Author: Natalya February 09, 2019 Category: Garden Plants
Plant boxwood (Latin Buxus) - a genus of evergreen slowly growing trees and shrubs of the Samshitovy family, of which in nature, according to recent data, there are about 100 species. They grow in the West Indies, East Asia and the Mediterranean countries. The name of the plant "buxus" is borrowed by the ancient Greeks from an unknown language. In nature, there are three large ranges of boxwood - African, Central American and Euro-Asian. In the culture, boxwood, one of the most ancient ornamental plants, is grown as a pot and garden culture. In warm areas, boxwood shrubs are used not only as hedges and borders - picturesquely formed boxwood bushes adorn gardens and lawns.
Boxwood at home is the most popular culture for bonsai, as it can grow in a small capacity, grows well, has small leaves and tolerates pruning.
Planting and caring for boxwood
- Landing: from mid-September to early October, but if necessary it is possible in the spring and even in the summer.
- Bloom: the plant is grown as a deciduous.
- Lighting: shadow or partial shade.
- The soil: any, but better calcareous, loose and well fertilized.
- Mulching: in early May, a layer of organics 5-8 cm thick.
- Watering: after planting, the first watering - in a week. In the future, regular watering at a flow rate of 1 bucket of water per meter-tall bush. In a drought, watering is carried out according to the same scheme, but the flow rate is doubled.
- Top dressing: after planting, fertilizers are applied no earlier than a month later. Subsequently, during the period of active growth, organic matter and full mineral fertilizers are applied to the soil, and in the fall - only a potassium-phosphorus complex.
- Cropping: in April or early May.
- Reproduction: more often by cuttings, but also by seed method.
- Pests: boxwood gall midges, leaf flakes, ognevki, scale insects, false shields, mealybugs, felt, spider mites and gall mites.
- Disease root rot, rust, shoot necrosis, cancer.
Boxwood plant - description
The leaves of boxwood are opposite, whole-edge, leathery, elliptical or almost round. The flowers are fragrant, small, same-sex, collected in axillary inflorescences. Fruit - a three-nest box, cracking and scattering shiny seeds of black color when ripe. Boxwood is a honey plant, but boxwood honey cannot be consumed, since all parts of the plant are poisonous. Landscape designers boxwood is appreciated for the beauty of the crown, shiny leaves and the ability to tolerate pruning well. Gardeners, among other things, appreciate decorative boxwood for its unpretentiousness and shade tolerance.
When to plant boxwood
If you adhere to the popular wisdom that it is better to plant plants blooming in the spring in the fall, and vice versa, it is better to plant boxwood in the autumn, from mid-September to early October, giving it a month to root before the onset of cold weather. Although some gardeners successfully plant boxwood in the early spring and even in the summer. It is best to plant the plant in a semi-shady or shady place, in clay, moist and permeable soil containing lime. In the bright sunshine, boxwood leaves are quickly damaged.
How to plant boxwood
A day before landing in open ground, boxwood seedlings with a closed root system should be abundantly watered so that it is easier to remove the root system with an earthen lump from the container. It will be even better if you can take out the seedling and immerse its roots in water for a day. The box pit should be about three times deeper and wider than an earthen coma with seedling roots. A 2-3 cm thick perlite drainage layer is placed at the bottom of the pit, and earth removed from the pit is also mixed with perlite in equal parts. The roots of the sapling are straightened, placed in a pit and the roots are gradually covered with a mixture of soil and perlite, trying to avoid the formation of air cavities.
After filling the pit, slightly compact the ground and pour the seedling with rain water (with a seedling height of 15-20 cm, you will need 3 l of water). When the land sags in the pit after watering, add more soil mixtures, but do not compact it anymore. The boxwood trunk should be strictly vertical. At 20-30 cm from the stem, pour a low earthen ramp around the circumference so that during further irrigation the water does not flow, but goes deeper, and cover the near-stem circle inside the circle with a perlite layer 1-2 cm thick.
How to grow boxwood
Growing boxwood is not a hassle, and if you don’t know how to care for boxwood, follow the general rules of gardening and simple logic. After planting, if there is no rain, water the boxwood in a week. Water consumption during further irrigation is approximately one bucket per meter height plant. Water must be poured into the circle that you marked with an earthen roller. Boxwood should be watered in the morning or evening, and during a drought or dry hot winds, boxwood should be watered not more often, but more abundantly.
After watering, the soil must be loosened, while removing weeds from the site. In early May, when the earth has already warmed up enough, the trunk circle of the boxwood is mulched with a peat layer 5-8 cm thick, but in such a way that the mulch in no way comes into contact with the shoots and trunk of the boxwood.
