A small white mark on the chest, blurry, poorly marked mask on the face.

Vices. Large white markings on the chest, legs, tip of the tail, dirty gray coating on the coat.

Head. Large, massive, square format. The cranial part is very voluminous (equal to the height of the dog at the withers), the skin on the head forms wrinkles when the dog is interested or concentrated in something. Cheeks are underlined, muscular. The transition from the forehead to the muzzle is well defined. The length of the muzzle is 1/3 of the length of the head. The lines of the skull and muzzle are parallel. The muzzle is square, the upper lip is moist, fleshy, does not form large brules (does not extend beyond the lower edge of the jaw), and in profile forms a right angle with the back of the nose. Lip rims are black. The nose is slightly flattened, wide, large (not upturned), black. The lower jaw is massive, square.

Disadvantages. A dry, lightish, rather rough head, not enough loose skin, a somewhat rounded, narrowish or longish skull, a longish, narrowish muzzle, and dry lips.

Vices. A light, rough, excessively damp or dry head, a domed or narrow skull, thin and flat parietal muscles, an overestimated occipital protuberance, cheekbones, flat cheeks, a long, excessively short (less than 1/2 the length of the skull), upturned or lowered, narrow or wedge-shaped muzzle, incomplete pigmentation of the nose, narrow nostrils, excessively damp, lowered or excessively short, not covering the teeth and tongue with the mouth closed, and incomplete pigmentation of the border of the lips.

The ears. Short, thin to the touch, high and wide set, the edges are rounded, the hair is darker than the main color, or black.

Disadvantages. Ears are low set, thick.

Vices. Ears of the "bud" type, low or close set, thick or long, with wool to match the basic color of the coat.

Eyes. Dark, rounded due to the black glasses around that make up the mask. Wide and low, straight set, slightly enhance a calm, soft, open and good-natured, meaningful expression, with dignity and nobility.

Disadvantages. Lightish, narrowly set eyes.

Vices. Small, recessed, inexpressive eyes, bulging, with moist eyelids, closely set eyes, bright, without a dark outline around the eyes, incomplete pigmentation of the eyelids, ectropy or entropy, protrusion of the third century.

Teeth. Large, white, strong, incisors are located in one line (preferably) or in a checkerboard pattern. The bite is straight, although a dense snack is allowed.

Disadvantages. Teeth not worn out by age, with the initial effects of caries, the presence of broken or extra incisors, if this does not interfere with determining the correctness of the bite.

Vices. Carious teeth, lack of any two teeth, incisor or canine, horizontal teeth, rare, small teeth, narrow (terrier) lower jaw, a bite to move away, so that the upper lip does not cover the teeth, scissor bite.

Neck. Medium length, with a beautiful scruff line and suspension (moderately pronounced, not coarse and not heavy), powerful, medium set.

Disadvantages. Longish or shortish, dryish, low-set, neck with insufficient musculature.

Vices. Short, low set, with a large suspension or dry, long, high set, as well as a loose neck.

Withers. Moderately pronounced, muscular, shoulder blades long, obliquely set, tightly pressed to the back.

Disadvantages. Weak withers, slightly free shoulder blades.

Vices. Short, light, narrow or loaded withers, sheer, loose or sharp shoulder blades.

Back. Short, straight, wide, muscular, with a straight top line.

Disadvantages. Soft, narrow, weak, slightly convex back.

Vices. A long, narrow, sagging, hunchbacked back.

Loin. Strong, broad, short, muscular, slightly convex.

Disadvantages. Weak, narrowish lower back.

Vices. Narrow, long, weak, sagging or humpback loins.

Croup. Muscular, moderately broad, moderately sloping.

Disadvantages. Weak, straight croup.

Vices. Long, narrow, weak, horizontal or sharply sloping croup.

Tail. High set, medium length, gracefully repeats the line of the back, with a wide strong base, tapering to the end, with shorter hair than on the body. In a calm state it is lowered downward; during movement it does not rise above the back line.

Disadvantages. Tail with insufficient growth.

Vices. Low set, long or short, with bends or with a kink at the tip, when excited, rises above the line of the back.

Chest. The chest is long, moderately wide open, wide and deep. The ribs are rounded.

Disadvantages. Flat, narrow, small, short chest.

Vices. A squishy or barrel-shaped, small or shortened chest.

Stomach. Moderately tightened.

Disadvantages. Overly tight or straight stomach.

Vices. Belly with a blast, lowered belly.

Forelimbs. Seen from the front, moderately wide set, straight and parallel. The length of the forelimbs is half the height at the withers. The shoulder girdle is well developed, muscular, shoulders obliquely set. The forearms are long and steep. Elbows are directed strictly back and pressed to the body. Metacarpus short, set almost vertical.

Disadvantages. Short-legged or high-legged, narrow-set, straight shoulder, elbows somewhat deployed, soft metacarpals.

Vices. Narrow or excessively wide set of limbs, a loaded shoulder girdle, a straight or oblique shoulder, free elbows, twisted forearms, weak, sharply inclined metacarpals, goat.

Hind limbs. When set at the front, when viewed from the back, straight and parallel, covered with embossed muscles. When viewed from the side of the thigh and lower leg rather obliquely set. The knee joints are somewhat flattened. The legs are long, the hocks are lowered low, with well-defined angles. Metatarsus are short, strong, strong, almost vertically set.

Disadvantages. Slight deviations from hind limb posture, narrowly or broadly set limbs, slightly straightened corners of the hind limbs, weak muscles on the hips, slight rapprochement in the hock joints.

Vices. Narrow or wide set of limbs, pronounced deviations from parallel set, sharp forward, saber set, very close hock joints, barrel-shaped set, soft metatarsus.

Paws Round, arched, in a lump. The nails are large, short, dark.

Disadvantages. Oval paws.

Vices. Loose paws, light claws.

Movement. Strong, free, confident.

Disadvantages. Several related movements, raised in the movement of the croup, horizontal movement of the croup.

Vices. Related, raking movements, mincing gait or waddle, vertical movement of the croup, limitation of mobility in the joints.

Disqualifying Vices. Cryptorchidism is one-sided or two-sided, male growth is higher than 70 cm or lower than 62.5 cm, bitches are lower than 59 cm or higher than 68 cm, weight is excessive or insufficient, bite is a snack with waste, in which teeth and tongue are visible with closed mouth , overshot, absence of 4 teeth in any combination (except P1 and M3), brown or depigmented nose, lips, eyelids, lack of mask, white marks with an area of ​​more than 25%, color not specified in the standard, aggression towards the owner, cowardice, amble .

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