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Mesh foot-and-mouth disease (Eremias grammica)

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FISHED LEAF (Eremias grammica) It differs from other foot-and-mouth disease in Russia by its long pointed muzzle, thick neck and massive body with relatively short strong legs, all fingers of which are edged at the edges with flat triangular denticles - “sand skis”. On top, it is grayish-yellow in color with a greenish or brownish tint and a more or less dense mesh pattern formed by closely converging interrupted brownish-black rings. Black transverse stripes are located on the upper side of the tail. The bottom is yellowish or white. It reaches 28–29 cm in length, of which about 2/3 are occupied by a slightly thickened tail at the base and gradually tapering. Distributed in the sand deserts of Kazakhstan and Central Asia, in North-East and East Iran, Western Afghanistan and North-West China. This very mobile and fast foot-and-mouth disease lives exclusively on various sands, preferring places with sparse shrubbery. Here, at the base of individual bushes, she pulls out her long burrows, sometimes reaching two meters. It can be quite difficult to catch her, as she runs fast, and hiding under the branches of shrubs, easily eludes pursuit, running behind the opposite side of dense branches. Bypassing the hillock hillocks on all sides, the lizard finds here the most abundant food, which it gets not only from the surface, but also digs it out of the sand. Apparently, the sense of smell plays a very significant role with the help of which it detects insect larvae at a depth of several centimeters. The foot-and-mouth disease digs up the discovered prey with quick and strong movements of the front legs, after which funnels 6–8 cm deep remain on the sand. Its food consists of various beetles, butterflies, caterpillars, ants, cockroaches, spiders, scorpions and, in addition, small lizards as their own and alien species. In late April - early May, the female lays 2-6 eggs. Later, the second, and then, apparently, the third clutch occurs. Young foot and mouth disease 30–35 mm long begin to appear from mid-June.

Mesh foot and mouth disease - Eremias grammica (Licht, 1823)

Scapteira persica Nik., 1900, E. zarudnyi Lantz, 1928

Typical territory: Karakum desert.


The infraorbital flap does not touch the edge of the mouth. The fifth mandibular in most cases concerns the lower lip. The length of the frontal nasal is greater, equal to or less than its width. The infraorbital are always separated by a number of grains from the frontal and frontotemal. Between prefrontal there is no additional shield. The length of the lower edge of the intermaxillary shield is less than the length of the platform with granules in front of the second infraorbital. Around the ninth to tenth ring of the tail 30-50 scales. Upper tail scales highly ribbed. Toes on the sides with long flat scales forming scallops (Fig. 48, 1). The gap between the rows of the femoral pores fits in the length of one row 2-5.5 times, an average of 3.6 times. In the preanal region there are 7-19 scutes.


Fig. 48. The fourth toe of the hind leg from the lower side: 1 - mesh foot and mouth disease, 2 - black-eyed foot and mouth disease, 3 - middle foot and mouth disease


Fig. 49. The back leg of the mesh lizards below

The main background of the upper surface of the trunk in young and adult individuals is gray (sometimes with an olive tint) or grayish-buffy (sand). The dorsal side, the base of the tail and limbs are on top with a more or less pronounced dark gray or brown mesh pattern, among which darker spots are noticeable. On the sides of the body, this pattern disappears, the ventral side is milky white, sometimes with a yellowish tinge (Tables 17, 5).

Distributed in the Central Asian republics, Kazakhstan. Outside the USSR, in the north-eastern regions of Iran and, possibly, in the regions of Afghanistan and North-West China adjacent to the USSR (map 73).


Map 73

Psammophile inhabiting various kinds of semi-fixed sands with sparse grass and shrubbery. It also comes to waving sands and dunes devoid of vegetation, as well as to the outskirts of takyrs. The maximum abundance (22-50 individuals per 1 km of the route) was noted in the Northern and Southern Aral and Southern Balkhash.

It moves along the loose sand very quickly, with the pursuit circling around the bush, hiding in a hole only in extreme danger. It can quickly bury itself in the sand. Burrows 30-100 cm long are located at the base of the bushes, summer holes are in the surface layer, winter depths are up to 70 cm. In the south of the range, winter hibernation is interrupted on warm days, in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan it lasts only about 3 months (December - February) in Kazakhstan - about 6 months (active from early April to mid-October). In the early spring (February, March) and autumn (September, October) there is a single peak activity, in the summer - a two peak.

