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Color variability and phenotypic differentiation of the hairy forest ant Formica lugubris Zetterstedt, 1838 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Baikal region Text of a scientific article in the specialty - Biological Sciences

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Stem shape at the back:

In the European part of Russia and Western Siberia it is found in dense spruce forests on heavy soils. In the north of the Moscow region it lives exclusively in old spruce and mixed forests. The most cold-loving species from the group F. rufa and, meeting with other species, he always chooses shady forests for nesting than F. rufa and F. polyctena.

Habitats: Palearctic taiga zone, mountains of Western Europe. It is found to the east of Baikal south of the taiga zone, including in the deciduous forests of Primorsky Krai, where it is the only species from this group. It also lives in the mountains of Japan. In the European part of Russia south of Moscow is not found.

Abstract of a scientific article in biological sciences, author of a scientific paper - Antonov Igor Alekseevich, Gilev Alexey

The results of studying the variability of the hairy forest ant Formica lugubris Zett are presented. in the Baikal region. Phenotypic differentiation of ants populations was revealed. Three groups of hairy forest ant populations are distinguished, differing in color. In the western and eastern groups, the darker version of Pn 4 prevails, in the central one, the lighter version of Pn 3. As a result, the pattern of variability associated with the population structure has not yet been revealed in the studied territory, similar to that found for other species of red forest ants on the Middle Ural. So far, it has not been possible to identify any trends of variability that could be interpreted as probable ways of dispersal of a hairy forest ant from glacial refugia. However, the presence of three phenotypically distinct groups of ants populations suggests that they could have settled from three different local refugia. A similar pattern of variability was previously identified for the northern forest ant Formica aquilonia Yarr. in the Baikal region.

The text of the scientific work on the theme “Color variability and phenotypic differentiation of a hairy forest ant Formica lugubris Zetterstedt, 1838 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Baikal region”

Series “Biology. Ecology »I C V E S T I

2016.V. 15.P. 47-54 Irkutsk

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Color variation and phenotypic

differentiation of a hairy forest ant

Formica lugubris Zetterstedt, 1838 (Hymenoptera,

Formicidae) in the Baikal region

1 2 I.A. Antonov, A.V. Gilev

'' Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry SB RAS, Irkutsk 2, Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch of RAS, Yekaterinburg E-mail: [email protected]

Annotation. The results of studying the variability of the hairy forest ant Formica lugubris Zett are presented. in the Baikal region. Phenotypic differentiation of ants populations was revealed. Three groups of hairy forest ant populations are distinguished, differing in color. The darker version of Pn 4 prevails in the western and eastern groups, and the lighter version of Pn 3 in the central one. As a result, the pattern of variability associated with the population structure has not yet been revealed in the studied territory, similar to that found for other species of red forest ants on Middle Urals. So far, it has not been possible to identify any trends of variability that could be interpreted as probable ways of dispersal of a hairy forest ant from glacial refugia. However, the presence of three phenotypically distinct groups of ants populations suggests that they could have settled from three different local refugia. A similar pattern of variability was previously identified for the northern forest ant Formica aquilonia Yarr. in the Baikal region.

Key words: red forest ants, variability, phenotypic differentiation, Baikal region.

In our previous article, the results of studying the variability of the northern forest ant Formica aquilonia Yarr were presented. This work is devoted to another species of red forest ants inhabiting the Baikal region - the hairy forest ant F. lugubris Zett.

Hairy Forest Ant F. lugubris Zett. It is also a widespread species of red forest ants inhabiting the entire taiga region of Eurasia. In the Baikal region, it is mainly found in forest-steppe regions 1, 10. Unlike the northern forest ant, it is less prone to the formation of superfamily structures (colonies and federations), and, as a result, large settlements, more often occurring in the form of single families. Most of its range is quite rare. This species is also characterized by significant variability of morphological characters, including color signs 3, 5.

This work describes for the first time the variability in color of working individuals and the phenotypic differentiation of the ant F. lugubris Zett. Baikal region.