Boxwood care provides for regular plant nutrition. The first time the boxwood is fertilized only a month after planting, if you planted it in the spring, since you can only fertilize a rooted plant. Subsequently, during the period of active growth, complex mineral fertilizers or organics are introduced into the soil, and in the autumn, under digging into the soil, only those fertilizers that contain potassium and phosphorus, since the plant does not need nitrogen in autumn and winter.
A boxwood transplant is best done in the spring, so that the plant can safely root and prepare for winter. Adult plants need to be replanted with a lump of earth. Boxwood transplantation is performed on the same principle as the initial planting, and if you do everything right, the plant will undergo the procedure painlessly.
Boxwood is trimmed in April or early May. You can form a boxwood bush in the form of a geometric figure - most often these are cubes, cones or balls. You can grow boxwood in the form of a standard tree, leaving only the central, strongest shoot on it, and cutting out the rest under the root. Young shoots growing in the upper part of the central shoot of the stem are usually shaped like a ball. Once you have formed a plant, you only have to slightly adjust the shape, as boxwood grows very slowly.
When adjusting, usually only young growth is trimmed, it can only come to trimming old wood if the bush has finally lost the required shape. Boxwood transfers the haircut very easily, moreover, the thicker it is, the more often you cut it. Professionals recommend adjusting the boxwood crown monthly. However, keep in mind: the more often you cut the boxwood, the more often you will have to water and feed it so that it can make up for the loss of nutrients delivered to it by trimmed leaves.
Pests and boxwood diseases
The main enemy of the plant is boxwood gall midge, laying its eggs in early summer in young leaves at the ends of shoots. Hatched larvae eat into leaf tissue and winter there, and in May adult insects appear from their pupae. If the occupation of boxwood by the gall midge is total, its leaves dry and fall off. The fight against boxwood gall midge is carried out by the following preparations: Aktara, Karbofos, Fufanon, Tagore. If after one treatment you did not notice any improvement, repeat the spraying after ten days. The same insecticides will help you in the event of a felting on the boxwood, the vital activity of which is manifested by swelling on the leaves and wilting of shoots. The spider mite that appears on the plant in strong dry land is also destroyed by the listed drugs.
Of the diseases boxwood suffers from necrosis of shoots, accompanied by the death of the ends of the branches and spots on the leaves. This disease is treated with fungicide treatment, and possibly repeated. Worst of all, if boxwood infects cancer. If this happens, cut the affected areas of the plant, grabbing healthy wood, and treat the wounds with Fundazole.
Boxwood in Moscow and Moscow Region
Planting and caring for boxwood evergreen in Moscow and the Moscow Region is not much different from plant farming in other temperate regions. However, in places where winter frosts are very strong, measures to prepare boxwood for winter cannot be neglected. About how to ensure a safe wintering for the plant, read in the appropriate section.
How to propagate boxwood
Boxwood is propagated most often vegetatively, but sometimes the seed method of reproduction is also used. The problem is that boxwood seeds lose their germination very quickly, but if you want to try to grow a bush from a seed, use our recommendations.
Growing boxwood from seeds
Fresh, freshly ripened seeds are soaked for a day in warm water with a growth stimulator - Epin or Zircon. Then they are laid out between two wet (not wet) towels or napkins and wait until white sprouts appear - usually this happens after a month, and all this time you have to keep the fabric in which the seeds are in a wet state. If the sprouts do not appear within 2-3 weeks, put the napkins with seeds for several days in the vegetable box of the refrigerator, and then again move them to a warm room.
After the appearance of white sprouts, the seeds are sown in peat and sand in equal parts, sending the sprouts to the soil, and cover the container with glass or film. The container is kept in a warm place in partial shade and awaits seedlings, which should appear within two to three weeks. As soon as the green sprouts hatch, the film or glass is removed, the container is rearranged in partial shade. Care of seedlings consists in watering and fertilizing young plants with fertilizers of a weak consistency. Strong and grown seedlings are planted in the ground after the return frosts pass.
Boxwood propagation by cuttings
Spring cuttings of boxwood - The most common method of propagation of this shrub. For cuttings, young, strong, but not lignified to the end shoots of 10-15 cm long are harvested, which are cut obliquely, and, having removed leaves from the lower third of the cuttings, they are soaked for a day in a rooting agent solution. Then the cuttings are washed and planted in an open ground of approximately the same composition: old, long overripe compost or humus, sheet land and sand in equal parts.
The composition may be different, the main thing is that the soil is light and nutritious.
