Gardenia jasmine is an exceptionally beautiful flower that leaves no one indifferent. Many flower growers dream of acquiring this beautiful plant, but do not dare because of its capricious nature. However, a beauty can be “tamed” if you know all the secrets and subtleties of her cultivation.
Gardenia jasmine, in Latin called Gardenia jasminoides, comes from the Marenov family and is a native of India, China, Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam and subtropics of Africa. In the bosom of nature, it can be found in the form of an evergreen, flowering shrub. up to 2 meters high. In a pot culture, a bush reaches no more than 60 cm in height.
In the genus Gardenia there are about 250 speciesAnd in indoor floriculture only gardenia jasmine-like took root. Its large snow-white flowers with a delicate aroma of jasmine fascinate at first sight. They are located singly or collected in inflorescences of several pieces. Most often, flowers are semi-double or double, similar to a beautiful rose.
Very decorative and dark green leaves. In shape, they are broad-lanceolate with a pointed tip, reaching 10 cm in length. The sheet plate is distinguished by a relief surface, casting a glossy sheen.
In general, indoor gardenia is an elegant bush with dense foliage, especially charming during the flowering period. With proper care, the life expectancy of a beautiful representative of the flora - up to 7 years.
Gardenia was introduced to Europe in the 18th century. In warm countries, it adorns gardens and parks, and in a cool climate it can only be kept at home or in greenhouse conditions. Through the efforts of breeders, many varieties of beauty have been bred.
- Beauty or Latin Beauty - Perhaps the most popular variety with terry snow-white flowers. Blooms profusely from early June to autumn.
- Belmont, aka Belmont - It differs in richly-bloomed flowers and is the most fragrant. It has increased resistance to disease.
- Amy or Aimee - bush with large flowers of perfect terry shape, reaching 12 cm in diameter. Able to bloom twice a year.
- Mystery or Latin Mystery - A strong and hardy variety with large leaves, growing strictly vertically. The flowers are quite large, flat terry shapes.
- Variegata, aka Variegata - variegated compact form with charming small flowers. In the color of foliage, transitions of green shades to light cream are observed. The bush grows slowly and is ideal for growing in a pot.
- Radicans or Radicans - dwarf variety with small glossy leaves and small double flowers. This variety begins to bloom later than its relatives and is ideal for cultivation using the bonsai technique.
Features of home care for jasmine gardenia
Gardenia jasmine very moody and caring for it contains certain difficulties. She is sensitive to any changes in conditions by yellowing the leaves and dropping buds. Success in growing a plant is in strict compliance with all the requirements that it makes.
Gardenia jasmine: a brief description
The beautiful plant of the Mirenov family, when living under indoor conditions, is a low bush 45-50 cm tall, and the wild species living in the forests of Japan, India and China reach about 180 centimeters.
Gardenia jasmine deserves special attention during flowering. The flowers of this beauty grow to 5-7 cm, have a dense structure and a delicate white color. Their magical and delicate smell can easily compete with the scent of roses.
Optimal conditions for growing
Gardenia jasmine - a capricious and demanding plant, she needs special care at home. If you do everything right, follow all the recommendations for its content, then it will continuously bloom magnificently throughout the year.
Usually a finicky flower is presented to someone as a gift, and most often the person who received the gift does not even imagine how to find the right approach to the evergreen beauty so that she does not die.
Gardenia is very photophilous, and she needs a full-fledged source of light throughout the day. However, protect the evergreen from direct sunlight at noon, at this time it is better if the lighting is scattered.
Therefore, the western or eastern windows will be an excellent option for placing the pot.
How to care at home
Not every lover can handle all the whims of gardening jasmine-like, therefore, experienced flower growers to grow it as an ordinary unpretentious houseplant do not recommend.
But as mentioned above, the main thing is a great desire, perseverance and an effort to do everything right, following the recommendations made.
Watering and humidity
I propose to consider in detail the question of how to water jasmine gardenia, because almost every flower needs moisture to properly develop in order to remain beautiful and maintain a decorative look.
The soil of the plant should always be slightly moistTherefore, abundant watering is welcome in spring and summer, and in winter - moderate. The idea of a harmonious existence of gardenia in a pot is to categorically prevent the earthen coma from drying out, while there should not be watery stagnation in the roots either.
