Corydalis marschalliana (Pall. Ex Willd.) Pers.
Family Dymyankovye - Fumariaceae
Status. 4th category - type of indefinite status. It is listed in the Red Book of the Moscow Region (1).
Spread. In the Moscow region It is rare and only in the south. districts (2, 3). Within the boundaries of Moscow, it was first zerbarized in 1966 in the LOD (4). In 1974, the species was found in the Bitsevsky forest near Uzky (4, 5), where it also grew in 1985-2000; in 1996, another location was found in this forest - near Chertanovskaya Street. (6.7). In 2001-2010 species growth was confirmed in the Bitsevsky forest; it was registered in Znamensky-Sadki, Uzky in 2006 (6) and in the park of Moscow State University in 2009 (8).
Number. In the south. net population of the Bitsevsky forest in the 1980s. there were 70 flowering specimens, in the 1990s - about 100, in 2005 - 35, in 2006 - 58. In sowing. hybrid population in the 1980s - 400 (7), the 1990s - a little less than 1.5 thousand, the 2000s - about the same. In the hybrid population in Uzkoye in 2007, there were 570 flowering specimens, in the pure population in Znamensky-Sadki in 2008, approximately 500 specimens, and in the hybrid population 205 (6). Near MSU in 2009, about 20 copies were observed. (8). The number of hybrid populations tends to increase.
Features of growth. Grassy perennial with a loose brush of pale yellow flowers and a hollow tuber at a depth of 8-15 cm. Spring ephemeroid. Pollinated by bumblebees and some long-moth butterflies. For self-maintenance of a population, only seed propagation is significant. Seeds are spread by ants. It gravitates to the valleys of large rivers, including landslide slopes and riverine forested beams (6). It grows on rich soils of different mechanical composition (3). It does not withstand severe sodding and disappears with the growth of sedge, hairy, confined to the slopes of the upper parts of the ravine-beam systems. A smaller number is found on the bottoms of beams. It can grow in places that have been economically developed, and then overgrown with forest (6). Relatively photophilous (3) and prefers the marginal slopes of beams (6). It is an indicator of a biotope that is rare in Moscow - a broad-leaved forest on relatively young and unrefined slopes of beams. Due to the deep bedding of tubers and early vegetation, it withstands a moderate creation load in the summer, but with a strong compaction of the soil it is inhibited and gradually disappears. It easily forms hybrid populations with Corydalis vena cava, and they are the ones with the greatest number and grow in places frequented by people (6).
Negative factors. The growth of the species in Moscow is much north of its main range. Hybridization with hollow Corydalis. The difficulty of naturally introducing the species into new ravine-girder systems and other natural territories. Natural sodding of slopes as the forest develops, backfilling of upper gully-ravine systems. Reducing the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of large ants. Strong trampling and soil compaction, picnics with bonfires. Collection of plants.
Security measures taken. Since 1984, the collection of wild plants has been prohibited in Moscow. In 2001, the species was listed in the Red Book of Moscow from KR 1. Almost all known places of its growth are located in the protected areas - in the P-IP “Bitsevsky Forest”, two of which are declared PPR.
View state change. None of the known populations in the last decade has disappeared, some have become more numerous, new populations have been found, but one of the two “pure” populations has reduced the number, in general, the species remains rare. However, the naturalness of the growth of the Marshall Corydalis in Moscow is called into question by the absence of a species in the territory that Moscow now occupies in the 19th - first half of the 20th centuries, its absence in the Moskva valley on landslide slopes and in riverine beams, and the coincidence of the ecological niche with the hollow corydalis and ease of hybridization with this authentically native species. Raman species changes from 1 to 4.
Necessary conservation measures. Inadmissibility of growing hollow Corydalis near Marshall's Corydalis populations. The study of the relationship between these two species, followed by the definition of a strategy for the Marshall Corydalis in Moscow.
Sources of information. 1. The Red Book of the Moscow Region, 1998, 2008. 2. Voroshilov et al., 1966. 3. Smirnova, Cheryomushkina, 1975. 4. Herbarium of GBS. 5. Herbarium of Moscow State University. 6. Data of the authors. 7. Nasimovich, Romanova, 1990. 8. K.Yu. Teplov, hp Author: V.B.Kuvaev, Yu.A. Nasimovich
Species listed in the Red Data Book of the Smolensk Region: Corydalis Marshall (Corydalis marschalliana Pers.)
Family: Smoky - Fumariaceae
Squad (department): Angiosperms - Angiospermae Class Dicotyledons - Dicotyledones
Status. III category. A species found in small numbers and in a limited area.
