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Fragile oncidium orchid: variety description and home care

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  • Propagation of orchids by stem offspring 13
  • Planting orchids in pots 12
  • Orchid Care 9
  • Orchid species most suitable for indoor culture 7

The group includes plants with very diverse requirements for the conditions of detention. Significant differences are already found when considering growth cycles. While most species of odontoglossums, oncidiums and trichopilia have distinct periods of dormancy and growth, most species of miltonia and rhodrigesia grow almost continuously. Cold-loving species need a constant influx of fresh air, always cool and humid.

Almost all of the plants in question can be successfully grown in medium light, and a significant part of the year in low light. This allows you to keep them almost constantly under artificial lighting.

More thermophilic species, as a rule, are more photophilous. For example, Brazilian miltonia species require a higher light intensity (approximately like cattleya), and Colombian miltonia are content with less light.

According to temperature requirements, all considered plants can be divided into three groups.

Requiring low temperatures. This group includes the majority of odontoglossums, Colombian miltonia, a number of oncidiums (vesicular oncidium, bird's beak oncidium, curved oncidium, etc.), which do not tolerate hot weather in summer. For their successful culture in conditions of central Russia, special devices are needed to reduce the temperature. Optimal for them are winter night temperatures of +10. + 12 ° C. In summer, in the daytime, it is desirable to lower the temperature to +20. + 23 ° C.

According to the requirements for air humidity, two groups of plants can be distinguished.

In the period of intensive growth, all species need abundant watering, in the dormant period - in very small. Some species with large bulbs, such as the large odontoglossum, may not be watered at all during the dormant period provided that the air is not very dry (relative humidity more than 40%). Species without a pronounced dormant period are watered all year round abundantly.

For planting, ordinary epiphytic substrates are used. Some of the orchids, for example miltonia, require more nutritious substrates, and large plants require coarser ones.

Orchids are planted in pots or baskets of any material. Almost all members of the group grow best in small containers with good drainage. Small plants develop well on pieces of bark and branches with almost no substrate, if they are often moistened (in summer, during the growth period, 2-3 times a day). For fertilizer prepare solutions with a total concentration of salts 1. 2 g / L.

Most species are transplanted as necessary (when decomposing the substrate, overgrowing the dishes). Some species, such as the beautiful Oncidium splendidum "> Oncidium beautiful and trichopilia, are recommended to be regularly divided. Practice has confirmed that the beautiful Oncidium grows better and blooms with an annual transplant and small plant size (three bulbs with one young shoot). Lanza - Oncidium lanceanum" > Oncidium Lanza and a number of other orchids tolerate division and transplant without delay in growth and flowering.

In addition, numerous hybrids obtained from crossing species that are quite difficult in culture are normally adapted to room conditions. These are various odontonies (odontoglossum X miltonia), odontocidiums (odontoglossum X oncidium), miltonidiums (miltonia X oncidium) and many others.

Orchid Oncidium: variety description and home care

Oncidum is grassy perennial, comfortably developing in the tropics. It can be seen in bright tropical thickets at an altitude of up to 4 m.

The natural habitat is the tropical zones of South and Central America. The features of this climate are such that sometimes it rains heavily, followed by prolonged drought.

Interesting fact that this type of orchid is recognized as one of the oldest, whose age reaches 70 million years.. Under natural conditions, Oncidum can bloom up to 2 times a year.

The following colors of this flower are found in nature: yellow, brown and red. On the guitar-shaped lip of the flower is a comb outgrowth with a slight pubescence. In diameter, the opened Oncidium can reach 12 cm.

The most popular varieties

Next, we will tell you about the types of plants and show their photos and names:

    Yellow oncidum - differs in unpretentiousness and an abundance of yellow flowers,

External parameters

The height of the ground in the adult state is 30-40 cm. The plant has a long rhizome, necessary for fixing on a woody or rocky surface. On each pseudobulb there are 3 large sheets. Ontsidum has a leaf-like plate with smooth sides and a slightly rounded end.

Indoor Oncidum can bloom at any time, with proper care up to 2 times a year. The inflorescence is formed from hard brownish lashes, the peduncle length can be from 0.1 to 5 m. Beautiful flowers are densely planted on the branches. The flower has the shape of a combed growth with a slight pubescence.

The diameter of the flower in open form is from 1 to 12 cm. The torn bouquet of Oncidum is able to stand in a vase up to 3 weeks.

Flowering features

With proper care, indoor Oncidum able to bloom every 9-12 months. But if a flower has many pseudobulbs, then it can bloom more often. The duration of flowering is 4-5 weeks.