At any time of the year, water for irrigation should be used soft and not cold (to soften it, add 2 drops of lemon juice per liter of liquid). It is better not to experiment with tap water, and give preference to filtered rainwater.
Watering should be through the top of the pot, and the water formed in the pan should be drained 20 minutes after the procedure. High humidity of this flower is especially necessary during the laying of buds, otherwise the inflorescences may simply stop their development and fall off.
It is recommended to place the pot in a container with wet sphagnum or expanded clay, which will provide drainage - so that the bottom does not touch the water. Be sure to moisten the leaves daily, in the summer should be sprayed several times a day, in the winter - once will be enough. The procedure should be carried out mainly in the morning and afternoon, so that before dusk the crown can dry.
Soil and top dressing
The composition of the earth, this beautiful flower is also very picky. Since his priority is slightly acidic soils, and he does not tolerate lime, you can use the land for Azaleas for planting.
But to prepare independently the soil for jasmine gardenia is also quite realistic. To do this, it is necessary to combine sand, parts of turf, coniferous peat and leaf land in equal quantities. To feed the plants, it is better to use liquid types of fertilizers.
The use of mineral fertilizers will help to heal it and always keep it in shape, but when choosing a fertilizer for gardening jasmine, preference should be given to preparations without adding calcium, otherwise the effect may turn out to be opposite.
Experienced flower growers also advise some "folk" methods of fertilizing the soil. For example, in order to maintain the flower in a healthy state, add half a teaspoon of Actiferrin (the drug is sold in a pharmacy) in half a glass of water and water the growing gardenia once every two weeks. But an adult flower is better to give such a liquid weekly.
A major role in successful cultivation and care is played by sanitary pruning of jasmine gardenia after each flowering. This procedure perfectly stimulates the growth of the flower and supports its decorative state.
Sick and weak leafy cuttings, as well as cuttings with wilted flowers, should be removed immediately. The shoots remaining after trimming can be used to propagate the plant.
Features of winter care
The main enemy of gardenia in the winter is drafts. It is also necessary to adhere to the minimum allowable temperature regime of at least +16 ° C, as a plant tormented by an excess of moisture may begin to wither, the leaves will lose their unique tone, and the buds fall off without opening. In winter, window sills facing the south side will be good for plant placement.
How to transplant gardenia at home
It is advisable to perform a jasmine gardenia transplant every couple of years, but in no case during flowering, otherwise the buds may fall. Plant transplantation occurs in this way:
- First you need to remove the gardenia from the pot and, carefully brushing the roots from the old soil, place it in the solution (room temperature) of the biostimulator for the time indicated on the package.
- At the bottom of the pot should be placed steamed drainage, then add sand, then a layer of charcoal, and only then the soil is added from above.
- During the preparation of the soil for transplantation, gardenia was well fed, being in solution. Now it should be carefully, trying not to damage the root system, divide into several shoots, distribute the roots and place in the pot, slightly adding soil.
- After the flower has successfully “migrated” back to the pot, the remains of the biostimulator should be poured into it and put in a warm place where it will not be disturbed by direct rays of the sun and drafts.
- After planting, you should not irrigate very often, but it is better to give the plant a "drink" only when the ground is slightly dry, about 2 centimeters deep.
Propagation: rooting cuttings
In gardenia, jasmine-like propagation is carried out mainly by apical cuttings. Usually, semi-lignified cuttings of about 10 centimeters long are selected for this.
Cut them off in spring or early fall. A peculiar greenhouse is created: the cut stalk is rooted immediately in the ground, and then it is covered with a glass jar. And when he, growing up and getting stronger, releases roots, he is transplanted into a permanent pot. To make the plant more beautiful and better bush, after adaptation in a pot, pinch the tip slightly.
- Gardenia rooting is best done in a substrate consisting of river sand and peat (in a ratio of 1: 1).
- Before planting cuttings in a substrate, they must be kept in a very weak solution of potassium permanganate and, preferably, dipped in “Kornevin” (root stimulant).