Cut the cuttings into the substrate along the very leaves and cover each with a five-liter plastic bottle with a cut bottom. In order to water the stalk, you will need to unscrew the bottle cap and spray inside with water from the spray gun. In the same way, you can ventilate the cuttings daily. The roots begin to form in a month, and in two at the boxwood the root system is already formed, and the bottle can be removed. Do not forget to cover the cuttings with lapnik in the first winter, otherwise they will die.
Boxwood can be propagated by cuttings even in autumn, but they need to be planted in pots, because before the winter they will not have time to root and get stronger, therefore they will surely die even under cover. Cuttings should be brought into a room with a temperature of 10 ºC, where they will wait out the winter cold, and in the spring they are planted in a permanent place.
Boxwood in the fall
The most difficult period in the cultivation of boxwood is winter - the evergreen shrub is very sensitive to cold temperature. In addition, the sleeping root system does not provide the shoots and leaves of boxwood, awakening to life with the first ray of the sun, moisture and nutrition, which makes them dry. That is why it is important to plant boxwood in the shade. And this is why it is so important to take all necessary measures to prepare boxwood for the winter.
Immediately before the onset of frost, in early November, it is necessary to carry out abundant winter-winter water-charging irrigation of boxwood, which will saturate the plants with moisture for the long winter months. After this, you need to mulch the trunk circles with rotted needles or peat. Dry leaves are not suitable for this, because in wet winters they can warm up and provoke the development of fungal diseases in boxwood.
Boxwood shelter for the winter
When the air temperature drops to -10 ºC, proceed to the organization of shelter boxwood. Before covering the boxwood for the winter, the standard plants should be tied to a support so that heavy snowfall does not break the boxwood trunk. After that, completely wrap the stem with non-woven material or tie with spruce branches. In adult boles, the trunk can be whitened, then only the crown of the plant will need to be tied with a cloth. A box fence or hedge from boxwood also needs shelter - they are completely covered with two or three layers of non-woven material or burlap, which are fixed by sprinkling the edges with earth. But first, boxwood bushes need to be tied - large masses of wet snow can break its branches.
Rooted cuttings and young boxwoods are tied with spruce branches, mulching trunks circles with peat or pine needles. Shelter is removed as soon as spring comes, otherwise boxwood can warm up in the heat. They do this on a cloudy day, and not all the coniferous paws and layers of fabric are removed - leave one layer of burlap, lutrasil or spunbond and a little lapnik for shading from too bright spring sun. To accustom boxwood to spring, you need to gradually.
Boxwood evergreen (Buxus sempervirens)
It is widespread in nature in the Mediterranean and the Caucasus, where it prefers to grow in the undergrowth of deciduous and mixed forests, even in dense shade. This tree is up to 15 m high, much less often a shrub. The shoots of this species are straight, tetrahedral, densely leafy, green. The leaves are opposite, almost without petioles, glabrous, shiny, dark green on the upper side of the plate and matte light green, even yellowish, on the bottom. The shape of the leaves is elongated-elliptic, length from 1.5 to 3 cm. Small unisexual greenish flowers are collected in compact capitate inflorescences. The fruit is a small spherical capsule with sashes that open when the seeds ripen. All parts of boxwood evergreen are poisonous! The best varieties:
- Suffruticosis - evergreen shrub, slowly growing strictly vertically up to 1 m in height. Leaves are ovate or obovate, opposite, up to 2 cm long. The flowers are small. The plant is ideal for hedges and borders,
- Blauer Heinz - Squat, slowly growing shrub with stiffer shoots and leathery bluish-green leaves than Suffruticose. This is a relatively new variety that is used to create carpet ornaments no higher than 20 cm. It is more compact and frost-resistant than the previous variety,
- Elegans - dense shrub with a spherical crown up to 1 m high with direct densely leafy shoots and elongated variegated leaves with a white border. Drought tolerant.
Boxwood small-leaved (Buxus microphylla)
Unlike evergreen boxwood, this species is much less sensitive to winter frosts. This is a Korean or Japanese descendant of boxwood, weathering thirty degrees of frost in winter without shelter, but nevertheless in need of shelter from the bright spring sun. The most popular varieties in the culture:
- Winter Jam - A very frost-resistant boxwood variety with a dense crown, which is great for creating small topiary shapes. It tolerates pruning. Rare for boxwoods, a fast-growing variety reaching a height of 1.5 m,
- Faulkner - a compact, slow-growing shrub up to 1.5 m high, most often its bushes are cut in the shape of a ball, which is what the natural growth of the crown has.
Boxwood Colchic or Caucasian (Buxus colchica)
Slow-growing relic of the Tertiary period, which is the most leafy and winter-hardy boxwood of European species. This species lives up to 600 years, reaching a height of 15-20 m, the diameter of the trunk at the base is 30 cm.