Some hybrid varieties can bloom 2 times a year. If the air temperature at night rises above 18 degrees, the process of forming a flower arrow is delayed. Leaf and root dressing, plentiful watering accelerates the process of development of the peduncle.

At home, Oncidum blooms under the conditions of a properly selected irrigation system. Since the beginning of active growth, good watering is provided.

The secondary flowering of Oncidum orchids at home can be achieved only with proper care. Fertilizing, which are introduced during the active growth of young shoots, can stimulate flowering.

As soon as a pseudobulb begins to form, supporting feeding is stopped. In this case, you need to make sure that no salinization of the soil substrate, since the roots are very susceptible to this phenomenon, they react extremely negatively to this.

To this end, they reduce the number of root dressings of Oncidum, replacing them with leaf sprayings.

The basic rules of growing

Experienced gardeners have identified set of rules for the care of indoor orchid Oncidium according to the following parameters:

  • location - this type of perennial prefers lighted places, while you need to shade the midday heat, avoiding direct rays from falling onto unprotected leaves,
  • determination of the level of lighting - perennial leaves themselves indicate a lack of light, changing the color to a dark green tone. An excess of moisture is indicated by a light green tone of foliage and brown spots on the plates,
  • optimal air temperature and care - perennial feels comfortable in the temperature range from 15 to 25 degrees. Only a slight temperature difference during the daylight hours is allowed,
  • optimal humidity of indoor air - Ontsidum does not differ in increased requirements for room humidity, it is comfortable at 40% humidity. The window on which the perennial is placed should often be ventilated, because it does not tolerate damp, stale air,
  • watering mode. If the room where the perennial is grown is warm enough, then it needs abundant watering. At the same time, make sure that excess fluid does not remain in the pan, otherwise this can lead to rotting of the roots.

Watering and feeding

Perennial flowering directly depends on the selected irrigation mode. The flower grower should provide him with conditions close to a tropical climate.

During the active growth and development of shoots watering should be of high quality and regular. During the hot heating season, in addition to watering, spray the plant.

After the release of a new bud, watering abruptly stops in order to stimulate fast flowering without additional fertilizing. After the peduncle has matured, watering begins again.

Leaf and root top dressing of perennials during active vegetation will help stimulate further flowering.

To provide perennial rest after flowering, reduce watering. With the growth and development of new shoots, the flowering process accelerates.

Dried and darkened flower stalk pruned. Cut the stem at the base, leaving a 2-centimeter stump.

Disease Prevention and Pest Protection

Delicate orchid Oncidum oIt is characterized by susceptibility to gray rot, bacterial and fungal species. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor that no unpleasant brown spots appear on the leaves. If nevertheless such sites appeared, then they need to be removed, providing comfortable development conditions:

  • temperature increase in the room,
  • temporarily stop spraying leaves,
  • creating excellent ventilation and drying of the soil before the next watering.

Damaged plant treated with drugs, fungicides. Solutions are diluted, strictly following the instructions, after which they spray the foliage of orchids.

If brown spots do not appear on the surface of the sheet for a long time, then the perennial can be considered cured. Oncidum spider mites, mealybugs, aphids and thrips can attack.

Mealybug on Oncidium.

Immediately after the acquisition, it is advisable to place a new orchid separately from other indoor perennials in order to identify dangerous pests in it.

Possible difficulties when growing

When growing an orchid at home, a beginner grower may encounter the following problems:

  • lack of lighting can reduce flowering to nothing - if the plant is placed in a poorly lit place, then it should be moved to a lighter area, making sure that direct rays do not fall on sensitive leaves,
  • sloppy leaf removal can also injure new shoots, which spoils the appearance of the plant, because of this, flowering can also stop, so you need to be careful when removing shoots,
  • improper and unbalanced feeding can salt the root system so susceptible to change. Such top dressing can simply destroy the perennial.

For planting orchids choose light and airy soil with good air permeability. The best option for comfortable growth is a mixture of natural pine bark, perlite and charcoal. Also in the implementation there are ready-made mixtures for orchids.

Orchid Oncidum does not need a transparent pot, its roots do not need it. For its landing, select wide plastic or ceramic pots. If you need to transplant a large perennial, then for it we select a ceramic unglazed container. Compact orchid varieties can be planted using the block culture method, on pieces of cork bark.

Transplantation is performed every 3 years. The transplant is carried out during the active growth of shoots. If you need to transplant an adult orchid, then you can combine it with the division of the bush, planting a small process in a separate bush.