- A greenhouse can be built both from a can and from a plastic bag.
- Rooted cuttings should be at a temperature of +25 ° C.
- The greenhouse should be aired every evening, and the substrate should be kept moist.
- Care for the cuttings is necessary in the same way as for the flower itself.
Gardenia in the home environment can be tried to grow with the help of seeds, but it is very difficult, given that they quickly lose their germination, moreover, you need to be able to choose them correctly in the store.
In spring, the seeds are sown in the right soil (the mixture is the same as for the cuttings), covered with a layer of earth from 3 to 5 mm thick, and then gently pressed and moistened from the spray gun.
Then the pot of seeds is covered with a greenhouse and placed on the southern windowsill. After about a month, part of the seeds should sprout (approximately 2/3). Now they are cleaned a little further from the sun and continue to grow, first in a common container, and then individually.
Why leaves turn yellow and fall
There are many other troubles that amateur gardeners may encounter, such as yellowing leaves. I propose to analyze the possible reasons why the gardenia jasmine yellow.
The fact is that the symptoms of yellowness of the leaves are caused by various factors, the first of which is an incorrect transplant. Small roots, which are responsible for the nutrition of the whole plant, are damaged when replacing the soil. As a result, frightening yellowness appears in jasmine gardenia and leaves quickly fall off (several a day).
Otherwise, the flower may get sick with a scab. This is an unpleasant infection, which also causes yellowing of the leaf plate. On its back, brown spots are visible, which are easily removed without damaging the sheet.
Another reason for the poor state of the plant is to water it with too hard water, as a result of which the acidity of the soil is disturbed and the plant ceases to properly absorb iron.
You will not regret for a second about your decision to bring this wonderful plant with a heady aroma to the house. The main thing is to adhere to all advice and satisfy all the whims of capricious gardenia and then caring for it and its uniqueness will bring you the most positive emotions.
Jasmine gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) is a representative of the large Marenova family. This species is suitable for breeding at home. A bush grows in nature on the African continent, in Asia:
- Ryukyu Islands.
It grows where it is warm and humid, and still prefers partial shade, acidic, well-drained soil. In the wild, grows from 1.5-3 meters tall. On the windowsill it becomes no more than half a meter. The leaves are large, smooth, bright green in color and have a glossy sheen.
The flower shrub is distinguished by decorative leaves; all year round it is green and lush. The size of the leaves is 10 cm in length. Flowers are single or collected in inflorescences of 4-6 pieces. Mostly white, but there are yellow, pink, vanilla tones.
The appearance of the inflorescence in shape resembles a peony or a blossoming rose. Petals are smooth, but there are varieties that have a terry or semi-double texture. The size of the flowers is 6-8 cm in diameter.
No less keen on an unusual plant are breeders, through the efforts of which various varieties have been bred. Among the most popular types of gardenia are:
- Chuck Hayes
- Radikan Variegata.
- Golden Magic.
Watch a video about jasmine gardening:
See what a jasmine gardenia indoor plant looks like:
As already mentioned, the plant loves acidic soil, pH 4.5-5.5. However, over time, water leaches acidic substances and the earth becomes alkaline. Therefore, it is important to acidify water for irrigation a couple of times a month by adding citric acid, juice or standing on peat. The earth should be light, loose and fertile.
The moisture capacity and nutrition of the root system depends on the composition of the soil.
For self-preparation of the substrate, such components are required:
- deciduous land
- turf soil
- coniferous land
- coarse sand.
Natural baking powder will not be superfluous, mainly perlite or vermiculite is used. These substances can replace sand. The total component of additives should be no more than a third of the total mass of the earthen mixture. Do not also forget about drainage, the best option would be - expanded clay, previously boiledto remove salt from the pores.
All details on how to choose soil, pot and fertilizers for gardenia, read here.