Box Balearic (Buxus balearica)
It is the most western type of boxwood. He hails from the Balearic Islands, southern Spain, Portugal and the Atlas Mountains in northern Morocco. This is the largest leafed species of the Euro-Asian area: the Balearic boxwood leaf reaches a length of 4 and a width of 3 cm. It grows quickly, has extremely high decorative qualities, but, unfortunately, it is not winter-hardy.
There are several other types of boxwood that can be cultivated in our climate, but so far they are very rare in our gardens.
Boxwood Botanical Description
The leaves of boxwood are opposite, from elliptical to almost rounded, whole-edge, leathery.
Boxwood flowers are small, unisexual, in axillary inflorescences, fragrant.
The boxwood fruit is a three-nosed box, which, when ripe, crackes and scatters black shiny seeds.
Boxwood. © Tuinieren
In summer, the usual room temperature, although boxwood prefers to be placed outdoors. You can take it to the balcony when the threat of spring frost passes, to bring it in the autumn, with the first cold weather. Boxwood should winter in cool conditions with limited watering. For thermophilic species, the optimum winter temperature is about 16-18 ° C, not lower than 12 ° C. Frost-resistant boxwood species can winter in the open ground with shelter.
Boxwood loves bright diffused light. In summer, shading from the direct midday sun will be required. In the garden, boxwood is placed in the natural shade of higher bushes or trees.
Boxwood spread and ecology
There are three major habitats:
- African - in forests and forest-steppes south of Equatorial Africa and in Madagascar,
- Central American - in the tropics and subtropics south of northern Mexico and Cuba (25 endemic species), American species are the largest-leafed plants of the genus, often reaching medium-sized trees (up to 20 m),
- Euro-Asian - from the British Isles through Southern Europe, Asia Minor and Western Asia, Transcaucasia, China to Japan and Sumatra.
In Russia, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, in the gorges and river valleys in the second tier of deciduous forests, one species grows - Boxwood Colchis, or Caucasian (Buxus colchica). The unique boxwood forest is located in the middle reaches of the Tsitsa River in the Qitsinsky Forestry of the Kurdzhip Forestry in the Republic of Adygea, has the status of a site with a protected conservation regime. Its area is about 200 hectares.
The area of boxwood is constantly reduced due to felling. Especially large areas of boxwood relict forests suffered in the fall of 2009 during the construction of the Olympic road Adler - Krasnaya Polyana. Several thousand trunks were uprooted and buried.
Boxwoods are very unpretentious plants: they grow on rocky scree, on the edges of forests, in shrubbery and dark deciduous forests. Very shade-tolerant, but also heat-loving. In nature they live on slightly acidic soils.
Boxwood Colchis, branches with leaves and fruits. © Lazaregagnidze
Views from the photo
In the nature of boxwood, more than 30 species grow, while there are about a hundred varieties. Each species has found its place in landscape design. Not all varieties of Buchus are hardy. When planting a particular variety, it is necessary to take into account its adaptability to climatic conditions. But all boxwood species have one thing in common - decorativeness created by a haircut, unpretentiousness, beauty.
Evergreen (Buxus sempervirens)
Evergreen (Buxus sempervirens)
Ordinary boxwood is the most common of all types. His homeland is the Caucasus and the Mediterranean. It can often be found in the southern regions. This plant can more likely be called a branched tree than a shrub, as it reaches 15 meters in height. Crohn's bush is lush, dense. Straight branches are covered with dark green glossy leaves, the length of which is three centimeters.
It blooms with small light green flowers that are collected in small inflorescences. Seeds ripen in a box and independently disperse when ripe.
This species is winter-hardy, tolerates small frosts under snow cover.
Evergreen boxwood has a large variety variety, represented by compact shrubs.
Aureavariegata (Buxus sempervirens Aureovariegata)
Compact evergreen tree, reaching a height of just over a meter. The leaves of the plant are small, elongated, rounded, some have a notch closer to the upper part. Green leaf background is decorated with golden spots.
boxwood evergreen Aureavariegata (Buxus sempervirens)
Elegance (Buxus sempervirens Elegans)
A small shrub 1 meter high has a spherical shape, the diameter of which is also about a meter. On a variety of thin shoots, dense motley foliage, decorated with a white edging, grows.
boxwood evergreen elegans (Buxus sempervirens)
Colchic or Caucasian (Buxus colchica)
Colchic or Caucasian (Buxus colchica)
This boxwood variety is listed in the Red Book, as it slowly resumes. It is found in nature in the Krasnodar Territory, the Caucasus, Asia Minor and Georgia. You can see the plant in Turkey. Under natural conditions, life expectancy reaches 600 years. Foliage in an adult plant does not increase in size, it is just as small and decorative.
