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Family: Furnariidae Stoves

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This family includes a fairly large number of species of birds of small and medium size, the largest reach a body length of 25-26 cm. They are quite diverse in appearance, but all have a modest plumage: the top is brownish, the bottom is lighter. The throat is usually white. Some have a crest on their heads. The wings are rounded, the tail of real stove-makers (genus Furnarius) is quite short, while others may be long. The beak is often short, but it is long and curved. Male and female differ little or not at all. Most pechnikovs live in forests, but there are species that inhabit open plains with shrubbery, some settle along coastal dunes.

All of them are insectivorous, with few exceptions. Some mountain stove stoves (genus Geositta) and tokoko (genus Chilia) feed on seeds and other plant foods, and wagtail (Cinclodes) eat crustaceans and small aquatic invertebrates. Moreover, these wagtail are the only among passerines that adapted to feeding in the sea.

All stove stoves are nesting birds (with one exception). Nests are arranged in a variety of conditions: they dig holes themselves, use the holes of other animals and birds, woodpecker hollows, build complex structures from plant materials, etc. But the most famous are, of course, Furnarius stove stoves (6 species), which make nests of clay or mud, really reminiscent of a miniature stove, with a side entrance to the nest and a difficult path inside to the nesting chamber (maybe an analogy with a chimney). From these birds the whole family got its name.

The nesting period in most stove-makers lasts a very long time - up to 9 months or even more. Its main part is the construction of the nest. For laying eggs and hatching chicks, the usual term for many birds is 4-5 weeks. In clutch 3-5, sometimes up to 9 white (with few exceptions) eggs. Most species nest in separate pairs, but some build large “multi-unit” nests together.

Stove birds spread very widely across all possible ecological niches of South America - from the highest mountains to the humid jungle and from the hot pump to the rocky cold deserts of Tierra del Fuego. To the north, they are found up to Central Mexico. Nest on the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. None in the Antilles.

In South America, stove stove birds filled all the niches not occupied by other passerine birds: thrushes, small tits, long-tailed tits, dippers, warblers, crested larks, wagtails, etc.

In this family, 220 species are included in 19 genera (according to other sources, in 55 genera). Thus, the family system is poorly developed, and the ecology of many species is almost unknown.

A red stove stove (Furnarius rufus) is widely distributed and better than many others. It settles in open habitats in southern Brazil, in Argentina and Paraguay. In appearance it resembles a thrush, its body length is 19-20 cm. The color of the plumage is soft, reddish-brown. It builds a large stove-shaped nest in the rainy season. Its height is about 25 cm, its width is about 20 cm, and its length reaches 30 cm. The lateral spiral entrance leads to the nesting chamber, which is lined with grass and leaves. The bird is not afraid of human proximity and often makes a nest on hedge posts and even on the roofs of houses. The nest is used only once, the next year a new one is being built. However, a strong building does not collapse for a long time and for several years serves as swallows and other closed-nesting birds.

Minera, or cave nuthatch (genus Geositta), are small brown-colored birds. They resemble our larks. They live in open places. They feed mainly on seeds. For nests they dig long burrows in cliffs or occupy whiskers burrows. Titmouse needletails (Leptasthenura spp.) Nest in hollows.

Stove birds, stove birds, potter birds (lat. Furnariidae) - a family of passerines,

Body length 12–28 cm. Plumage is often brown or red, similar in males and females. Distributed from Central Mexico to the south of Chile and Argentina. They live in forests, pampas, along the banks of rivers and seas. They nest in holes, hollows, clefts of rocks or build indoor nests on trees, some sculpt massive indoor nests from clay (hence the name). Eggs are white or blue. They incubate for 15-20 days.

They feed on insects, crustaceans, spiders, some species - on seeds. / (Wikipedia)

Oven socket

Pechnik is a thrush-sized bird, distributed in the open area of ​​southern South America in the east of the Andes - Brazil and Argentina, and in the latter is considered a national bird. Knife stoves are known for their nests in the shape of a furnace. Often stove-makers can be found on earth collecting clay for nests, which are often found in the mountains on trees or on power poles. The nest consists of two chambers designed for 3-4 chicks, where they are reliably sheltered from enemies and bad weather.

Like most birds in the temperate zone of South America, stove-makers lay their eggs in September. The success of nesting depends on sufficient rainfall for the clay to form. Heavy rains flush nests.

Each season, a pair of stove-makers builds a new nest without returning to the old. Nevertheless, their nests serve for nesting of other species, since a house made of clay calcined in the sun can serve for several more years.

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