Transplant technology such is:

  1. Water the orchid with warm water, wait 15 minutes, wait until the roots soften,
  2. Carefully remove the orchid from the pot, squeeze it from all sides, swaying, take it out without violating the integrity of the substrate,
  3. We look through the roots, remove the soft rotten roots, clean them from the substrate,
  4. When transplanting, we take into account the nature of the growth of orchids, Oncidum - a pyramidal orchid and shoots here grow only in one direction, therefore they plant it not in the center, but in one direction, moving the bulbs to one edge of the pot,
  5. We place the drainage in advance before landing, try not to deepen the base of the bottom of the pseudobulb so that there is sufficient ventilation,
  6. Only roots go into the ground, bulbs and rhizomes lie on the surface of the soil,
  7. Plant on demand fixed with pegsso that the stem does not break,
  8. The transplanted perennial is shaded, stop supplying water for a week.

Major diseases and pests

Oncidum orchids are very susceptible to many diseases. Specialists have identified the following common diseases of orchids and methods of dealing with them:

  • brown spots on the leaves - bacterial rot. It is important to identify it in the early stages, until it has hit the entire plant, we remove the affected part of the leaf plate with a sharp knife. The cut places are processed with crushed coal,
  • leaf drying may indicate a lack of watering or a shortage of important trace elements - proper top dressing and a balanced watering regime will help solve this problem.

The drying of the leaves of Oncidium.

Orchid attractive to the following pests:

  • mealybug - white lumps resembling medical cotton can talk about its appearance. Lumps are carefully removed with a swab moistened with alcohol, and the plant is treated with a solution of "Actara",
  • if wound up on an orchid spider mite, then perennial is treated with a solution of 1 head of onion, infused for a day, this solution also helps to cope with the scabbard and aphids, actively eating an orchid,
  • if perennial attacked by various bacteria, then it needs to be treated with fungicides.

Breeding methods

The best way to propagate the Oncidum adult orchid is to do bush division. The optimal period for the procedure is February or March:

  1. In an adult orchid in each divide we leave 3 large bulbs, the rest are planted,
  2. We free the roots from the soil substrate,
  3. With a sharp, sterile blade, we cut off the stem that rested on the bulb,
  4. Sprinkle the place of cut with crushed coal, and then plant it in the prepared substrate.

Orchid recovery without roots: how to increase the root mass?

To restore perennial without roots a simple procedure will help: we grow the root system from the living neck of the flower in a container of warm water. Activated carbon and any rooting agent are added to the water, these actions will help speed up the process.

In order for the plant to gain strength, the foliage is wiped with a solution of glucose. This is an additional measure to restore the root system of a fragile orchid.

Oncidium Group (Onc>

In the group oncidium includes remarkable representatives of such genera as brassia, miltonia, odontoglossum, oncidium, rodriguezia, trichopilia. The most decorative are the large odontoglossum, the oncidiums of Lanz and Kramer, pleasant trichopilia and many others.

These are rhizome plants of a characteristic appearance: with oval, flattened, sometimes reduced bulbs, bearing one or more lanceolate leaves. Peduncles, as a rule, branching, appear at the base of the bulbs, have a large number of different in shape, color and size of flowers.

The birthplace of Oncidium is tropical America. You can meet them on a vast territory - from Mexico to Bolivia. Most of the orchids in question are epiphytes. In nature, many of them live at considerable heights in cool and humid conditions with an abundance of scattered light.

Heat-loving species that grow in nature at low altitudes are most suitable for indoor culture.However, the beauty of many alpine cold-loving species makes amateur gardeners constantly make attempts to grow them at home.

Culture conditions

The group includes plants with very diverse requirements for the conditions of detention. Significant differences are already found when considering growth cycles, While most of the species of odontoglossums, oncidiums and trichopilias have distinct periods of dormancy and growth, most species of miltonia and rhodrigesia grow almost continuously. Cold-loving species need a constant influx of fresh air, always cool and humid.

Almost all of the plants in question can be successfully grown at medium light, and a significant part of the year at low (see table. 3). This allows you to keep them almost constantly under artificial lighting.

More thermophilic species, as a rule, are more photophilous. So, for example, Brazilian miltonia species require a higher light intensity (roughly like a cattleya), and Colombian miltonia are content with less light.

According to a number of flower growers, oncidiums with fleshy leaves require high illumination. The most whimsical in this respect about. Lanza, about beautiful, oh. brindle. During the growth period, these plants only slightly shade, in the fall they contain without shading.

According to temperature requirements, all considered plants can be divided into three groups.