Colchis boxwood can be called both a tree and a shrub. An evergreen plant grows slowly. Its height ranges from 2 to 12 meters. Leafless leaves are opposite, have an oval shape, usually 1-3 cm long. The upper side of the leaves is dark green in color, the lower side is light green. Yellow-green unisexual flowers bloom in the sinuses of inflorescences. The fruit is a trihedral box with sashes that open when the seeds ripen.
The first flowering shrub can please no earlier than 20 years after planting.
It is not easy to form a perennial crown. It is better to carry out pruning in the spring and summer. It must be remembered that this species grows very slowly, the plant grows green mass for a long time. Trimming the entire crown is not recommended, so as not to expose the plant.
The soil composition for planting boxwood does not play a big role, which can not be said about the drainage, which he really needs. It is good to add birch charcoal to the soil. An ideal soil composition can consist of such parts: deciduous land (2 parts), coniferous soil and sand (one part each).
Small-leaved (Buxus mikrophylla)
Small-leaved (Buxus mikrophylla)
Small-leaved Buxus - a cold-resistant shrub that can withstand low temperatures (up to - 30 degrees). His homeland is China and Japan. The bush is compact, gardeners often call this species dwarf, since the height of an adult plant does not exceed 1.5 meters. It grows slowly, annual growth is 5 centimeters.
The variety is valuable for its decorative spherical shape; it is neat even without a haircut.
The length of leathery dark green leaves is 15 - 25 mm, width - 11 - 15 mm. In spring, inflorescences with fragrant white flowers appear. Seed ripening occurs in boxes.
For planting shrubs, both sunny and shady areas are suitable, the soil loves fertile. Pruning for the formation of the crown is carried out in spring and summer, you can create all kinds of green sculptures. In extreme heat, regular watering is necessary, since the plant is quite hygrophilous. It feels great in containers, is popular in urban landscaping, and is used to compose landscape compositions and decorate flower beds.
Balearic (Buxus balearica)
Balearic (Buxus balearica)
Boxwood of this species is considered the largest, its leaves are bright green in color and reach a length of 5 cm, a width of 3 cm. This evergreen shrub comes from the Balearic Islands, which are located in Spain. It also grows in Portugal and Morocco. You can meet him in the Crimea. It grows quickly, prefers heat, tolerates low temperatures no lower than 18 degrees.
Planting and caring for Balearic boxwood is not particularly different from other types of axle. You can transplant the plant from early spring to late autumn. Young bushes are best planted in the autumn. When grown indoors, a beautiful bonsai requires increased attention, especially when it comes to watering. It is necessary to prevent drying of the soil.
With the help of this decorative perennial, high borders and hedges are created.
Arborescence (Buxus sempervirens Arborescens)
Arborescence (Buxus sempervirens Arborescens)
Ukraine, the Caucasus, the southern coast of Crimea, southern and central Europe are areas of growth of the evergreen perennial. The height of the bush, sometimes also called a tree, reaches two meters. Young shoots of green color as they grow, acquire a gray-brown color. Leaves grow in pairs, have an oval elongated shape, dark green, shiny.
Flowering of the bush begins in early spring (March - April), yellow-green flowers are inconspicuous, collected in brush inflorescences. In tricuspid capsules seeds ripen in the fall.
The plant is shade tolerant and wind resistant. To the composition of the soil, this type of boxwood is undemanding. When planting, drainage is needed to prevent stagnation of moisture, although the shrub is quite hygroscopic. It tolerates heat and prolonged drought. Urban conditions do not impede the growth of this representative of the flora, here he feels good for hundreds of years.
Landing: when and how to plant?
Proper planting plays a big role in its further growth. Boxwood can be grown independently from cuttings or seeds, or you can buy ready-made seedlings in a special store. Usually they are rooted bushes in containers.
When choosing your favorite instance, you need to pay attention to the appearance of the seedling:
- the bush should not be bare, but with leaves - “fluffy”,
- shoots and leaves of saturated green color, yellowness on the leaves indicates a plant disease.
Shrubs can be planted in spring and autumn. Adult culture tolerates transplant well in the summer season, you only need to carefully dig it out with an earthen lump, without damaging the root system. If there is no experience in growing boxwood yet, then it is better to plant it in the spring, so that the seedling will take root in a new place before winter.
The landing rules are as follows:
- Soil preparation. There are no special requirements to the soil composition of the plant, but there is still a preference - sandy and loamy soils. Boxwood will not refuse from nutritious light soil. When planting in fertile land, it quickly adapts, which will affect, in the future, its favorable development. Acidified, dense soils are not suitable for the cultivation of axel. We must not forget such a factor as groundwater. They should not be near the root system.