Features of growing at home. Briefly
Like many exotics, gardenia is jasmine-like whimsical and demanding care. In indoor conditions it is difficult to create the conditions that this "tropical" is used to, but subject to certain rules, it will bloom luxuriously and delight with its decorative look.
|Temperature||In the summer, + 22- + 25 degrees, in the winter - not lower than +15.|
|Air humidity||It requires high humidity, frequent regular spraying, installation of the pot on a pallet with water.|
|Lighting||On the windowsills on the south side requires shading, the optimal location on the east or southwest side.|
|Watering||The soil in the pot should be constantly moist, but you can not overfill the plant.|
|Priming||The acidity of the soil is within the range of pH 4-5; humus, peat, turf soil and sand are mixed to formulate the substrate.|
|Fertilizer and fertilizer||The period of active vegetation requires fertilizer with complex mineral compositions without lime content.|
|Transfer||Transplanted once every 2-3 years.|
|Breeding||Cuttings or seeds.|
|Growing Features||In order to bloom actively and magnificently, one should not allow temperature differences, complete drying of the soil and drafts.|
Care for jasmine gardenia at home. In detail
The capricious nature makes the owners of this luxurious flower pay him a lot of attention. If the conditions are violated, the plant immediately responds to changes - the leaves turn yellow and the buds fall. But with proper care, the dark green bush is covered with a lush snow-white hat of flowers that contrast brightly against the background of lush greenery.
Flowering period in gardenia jasmine It starts from the end of spring and lasts until mid-October. But beautiful snow-white buds can not wait, because in order for the plant to bloom, it must be kept in special conditions. Already in March-April, you need to monitor the temperature regime.
Indications on the room thermometer should not fall below +16 degrees and rise above +20. As soon as the first buds appear, more thorough care is required. It is important and humidity, and the frequency of watering and lighting.
How to care after purchase?
The newly acquired gardenia should not be disturbed. She needs time to recover from the stress associated with transportation, a change of location.
Do not be alarmed if Gardenia drops buds upon arrival home. Thus, she reacts to a change of residence, moving.
The adaptation period usually lasts 2-3 weeks, no more. At the end of this period or after flowering, an exotic beauty should be transplanted. The procedure is necessary, because the soil in which it was sold is poor and does not have useful substances. You will learn more about the nuances of gardenia transplantation in this article.
Indoor gardenia needs to be fed in the autumn-spring period. In early spring, active growth begins, the flower needs additional fertilizing, and in the autumn-winter period fertilizers can not be used.
It is necessary to feed a flower 2 times a month. The concentration should be made twice as weak as indicated in the instructions, in order not to overfeed the plant. Gardenia responds well to organic and mineral fertilizers. use complex preparations of liquid consistency for azaleas or for flowering plants.
It is also good to carry out foliar nutrition, by means of spraying with green fertilizers with mineral fertilizers. This procedure will be enough one per week.
A striking, compact form is achieved by cropping. This process also stimulates the growth and long flowering of the plant. The formation of the crown is carried out after the flowering stage, namely in the fall. First of all, sick, damaged, underdeveloped processes are removed, which will add to the flower of strength.
During the growing season, pinch the lateral processes, thus, the bush looks more luxuriant and neat. After plucking the gardenia will bloom more densely, and so that healthy cuttings do not disappear, they can be used as planting material.
When and how does it bloom?
The flowering phase occurs in March and lasts until September. First, gardenia is preparing for the process, somewhere in April-March, bud buds appear. It is during this period that the flower requires careful care. It is forbidden to transplant gardenia. It is impossible even to mix or move it, and touch the flowers with your hands. Even the slightest flaw can lead to the dumping of buds.
I would also like to note that the flowers do not bloom all at once, but in turn. Therefore, on a green shrub there are several snow-white buds that ripen for 2 months. A blooming flower is kept on gardenia for about 4 days. Faded inflorescences must be immediately cut off to form new ones. You will learn about why gardenia does not bloom and what care should be taken to form buds, in this material.
Given that the plant comes from the tropics, for indoor cultivation it is necessary to maintain high humidity. For this, special devices are used, as well as regular spraying of plant leaves from the spray gun.
It is good if the flower pot is installed in a large tray with wet expanded clay.
Gardenia jasmine in room conditions should be kept in a well-lit room, but direct sunlight should be avoided. A window seat on the southwest side is perfect. A flower does not like movements, from the moment of its acquisition you need to choose a permanent place for it, wherever the plant is comfortable.