Requiring low temperatures. This group includes the majority of odontoglossums, Colombian miltonia, a number of oncidiums (o. bubbly, o. bird's beak, o, tortuous, etc.), which do not tolerate hot weather in summer. For their successful culture in conditions of central Russia, special devices are needed to reduce the temperature. Optimal for them are winter night temperatures of +10 - + 12 ° C. In summer, in the daytime, it is desirable to lower the temperature to +20 - + 23 ° C.

Requiring medium temperatures. This group includes some oncidiums (torch-shaped island, For-beza island), Brazilian miltonia, species of rhodrigesia, trichopilia (see table 4, conditions of a moderate greenhouse), as well as odontoglossums (large island, lemon island).

Requiring elevated temperatures. The group includes oncidiums with fleshy leaves (Lantsa Island, Mothylkov Island, Kramer Island, Fine Island and some others). The most favorable winter temperature for them is +18 - +20 'С.

According to the requirements for air humidity, two groups of plants can be distinguished.

Requiring a humid atmosphere year round. This group includes plants without a pronounced dormant period - miltonia, rhodrigesia, cold-loving species of odontoglossums, moth oncidiums and Kramer.

Allowing a decrease in humidity during dormancy. This group includes the oncidium Lanza, torch-shaped and Forbes, as well as trichopilia.

In the period of intensive growth, all species need abundant watering, in the dormant period - in very small. Some species with large bulbs, such as the large odontoglossum, may not be watered at all during the dormant period provided that the air is not very dry (relative humidity more than 40%). Species without a pronounced dormant period are watered all year round abundantly.

For planting, ordinary epiphytic substrates are used. Some orchids, such as miltonia, require more nutritious substrates, and larger plants require coarser ones.

Orchids are planted in pots or baskets of any material. Almost all members of the group grow best in small containers with good drainage. Small plants develop well on pieces of bark and branches with almost no substrate, if they are often moistened (in summer, during the growth period, 2-3 times a day). For fertilizer, prepare solutions with a total salt concentration of 1-2 g / l.

Most species are transplanted as necessary (when decomposing the substrate, overgrowing the dishes). Some species, such as the wonderful oncidium and trichopilia, are recommended to be regularly targeted. It has been confirmed by practice that oncidium beautiful grows and blooms better with annual transplantation and small size of the plant (three bulbs with one young shoot). According to the observations of the authors, the oncidium Lanza and a number of other orchids tolerate division and transplantation without delay in growth and flowering.

Not all plants of the oncidium group are suitable for keeping in rooms. However, among the species that are remarkable for their decorative features, there are also unpretentious ones, for example, large odontoglossum, moth and oncidiums, beautiful, second rodrigesia and several others. The success of their cultivation depends on proper watering and adequate lighting.

In addition, numerous hybrids obtained from crossing species that are quite difficult in culture are normally adapted to room conditions. These are various odontonies (odontoglossum X miltonia), odontocidiums (odoglossum X oncidium), miltonidiums (miltonia X oncidium) and many others.

Conclusion

Caring for a perennial at home is not so difficultif you do everything on time, carefully monitoring any deviations of the orchid from the norm.

He also needs to arrange an artificial period of complete rest, involving the cessation of watering. For this, the autumn period is suitable. At this time, the orchid feels comfortable after light leaf spraying. With the advent of spring, care for the beautiful orchid returns.

Care for orchid oncidium at home

To transplant a plant you just bought, it is recommended only as a last resort, for example, if the root system has rotted (it is better not to buy such a flower at all). Such an orchid reacts extremely negatively to transplants, so this procedure should be carried out whenever possible once every several years, for example, if the substrate has become more like dust or if the overgrown flower has become crowded in a pot.

A transparent container should not be used for planting, since there is no chlorophyll in the root system and therefore does not need sunlight. It is best to opt for a low and wide enough pot. In the event that the container is a standard size, then ½ part of it should be filled with drainage. Then the pot is filled with fresh water, the bark of coniferous trees is used as it, and a finer fraction will be needed than for phalaenopsis. Experienced growers also recommend pouring a small amount of pieces of charcoal, as well as sphagnum moss.

During the transplant, it should be remembered that the oncidium is a sympoidal plant. Unlike phalaenopsis, which is monopoidal and has only 1 growth point, it has several growth points that share a common rhizome. The growth of young shoots is directed only in one direction. In this regard, it is planted closer to one of the sides of the pot, turning the old pseudobulbs to the wall. This frees up space for young shoots. If there are young shoots during transplantation, they should be turned to the center of the bowl.