- Dig a landing hole, the size of which should be larger than the root system with an earthen lump three times. Perlite is placed at the bottom, improving drainage.
- Four hours before planting, the seedling should be abundantly watered to preserve the land on the roots.
- Carefully remove the plant from the container, place it in the hole, and fill it in equal proportions with a mixture of earth and perlite. Tamp lightly with plenty of water.
- If the soil sags after watering, pour it again. Pour on top with a layer of perlite three centimeters thick.
When landing, you need to monitor the direction of the trunk: it should rush straight up. The distance between the bushes is maintained about 30 centimeters. Young seedlings need regular watering and spraying.
Fertilizers and fertilizing
Boxwoods are unpretentious to the soil, but still need to be fed. When digging the near-stem space in autumn and spring, it is necessary to add organic fertilizers to the ground. If mineral fertilizers come to the rescue, then it is better to distribute them several days before digging on the earth's surface. It is necessary to ensure that the substance used as top dressing does not come in contact with the shoots, otherwise burns will occur that can lead to the death of the whole plant.
In the spring, it is recommended to make preparations containing phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen, in the fall - superphosphate and potassium salt. With a lack of nitrogen, boxwood leaves become reddish, with a bronze tint. Young bushes need to be fed after they are fully rooted. Plants grown indoors are not recommended to be fed with dry fertilizers: they are bred in water and then watered. Organics should alternate with mineral fertilizers.
The peculiarity of boxwood is that it can grow in the sun and in the shade. The best option is partial shade. To create such conditions is not always possible if we talk about the boxwood planting as a hedge. The shrub will feel good in hot sunny weather, if pritenit it.
Better to top up than pour - this rule applies to boxwood. From an excess of water, the root system of a plant can rot. It is good if the soil is constantly wet. Boxwood, growing in room conditions, needs not only regular watering, but also spraying.
The plant tolerates transplantation at any age. If it turns out that the box was planted in the wrong place, it can be transplanted.
The transplant process will be as follows:
- dig a large enough trench for planting: it should significantly exceed the size of the perennial root system,
- pour the prepared mixture (compost and garden soil) to the bottom of the trench, about fifteen centimeters,
- carefully scrub the bush from the previous site or remove from the planting tank with an earthen substrate,
- straighten the root system
- put the axle into the pit, sprinkled with soil. The height of immersion in the soil should be exactly the same as in the previous place where the plant grew,
- water abundantly.
When transplanting more than one perennial, the interval between plants should be maintained in 30 - 50 centimeters, depending on the boxwood variety.
It is better to deal with transplantation from March to October. If at this time it was not possible to transplant the shrub, then it can be buried for the winter period, having thrown a light waterproof shelter from above. In such conditions, under the snow, the axle tree overwinter. You can mulch it, then the perennial growth will not stop.
The frequency of transplantation of boxwood depends on the growth rate and is usually once every three years.
During this time, the root system masters the entire substrate. The transplant is carried out by the method of transshipment: the plant is carefully removed from the container with the entire earthen lump, placing in a new pot, slightly larger than the previous one. Classic flowerpots are suitable for the plant, where the height is slightly larger than the width.
Particular attention must be paid to pruning shrubs. It should be dealt with in April - September, when the plant is actively growing. Boxwood is sheared several times during the warm season, feeding and fertilizing perennials that are forming again. Buchusi tolerate pruning well, so from them you can create whole geometric shapes, animal contours.
After spring pruning, many young shoots appear on the shrub, which form a lush, dense crown.Such shrubs and trees are well combined in various landscape compositions.
Garden clippers are suitable for pruning; you can purchase a cordless brush cutter. Suitable and special shears for shearing sheep. The tool must be chosen one that will correspond to the thickness and density of the branches. A common form when cutting is considered the shape of a ball. For beginners who are first engaged in cutting shrubs, achieving a perfect round shape will not be easy. The gardener can use the following devices:
- metal pattern. This device has a rod and a semicircular wire nozzle. Rotating on the rod, the nozzle serves as a limiter, pointing to the branches that need to be cut to make an even ball.
- metal frame in the form of a grid, which cover the shrub. Branches extending beyond the fixture are removed.
You can remove unnecessary shoots without special devices. The procedure is as follows:
- cut the “equator” evenly around the boxwood,
- divide it with a haircut into four identical tracks - the meridian,
- trim branches between clipped areas.
If garden buds are sheared, starting in spring and ending in autumn, then the shape of indoor plants should be adjusted throughout the year. Boxwood at home grows slower than street perennials, therefore, the formation of the crown must be approached responsibly. The plant is most often given a geometric shape: cubic, conical, spherical.