The time of appearance on the surface depends on temperature conditions: in spring - towards the middle of the day, in summer usually at 7-8 hours (break from 12 to 16 hours), at soil temperature +20. + 54.5 ° C. On warm winter days, it eats ants, prefers beetles in early spring, the diet is more diverse in summer and autumn, the leading place is occupied by butterfly caterpillars (24-82.7%), beetles and their larvae (42.8-72.3%), and hymenoptera (38.4-71.4%). Sometimes it eats small roundheads and its own juveniles; plant debris is also found in the stomachs. Can dig out insects and their larvae from sand.

Mating - in March, egg laying from early April, more often in May, lasts until early August. During the season there are 2, possibly 3 clutches of 1-6 eggs 8-10 × 15-18 mm in size. Yearlings 25.5-31 mm long appear in June-July and August.

In Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, foot-and-mouth disease becomes mature in May - June of the following year with a minimum trunk size of 61 mm; in the Balkhash region, they begin reproduction at the age of 12-14 months with a trunk length of 55 mm in females and 60 mm in males.

Habitat

Mesh foot-and-mouth disease (Eremias grammica) distributed in northeastern Iran, Turkmenistan, flat Uzbekistan, southwestern Tajikistan, northern Afghanistan, southern Kazakhstan, to the north it reaches the south of the Aktobe, Dzhezkazgan and Semipalatinsk regions, probably there is also in the extreme west of China. This lizard lives in deserts, found only on sand with sparse vegetation. She runs very fast, sometimes rising on her hind legs, hiding well among the branches of shrubs. At the base of the shrubs, mesh lizards dig long burrows reaching a depth of 2 m.

Appearance

At mesh foot and mouth disease very characteristic long, pointed at the end of the muzzle, thick neck and massive body. The length of the body of this small lizard reaches 28-30 cm, and the tail length in it is slightly more than one and a half times greater than the body. On the toes there are special long and flat extended scales - "sandy skis" that allow you to move around on loose soil. The main background of the upper side of the body of the mesh lizard is gray with a brownish or slightly greenish tint. The back, neck, upper side of the base of the tail and legs are covered with a black-gray or dark brown mesh pattern, often with separate black spots, traces of such a pattern are weakly expressed or completely absent on monochromatic sides. The underside is milky white, often with a yellowish tinge. On the tail there are black transverse stripes on top.

Lifestyle & Nutrition

As shelters for foot-and-mouth disease, it uses burrows of desert rodents, as well as its own burrows up to 1 m long and up to 70 cm deep, which are usually dug up at the base of bushes. These reptiles are able to quickly bury themselves in loose sand and move in its thickness up to distances of 2-3 m. Mesh lizard feeds on various, mainly small invertebrates, mainly insects, among which at different times of the year beetles, caterpillars, hymenopterans, including ants, predominate butterflies, orthoptera, dipterous, and, in addition, spiders, scorpions, phalanges. Almost everywhere, a large place in the diet of these reptiles is occupied by the larvae and pupae of beetles, which are found and dug by foot-and-mouth disease by immersing the muzzle in the sand. In addition, they can eat young lizards of many other species, as well as the fruits and leaves of plants. In search of prey, mesh foot-and-mouth disease is able to cover a distance of 1-2 km per day, while examining an area of ​​up to 6 thousand square meters. m. She can find prey under a layer of earth and sand, discovering it with the help of her well-developed sense of smell.

Reproduction and wintering

Breeding mesh foot and mouth disease occurs from late April to early May. The female lays 2-6 eggs. A total of 2 or 3 masonry is done. Young foot and mouth disease appears from mid-July. Foot and mouth disease reaches puberty at the age of 12-14 months.

In the north of the range, the mesh lizard is active from early April to mid-October. In its southern regions, wintering lasts no more than three months - from December to February, but even in this period, in the presence of warm weather, it can sometimes leave wintering shelters for heating under the sun. Mating in different parts of the range occurs in March - early April. From April to early August there are two, possibly three clutches of 4-6 eggs 8-10 x 16-18 mm in size. Young lizards 26-40 mm long begin to hatch from mid-July. Young generation of the first generation in the south of the range reaches puberty by the summer of next year with a body length of 55-60 mm. Young animals of later generations, apparently, become sexually mature only after the second wintering.

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