Features of morphology and biology. A perennial herb with a root tuber in the soil at a depth of 8-15 cm. The perennial part of the plant is represented by a rosette shoot with axillative generative shoots, the development of which takes place in one year. The leaves of the rosette shoot develop over two years, dark green, wide, on long stalks, twice ternary dissected, the middle lobe is large, whole, oblong-elongated, rounded. Lateral lobes are different: internal - large, external - smaller. In winter, the bud of the future generative shoot is already being laid, during spring - summer - autumn, flowers develop, in late January, the plant begins to grow underground. In March - April, a generative shoot appears above the soil and blooms. The flowers are white or cream, irregular in shape, with a spur, collected in a large brush on a long peduncle. The fruit is a pod-shaped capsule, the seeds ripen in May, have a light appendage and are carried by ants. Reproduction is mainly seed, only some individuals with increased vitality are able to form new plants due to the disintegration of the tuber into separate parts. Decorative 1-5.
Spread. In the forests of central Europe, in the Crimea, in the Caucasus, Asia Minor. In the Smolensk region, it has so far been noted on Sokolya Gora near the railway station 1-2.
Habitat. Broad-leaved forests on fairly rich and moist soils, forest lowlands 1-4.
Abundance in nature. Grows absent-mindedly and rarely forms small curtains.
The main limiting factors. Narrow ecological amplitude, violation of natural habitats, collection of plants for bouquets.
Cultivation. In the last century, it was cultivated in gardens.
Security measures taken. It is listed in the list of rare and endangered plants in a number of regions of Russia and the CIS 1-4.
Necessary security measures. Examination of known and identification of new locations of the species, preservation of natural habitat conditions, prohibition of plant collection.
- Smirnova, Cheremushkina, 1975,
- Popov, 1937,
- Takhtadzhyan, 1981,
- Gushchina et al., 1981,
- Mayevsky, 1964.
Kind: Bracts are large - the fruit is in the form of a bivalve cod-shaped capsule - seeds with a creeper - view: stem at the base without a scaly leaf - white-yellow flowers - leaf end segments oval.
Corydalis Marshall (emphasis on second a: Marchaalla) appears in the spring one of the first. This flower is an ephemeroid, that is, it appears very quickly and also disappears quickly, while the most favorable conditions for it are in effect. It blooms not for long, literally a week, and quickly fades. It differs from other corydalis by the absence of membranous scales near the ground itself (see dense corydalis) and most importantly, color. We, apparently, have no other such (white-yellow).
Upd. 2018.09 Inflorescence on a long peduncle, collected in a long loose dense brush, flowers in inflorescences from 8 and above. Blossoms in April-May, only a few days.
Upd. 2018.09 Corolla is two-lipped, white-yellow in color. The upper petal ends with a spur, at the very end of which nectar is stored.
Upd. 2018.09 Corolla 25 mm long, spur about 10 mm long, peduncle 6-7 mm long.
Upd. 2018.09 Stamens are hidden under two inner petals. The photo of the stamens misleads us, we will definitely have to retake the stamens. The fact is that the Corydalis has only two stamens, and each stamen has three anthers. This corydalis has yellow anthers. The pestle could not be photographed.
Upd. 2018.09 There are no sepals or they are inconspicuous.
Upd. 2018.09 Bracts whole, green, oblong or ovate, large.
Upd. 2018.09 Bracts, bottom view. The arcuate venation of the bracts is clearly visible. The edges are slightly turned down.
Usually, a Marshall corydalis has two double-ternate leaves with long petioles, segments of leaves on long petioles, sessile, broad lobes, whole-marginal or bifid.
Upd. 2018.09 The leaf ends are oval.
Upd. 2018.09 The length and width of the leaf are almost the same: 4-5 cm, leaf segments on petioles about 1 cm long.
Upd. 2018.09 Vertically arranged photographs emphasize the height of the plant and its harmony. Let it be.
The stalk of the Corydalis is juicy and very fragile, so much so that it suddenly breaks right under the fingers, straight, up to 30 cm high.
Upd. 2018.09 At the base of the stem, right on the ground, there is no membranous flake.
Upd. 2018.09 I had a doubt that the study was conducted flawlessly. I picked up the earth - no scales! Yes and it should not be.
Upd. 2018.09 The stem is round, smooth, bare.
Upd. 2018.09 The fruit is a pod-shaped box, up to 2 cm long.
The Crested Marshall, although not included in the Red Book of the Penza region, but requires careful treatment. Therefore, it is included in the list of rare and vulnerable species.
So, about the application. Go and see, but do not tear, please. Give her a chance to become a widespread plant.
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