The evergreen shrub boxwood looks good even in winter. In the snowdrifts visible bright green shiny leaves symbolizing life.
How to prepare a axle for wintering?
- In October - November, the plant must be regularly watered so that it accumulates enough moisture for wintering.
- To mulch needles or peat. This will protect the roots from frost and retain moisture.
- At the onset of frost, low boxwoods should be attached. For these purposes, boxes with holes are suitable. To cover hedges and borders from a buschus with a nonwoven fabric in several layers. Warm young bushes with branches of coniferous trees or covering material.
- In spring, it is better on a cloudy day, partially remove the shelter, leaving one layer. Immediately do not remove all material so that the perennial gradually adapts to the bright spring sun and does not receive burns. Covering material can be removed completely in seven to ten days.
- The soil around the perennial is cleared of snow to provide it with ventilation and warming.
Not all varietal varieties tolerate winter frosts well, so it is necessary to acquire them depending on climatic conditions.
Boxwood shrubs can be grown independently. To obtain a new plant instance, several methods are used.
The most popular and simple method of boxwood propagation is by cuttings. The best growing period is considered spring or early summer, so that the planting material is rooted and matured before the winter cold.
- it’s better not to cut healthy strong cuttings, but to break them out of the main (mother) stem with a “heel”, their length can range from 15 to 30 centimeters,
- remove the lower leaves,
- place planting material for a day in a solution that stimulates root growth,
- wash off the product
- plant the stem in a container with a fertile substrate, deepening to the leaves,
- put in a greenhouse or a greenhouse, you can not cover the film.
This method is used infrequently, since it requires a lot of time and patience. Only fresh seeds are suitable for germination:
- Soak the seeds for one day in a growth stimulant solution.
- Wrap them in cotton. Moisten the tissue regularly for a month until the seeds germinate in it.
- White sprouts will appear approximately in 20 - 25 days.
- Sow germinated seeds in a sand-peat mixture, directing the sprouts into the substrate.
- Cover the container with foil, put in a warm, darkened place.
- When shoots appear, remove the film.
- Rooted seedlings regularly watered, not allowing the soil to dry out, to feed.
- In warm weather, planted in open ground.
An effective and uncomplicated way to grow a new boxwood. In spring, choose healthy branches of the bush, which are located close to the ground. Carefully bend them to the ground, fix with a bracket, sprinkle with fertile soil. The place is layered watered, the ground should be constantly moist. After rooting, when a green bush is formed, the seedling is dug up and planted in a permanent place.
The shrub should be inspected regularly to avoid adverse factors that will impede the growth of boxwood.
- the leaves turn yellow, it means the bush freezes,
- leaves with a reddish tint - the plant lacks nitrogen,
- the color of green foliage is not as saturated as before - boxwood does not like the oversupply of the sun,
- twisted and dry leaves indicate a lack of moisture.
Diseases and Pests
Boxwood foliage contains alkoids that repel pests and reduce the risk of diseases. But still there are a number of stubborn insects that cause significant damage to the plant, they are not scared away even by dense glossy leaves. Inspecting the bushes will help identify uninvited guests. These include:
- Spider mite. Its settlement is associated with dry climatic conditions. You can prevent the appearance of an insect by frequent spraying of the bush. If, nevertheless, he starts up, such chemicals as Fitoverm, Neoron, Fufanon will come to the rescue.
- Boxwood fly (galitsa). It starts on leaves, multiplies rapidly. Insect larvae do not die even in winter. Blisters form on leaf blades, inside of which they winter. Special preparations will help to get rid - actar, actelik.
- Boxwood fire (night butterfly). One caterpillar of a butterfly of a fire-rose is able to eat a boxwood leaf in four hours. The appearance of this pest can be recognized by the changed color of the leaves. Caterpillars entangle the shrubs in loose cobwebs, which leads to its rapid drying. If you quickly do not take measures to combat the pest, then a small fire can hit all boxwood stands. Pyrethroids "Fury", "Karbafos", "Fastak" and a number of others effectively fight insects.
- Boxwood felt. It affects the crown of culture, climbing deep into the branches and leaves. Ways to combat is pruning the affected areas that need to be burned.
- Boxwood flea. The leaves become sticky, a whitish tint appears on them. The shrub is losing its appeal. The plant should be treated twice with Confidor Maxi, the interval between treatments should be 2 to 3 weeks.
All insecticides are toxic, use them carefully. It is better to process plants in the evening, when the sun is absent, and the air temperature drops. The axle is sprayed from all sides, including the soil under the affected shrub. If there are not so many pests, then you can use the drug "Dimilin", which is safe for people and domestic animals.