Materials and methods

Material for the work was collected on the territory of the Baikal region in 1998-2010. Formica nests were recorded on routes up to 5 km long. On each route, all ant nests encountered were taken into account. Samples of 30-50 working individuals were taken from the dome of each of the anthills discovered to determine species affiliation and study variability.

The description of the color variability of ants was carried out according to the previously proposed scheme. The coloration of the head and chest was studied in all the collected ants. In this paper, we analyze the signs of coloration of the anterior and middle chest, according to which the most interesting and meaningfully interpreted results were obtained. As a dimensional characteristic, the length of the chest was used. In most of the samples studied, the sizes of ants were close, and the alignment procedure was not carried out. All measurements were carried out using the MBS-10 binocular. Material processing was performed using Excel from MS Office 2003.

Results and discussion

The frequency of occurrence of color variants of the anterior and middle chest of working individuals of a hairy forest ant in the studied samples is shown in the table. It can be seen that in this species, as well as in the northern forest ant, significant phenotypic differentiation is observed, different variants dominate in different samples. This is consistent with previously obtained results on the variability of this species.

Upon closer examination, it turns out that samples of a hairy forest ant with a predominance of different color options are not randomly distributed over the studied territory. Three large regions can be distinguished, within which there is a high phenotypic similarity of the samples — western (okrug of the village of Mondy, okrug of the village of Arshan), eastern (okrug of the city of Severobaikalsk, okrug of the village of Severomuisk) and central (all other samples) .

In fig. Figure 1 shows the frequencies of the most popular colorings of the anterior and middle chest of a hairy forest ant. It is clearly seen that in the western and eastern groups the Pn 4 variant prevails. However, in the western samples the second most frequent occurrence is the Pn 5 variant, the third is the Pn 3 variant. In the eastern samples, the second most frequent occurrence is Pn 3, and the third - Pn 5 A change in the dominant variants occurs in the central group, the Pn 3 variant prevails, the second most frequent occurrence is the Pn 4 variant, which dominated the first two groups, and the third is the Pn 5 variant (see Fig. 1, a).

LICHES OF THE KODAR RIDGE

Frequency of occurrence of breast coloration of working individuals of the hairy forest ant E. lugubris 2nd. in the studied geographical points of the Baikal region

Item No. Item, year of collection Number of copies. Breast length, units approx. Color options

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5

1 Okr. pos. Mondy (Republic of Buryatia), 2002 30 10.17 ± 0.242 - - 0.07 0.50 0.37 0.07 - - 0.50 0.43 0.07

2 Okr. pos. Arshan (Republic of Buryatia), 2010 35 10.64 ± 1.218 - - 0.20 0.46 0.34 - - 0.03 0.49 0.40 0.09

3 Okr. from. Gutai (Trans-Baikal Territory), 1999 38 11.12 ± 0.089 0.32 0.24 0.37 0.08 - - 0.61 - 0.39 - -

4 Okr. from. Romanovka (Republic of Buryatia), 2007 61 10.25 ± 0.135 - 0.13 0.41 0.34 0.10 0.02 0.10 0.10 0.72 0.08 -

5 Okr. Ust-Kut (Irkutsk Oblast), 2010 90 10.62 ± 0.883 0.02 0.37 0.33 0.20 0.08 - 0.11 0.02 0.79 0.08 -

6 Okr. from. Baikal (Republic of Buryatia), 2010 157 9.67 ± 1.115 - - 0.50 0.37 0.12 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.77 0.16 -

7 Okr. Severobaikalsk (Republic of Buryatia), 2010 54 10.12 ± 1.145 - - 0.31 0.67 0.02 - 0.02 0.02 0.83 0.13 -

8 Okr. pos. Severomuisk (Republic of Buryatia), 1998 45 10.68 ± 0.210 0.11 0.09 0.27 0.40 0.13 - 0.36 0.02 0.56 0.07 -

Note: Samples are ordered depending on their spatial phenotypic features.