Home gardenia jasmine poorly tolerates both waterlogging and overdrying of an earthen coma. The substrate in the pot should be constantly moistened, but care should be taken that the water in the pan does not stagnate.
In the cold season, the soil is allowed to dry by 1.5 cm and only then the plant is watered.
During the formation of flowers, the pot with the plant is placed in a tray with water.
The gardenia flower at home can grow in both clay and plastic pots. The size of the tank is important. The pot should be spacious, but not too large. Ideally, if the capacity is slightly larger than the volume of the root system.
In order for the plant to grow well and delight with magnificent flowers, you need to choose the right soil for planting. Gardenia jasmine prefers acidic soil with pH5. In specialized stores you can buy ready-made substrate for azaleas or other flowering exotics.
With the independent preparation of the earthen mixture, they take equal amounts of sod, coniferous and leafy soil, add peat.
How to transplant?
Before transplanting, you must first purchase or prepare yourself a high-quality substrate, as well as pick up a high-quality pot. This process should be performed every 3 years, as the root system grows, if necessary.
The process of soil renewal is usually performed in early spring, always after flowering. Jasmine gardenia, like most plants, does not tolerate a transplant. For easier adaptation and quick recovery, it is better to use the transshipment method:
- water the soil abundantly and take out the plant along with a lump of earth from the pot,
- put a thick layer of drainage on the bottom of the new pot,
- put gardenia with earth in a pot and sprinkle with a soil mixture.
Fertilizer and fertilizer
A complex mineral fertilizer is used, which can be bought in specialized stores. It is important that the composition does not contain calcium, and that nitrogen and chlorine are contained in a small amount. Fertilizer is applied along with watering 2 times a month. In winter, top dressing is stopped.
Young jasmine gardenia transplanted every year. Adult plants require transplantation as the pot is filled with roots. In this case, you should pick up a pot 1.5-2 cm larger than the previous one.
You can not transplant during flowering or when the plant begins to form buds.
Life expectancy when growing at home
In the natural range, wild gardenia can last 15-20 years. Of course, in a house or apartment, this period is significantly reduced. Under favorable conditions and attention, an exotic beauty can live up to 10 years. If the parameters of the room or the care does not fit the capricious flower, then the duration will be less than 1 year.
Mostly young individuals bloom better, therefore it is advised not to keep them for more than 4 years, but it is better to grow several young plants at once.
As a rule, the dormant period begins in late autumn and lasts until early March.. At this time, the plant does not bloom, gaining strength for subsequent growth and the formation of buds. It is important to reduce watering of the flower and stop feeding during dormancy.
After fading, it is imperative to trim. To strengthen branching, it is necessary to pinch the tops of young plants.
Gardenia propagation by cuttings
In early spring, when the plant has not yet begun to form buds, carry out its pruning. Strong, healthy cuttings about 10 cm long are left for propagation. The slice of each stalk must be treated with Kornevin. Cuttings are easily rooted, both in the earthen mixture and in water.
If the stalk is planted in a substrate, it must be covered with a film to create a warm and humid environment. Every day, the film needs to be removed, monitor the moisture of the soil and spray the stalk from the spray gun. After a month, the plant can be transplanted into a separate pot.
Causes of diseases and methods of treatment
Why experienced flower growers strongly recommend that you follow the recommendations for gardenia care, but because not maintaining the necessary parameters certainly affects the plant’s health.
- Why do leaves turn yellow? This can be caused by damage to the root system, as a result of an improperly selected irrigation system. Both excessive moisture and lack of moisture negatively affect the roots, and as a result, the appearance of yellow, sometimes with brown spots of leaves. It is also possible this is evidence of low temperature in the room, improper soil composition.
- Why doesn’t bloom? Falling buds indicates strong fluctuations in temperature, excess or lack of moisture, drafts, movement of the pot, low humidity. During the budding period, gardenia is sensitive to all environmental changes, so adjust the watering, increase the humidity and eliminate drafts, in order to avoid rejection of flowering.
- White spots on the leaves indicate the development of the disease chlorosis, which is associated with a lack of iron. How to save a plant? Feed it with iron-containing preparations, for example, Ferovit. Procedures are carried out until the flower recovers completely, and later for prevention.