This representative of the flora is not “insured” from diseases such as:
- rust. A fungal disease can pass from garden trees and roses. It is better not to plant boxwood next to these plants. Remove the diseased branches, spray perennials for prevention with preparations containing copper,
- the fungus Volutella buxi infects young shoots, their tips dry out. They must be removed and treated with fungicides,
- cancer can appear on broken branches or old branches. Sick shoots are cut to healthy wood.
Boxwood in landscape design
All types and varieties of boxwoods are highly appreciated by landscape designers for their dense lush crown, glossy foliage. Buxus tolerates a haircut, which allows you to create from it a variety of figures that adorn parks and squares. Gardeners appreciate the plant for undemanding care and loathing.
Perennial is used in landscaping:
- creation of hedges and borders,
- construction of structural compositions (topiary),
- solo planting of perennials on lawns, in summer cottages,
- the formation of all kinds of geometric shapes, including complex ones - people, animals, household items, as well as mazes,
- decoration of lawns and flower beds,
Floriculture lovers grow this evergreen tree at home. It feels great in a compact flowerpot, pleases with its bright green crown, responds well to a decorative haircut.
Buchus is not capricious, so the cultivation of such an ornamental shrub will please the gardener. Any design idea will be easily realized with the help of this plant.
The meaning and application of boxwood
Boxwood is one of the oldest ornamental plants that were used for landscaping and ornamental gardening (often called Buchusus) It is appreciated for its thick beautiful crown, shiny foliage and the ability to tolerate a haircut, which allows you to create hedges and borders from them, as well as bizarre shapes that retain their shape for a long time.
Catholics in Western Europe decorate their homes with boxwood branches on Palm Sunday.
Boxwood in the tub. © tuinieren
Boxwood is a nuclear-free spelwood species. This means that in a freshly cut tree, the color difference between sapwood and ripe wood is almost imperceptible. The dried boxwood wood has a uniform matte color from light yellow to waxy, which darkens slightly over time, and a homogeneous structure with narrow annual layers. The vessels are small, solitary, not visible to the naked eye. The core rays are almost invisible on the cuts. The wood tastes a little bitter, there is no particular smell.
Boxwood is the hardest and densest of all found in Europe. Its density is from 830 kg / m³ (absolutely dry) to 1300 kg / m³ (freshly cut), and its hardness is from 58 N / mm (radial) to 112 N / mm² (end).
Boxwood is stronger than hornbeam in strength: compressive along fibers - about 74 MPa, with static bending - 115 MPa.
Hardwood boxwood is used for small carving woodwork, in the manufacture of small dishes, chess pieces, cue ball for playing novus, musical instruments, machine parts, which required high wear resistance combined with a perfectly smooth surface: rollers of printing machines , spools and weaving shuttles, measuring instruments, details of optical and surgical instruments. Sluggish areas go to the manufacture of smoking pipes.
Boxwood sawn across the fibers (butt) wood is used in woodcut (woodcut). Boxwood is the best woodcut tree, and this led to its almost complete destruction in the second half of the 19th century, when illustrations in newspapers around the world were cut on boxwood boards, sometimes the size of newspaper spreads.
Sawn veneers have been made and are being made in small quantities from boxwood, using special machines with a thin cut. In the XX and XXI centuries boxwood veneer due to the high cost is used only for inlays.
Tsuge (the Japanese name for boxweed) is wood from which figures for playing shogi are made.
Offers to sell boxwood wood on the market are quite rare, and its price is very high.
The use of boxwood as a medicinal plant
Already in ancient times, boxwood was used as a remedy against cough, gastrointestinal diseases, as well as chronic fevers, for example, malaria. As a remedy against malaria, allegedly, comparable in action with quinine. Today, boxwood preparations are rarely used because of their toxicity, since they are very difficult to accurately dose. Overdosing can lead to vomiting, convulsions and even death. Homeopaths still use boxwood as a remedy against rheumatism.
Boxwood in a pot. © Zoran Radosavljevic
And a little more mysticism ...
Boxwood is used to make amulets. It is believed that boxwood twigs serve as a wonderful amulet from a variety of evil spells, from dark magic, for example, from the evil eye and corruption, from energy vampirism. In addition, boxwood twigs laid under the pillow can protect against bad dreams. There is also an opinion that if a person constantly carries a boxwood twig with him, this gives him the gift of eloquence and protects him from accidents. In addition, earlier amulets from boxwood were used as a “castle” for sorcerers. These boxwood charms “closed” the sorcerers, not allowing them to use their powers for evil.