Fig. 1. Phenotypic differences in the color of the prothorax (a) and mesothorax (b) in the hairy forest ant F. lugubris Zett. in the Baikal region. The samples are ordered depending on their spatial phenotypic features.

Thus, three groups of populations of a hairy forest ant are distinguished in the studied territory, phenotypically differing from each other in the set and frequencies of dominant prothorax variants. In this case, the ants of the central group turn out to be markedly lighter than the ants of the western and eastern groups. If on the map of the region the designation of the prothorax dominant in the samples is indicated with conventional signs, then the picture will become clearer. In this case,

News of Irkutsk State University 2016. V. 15. Series “Biology. Ecology". S. 47-54

It should be noted that the central group of populations is distributed both in the Pre-Baikal region and in Transbaikalia.

The boundaries between these groups of populations are marked by a change in the dominant color options. It is noteworthy that the border between these groups of populations is quite well defined: sometimes the change in the dominant color variants occurs at a distance of only several tens of kilometers (the distance between the village of Baikalskoye and the city of Severobaikalsk where this change of variations is observed is 42 km). This is also consistent with the results obtained for other species of ants.

Fig. 2. Variability of the color of the prothorax and phenotypic differentiation of the hairy forest ant E. 1i ^ bn $ in the Baikal region. Conventional signs show the prevailing color options in the samples. The numbers of collection points correspond to the data in the table.

Some phenotypic differentiation is also observed in the color of the middle chest. In most samples, the Mn 3 variant absolutely prevails. However, in the western group of populations its frequency is about 50%, and the frequency of the second most important Mn 4 variant reaches 40% (Fig. 1, b). In the central group of populations, the frequency of the dominant Mn 3 variant is noticeably higher, about 70-80%, and the frequency of the Mn 4 variant decreases. It should be noted that, according to the color of the middle chest, ants from the vicinity of Severobaikalsk are more likely to belong to the central group of populations. Ants from the vicinity of the village. Severomuisk (eastern group of populations) differ from the ants of the central group in the reduced frequency of the Mn 3 variant and the increased frequency of the light Mn 1 variant. A sample of ants from the vicinity of s. Gutai, in which the light version of Mn 1 is dominant, but this may be due to the fact that in this sample the ants are the largest and, accordingly, light-colored (see table, Fig. 1, b).

It should be emphasized that the coloration of the mesothorax reveals almost the same borders of phenotypic groups as the coloration of the prothorax. Some of the differences noted above may be associated with so far unexplored border effects similar to those that we previously discovered in other species of red forest ants.

Thus, in the Baikal region, a hairy forest ant exhibits a distinct phenotypic differentiation. At least three large groups of populations are distinguished, which differ well in the color of the anterior and middle chest. It should be specially noted that this picture of phenotypic differentiation is almost similar to that found by us in the northern forest ant F. aquilonia Yarr. . Surprising is the fact that the boundaries of the revealed populations of these two species practically coincide. Earlier, we discovered a similar fact of coincidence of population boundaries in several species of Formica s ants. str. in the Middle Urals 4, 5, however, in this case, the scale of the picture is much larger. We can assume the presence of some environmental factors that affect these two species of ants in a similar way and determine the pattern of phenotypic differentiation that we observe. These may be any physical barriers that prevent the dispersal of ants and the flow of genes between groups of populations.

It is also possible that the picture we are observing is the result of the resettlement of these two species from three different local glacial refugiums, the location of which has not yet been established 11, 12, etc. The picture of the variability of ants in this area can be very complicated, and we can hope that further studies will allow us to identify any trends in variability corresponding to the probable paths of postglacial settlement of species 6–8, and to more accurately determine the localization of refugiums.

The authors are sincerely grateful to P. Yu. Gorbunov,

B. L. Semerikov and V. N. Olshvang, who kindly provided ant collections for analysis. This work was partially supported by the development program for leading scientific schools (project NSh-5325.2012.4).