- Leaves turn black and fall off. First of all, the lower leaves are damaged, which means there is a problem with the roots, a bay or a lack of nutrients. Perhaps the soil has compacted, there is no air access, it is also worth paying attention to the drainage holes, if they become clogged, clean them. When the crown turned black - you need to look for insect pests.
- Dry foliage - a sign of improper transplantation, irrigation regimen, lack of sun or food. To get rid of such troubles, you need to: set up a humidification system, feed the flower and rearrange it in a place with good lighting.
About all the problems with gardenia leaves, we wrote in detail in this article.
Gardenia is often attacked by scale insects, spider mites, and aphids. With these parasites, the fight is with the help of insecticide preparations:
The number of treatments depends on the degree of damage to gardenia. Basically, 3 procedures should be performed with a break of 10-14 days.
You will learn more about the diseases and pests of this plant in another article.
Growing gardenia from seeds
This is a more complex and lengthy method. For propagation of jasmine gardenia, purchased seed material is used. It is important that the shelf life of the seeds is no more than six months. Seeds are soaked in water for a day, after which they are sown in the ground without grounding.
The sowing container must be covered with film or glass and installed in a warm place where the air temperature does not drop below +25 degrees. Planting is regularly sprayed to moisten the soil. The first shoots will appear in a month. When they get stronger, you can transplant young plants in a separate pot.
As you can see, competent care for jasmine gardenia at home requires enough attention, patience, as well as zeal and endurance. But all these efforts will not be in vain; in return, the exotic beauty will thank you with an incredible bouquet with a light floral aroma.
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Diseases and Pests
Gardenia jasmine is a moody plant. Often during its cultivation, flower growers encounter a number of problems:
- buds and flowers fall - low air temperature or a flower pot is rearranged from place to place,
- leaves turn yellow gardenia jasmine - incorrectly selected water for irrigation, it should be soft and not cold,
- leaf edges darken and dry - the air is too dry in the room, the plant is not regularly watered,
- dark spots on the leaves - too frequent watering, rotting of the root system is possible,
- kidneys fall - too hot or too cold.
May be attacked by a spider mite or scab. Insecticides are used to control pests.
Lighting and temperature
Gardenia Beauty is a big lover of bright light, but not active sunlight. In the afternoon, it is necessary to protect it from the active sun using a translucent curtain. Otherwise, burns will appear on the leaves. The best placement is a southwest or western window. On the northern window sill, additional illumination is needed.
He especially does not like changes during flowering and can even drop buds in response to a small turn of the pot.
The optimum temperature for the plant in the summer is from 21 to 24 ° C, in winter - between 16-18 ° C, permissible reduction to 10 ° C.
In the winter months, coolness is very important for him, in which in conditions of insufficient daylight it is less depleted.
But she is especially afraid of hypothermia of the roots and may react to it by falling leaves and decaying roots. Therefore, do not put a flowerpot with a green pet on a cold surface. In this case, will help out some kind of elevation.
Transplant and soil composition
A flower rarely needs a transplant. It is necessary only if the pot has become too small, the roots have braided over the whole earth or there are problems with them.
A transplant is best done in spring or after flowering. The average option is transshipment every 2-3 of the year.
Soil is required sour, loose and nutritious. The substrate for azaleas is quite suitable. Or you can please a green friend with a self-prepared mixture of equal parts:
- Turf land
- Coniferous land
- Coarse sand, vermiculite or perlite
Over time, such a land with an acidic environment will leach. Therefore, in the future, it is necessary to acidify it monthly with water and citric acid (a pair of drops per 1 liter) and vitriol (0.5 g per 1 liter of water) Or you can use peat-infused water for irrigation.
Transplant after purchase
The newly acquired gardenia beauty cannot be transplanted. You should wait two to three weeks and make sure that the flowering is over. After this period, the flower is carefully removed from the pot (you need to tilt it down and, grabbing the base of the stem and shaking the bush, pull it out of the container). Then it is necessary to thoroughly clean the roots of the transport soil, which is not very useful for them, and put the pet in a new container a little larger than the previous one. At its bottom, a thick layer of drainage is required.