1. Antonov I. A. Landscape-ecological complexes of ants of Baikal Siberia / I. A. Antonov, A. S. Pleshanov // Sib. eco-friendly. journal - 2008. - T. 15, No. 1. - S. 53-57.

2. Antonov I. A. Color variability and phenotypic differentiation of the northern forest ant Formica aquilonia Yarrow, 1955 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Baikal region / I. A. Antonov, A. V. Gilev // Izv. Irkut state un-that. Ser. Biology. Ecology. - 2014 .-- T. 10 .-- S. 42-50.

3. Gilev A. V. Discrete color variations and some patterns of variation in pigmentation of working individuals of red forest ants of the subgenus Formica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) / A. V. Gilev // Zool. journal - 2002. - T. 81, No. 3. -

4. Gilev A.V. The population structure of the northern forest ant Formica aquilonia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Middle Urals / A.V. Gilev // Success Lies. biol. - 2003. - T. 123, No. 3. - S. 223-228.

5. Gilev A. V. Ecological and geographical patterns of variability of ants Formica s. str. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): author. dis. . Dr. biol. Sciences / A.V. Gilev. - Yekaterinburg, 2012 .-- 40 p.

6. Gilev A. V. Intraspecific structure of ants and the probable history of the postglacial settlement of the species / A. V. Gilev // Ants and forest protection: materials of the XIV All-Russia. Mirmekol. symp (Moscow, August 19-23, 2013). - M.: Partnership scientific. ed. KMK, 2013 .-- S. 131-135.

7. Gilev A. V. Color variability of the northern forest ant Formica aquilonia Yarrow, 1955 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the south of Western Siberia in the light of the possible history of its postglacial settlement / A. V. Gilev, S. V. Blinova, S. V. Chesnokova // Vestn. KemSU. - 2012. - No. 2. - S. 6-10.

8. Gilev A. V. Interpretation of the postglacial resettlement of Formica aquilonia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Fennoscandia by variability of color of working individuals / A. V. Gilev, A. V. Mershchiev, D. S. Malyshev // Zool. journal - 2015. - T. 94, No. 10. - S. 1119-1124.

9. Dlussky G. M. Ants of the genus Formica / G. M. Dlussky. - M.: Nauka, 1967 .-- 236 p.

10. Pleshanov A. S. Family Formicidae - ants / A. S. Pleshanov // Pests of Siberian larch. - M.: Nauka, 1966 .-- S. 194-219.

11. Semerikov VL The population structure and molecular systematics of Larix Mill species. : author. dis. . Dr. biol. Sciences / V.L.Semerikov. - Ekaterinburg, 2007 .-- 42 p.

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Color Variability and Phenotypic Differentiation

of the Hairy Wood Ant Formica lugubris Zetterstedt, 1838

(Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Baikal Region

I. A. Antonov1, A. V. Gilev2

'Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry SB RAS, Irkutsk 2 Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, Ekaterinburg

Abstract The results of the study of the variability of Formica lugubris Zett. in the Baikal region were shown. We found a phenotypic differentiation of populations of ants. There are three groups of ant's populations differing on color patterns. The darker Pn 4 morph prevails in the western and eastern groups and the brighter Pn 3 morph prevails in the central group. It is possible that these three groups of populations of ants colonized this region from different local postglacial refugia. Earlier, the similar pattern of variability has been discovered for Formica aquilonia Yarr. in the Baikal region.

Keywords: red wood ants, variability, phenotypic differentiation, Baikal region.

Antonov Igor Alekseevich Candidate of Biological Sciences, Researcher Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry SB RAS 664033, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontov, 132 tel. (3952) 42-45-95 e-mail: [email protected]

Gilev Aleksey Valerievich Doctor of Biological Sciences, Leading Researcher, Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences 620144, Yekaterinburg, ul. March 8, 202 tel. (343) 210-38-58 e-mail: [email protected]

Antonov Igor Alekseevich Candidate of Sciences (Biology), Research Scientist

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