In no case should you deepen the base of the flower. So, pseudobulbs should not be immersed in the soil and they need good ventilation. During planting, only the root system should be buried in the soil. It should be noted that the container should be filled with soil almost to the top, otherwise the orchid will have poor ventilation. The old pseudobulbs should not be cut off, because, despite their age, they still nourish the flower. It is also necessary to cautiously take the bases of the pseudobulbs, since when removing the scales on their surface, young shoots, as well as flower buds, are often damaged.

This plant is very photophilous and normally tolerates direct rays of the sun. However, it is recommended to shade it from the summer scorching sun. The light level can be adjusted by paying attention to the color of the foliage. So, if it is dark green, then the lighting is too scarce. And if the leaves are light green and on their surface there are small reddish burn points, then the lighting is too intense. If the light level is optimally selected, then the foliage will be a normal green color.

This plant, if necessary, can be placed on a window of northern orientation, but flowering from it in this case should not be expected. Oncidium especially needs intensive lighting during the formation of young pseudobulbs, as well as during the laying of flower buds. In the event that these processes are observed in the winter, it is recommended to provide illumination with phytolamps.

Temperature mode

Hybrid plants normally grow and develop at a temperature of 14–26 degrees. If the room is too hot, the plant will stop growing. A not too large difference in daily temperatures (about 3 or 4 degrees) is recommended.

The flower normally tolerates not too high humidity in the apartment. Recommended air humidity is approximately 40 percent. You need to moisten the foliage from the sprayer on hot summer days, and also occasionally during the heating season. With a cool wintering (less than 18 degrees), oncidium does not moisturize. Despite the time of year, the flower needs excellent ventilation. The fact is that in stagnant air with high humidity fungal diseases can develop.

How to water. Bloom

How blooming will be depends on how well you water the flower. In order for the flowering to be stable, it is necessary to follow the watering regime, which should correspond to the stages of flower development. From the beginning of growth (when a young sprout emerges from the bottom of the pseudobulb) and before the pseudobulb begins to form (the sprout will thicken below), watering should be systematic and plentiful. Experts advise watering the plant by immersing the flower pot in lukewarm, well-defended water. Watering is necessary only after the substrate dries well, but at the same time the “dry period” should not be too long. About how dry the soil can be judged by the weight of the container with a flower. You should not water the oncidium strictly on schedule, because on hot summer days the soil may well dry out after 3 days, and it will take about a crescent for rainy autumn.

Immediately after you notice that a new pseudobulb is forming, watering the flower must be stopped, otherwise flowering will not occur. After 3-4 weeks, a peduncle will appear, which grows from the bottom of the new pseudobulb. If you are sure that this is the peduncle, you can start to water the orchid again. After flowering is over and before the start of the growth of a new pseudobulb, watering should be less plentiful. In the event that a young vegetative shoot grows, and not a peduncle, this means that problems arose with the plant. This may be due to disturbances during the dormant period and, as a consequence, improper plant development. This often happens when a flower has less than 3 pseudobulbs and it simply does not have the strength to form a peduncle.

If the plant develops within the normal range, then it blooms with a frequency of 1 time in 8-12 months. If there is a large number of pseudobulbs, then oncidium can bloom more often.

Wrinkled pseudobulbs can often be observed. This may not in all cases be associated with diseases or with poor watering. They can wrinkle when a young shoot just starts to grow. Such sprouts lack their own root system, and therefore the maternal pseudobulb feeds it, as a result of which wrinkling occurs. If you increase watering, this will only provoke rotting of the root system, but a pseudobulb will not help. Also, a pseudobulb can dry during dormancy, and also during flowering.

They feed the plant only when young shoots begin to grow. After the formation of pseudobulbs begins, the application of fertilizers to the soil stops. You need to resume feeding only after the peduncle begins to grow and finish after the opening of the 1st flower. Then top dressing begins only after the start of growth of a young shoot. The root system reacts negatively to soil salinization. In this regard, the concentration of fertilizers must be reduced. And also sometimes you need to fertilize the foliage, for this you need to moisten it with a weak solution of fertilizer from the sprayer. In this case, the concentration of fertilizer is recommended to be reduced by 10 times from the dosage recommended on the package.

Pests and diseases

The purchased oncidium must be quarantined for 4 weeks, it must be monitored.

A mealybug is often wound up. If on the surface of the foliage you notice whitish lumps very similar to cotton wool, then treatment should be carried out. To do this, moisten a cotton pad in alcohol and carefully remove insects. After that, carry out the processing by Actar.

A scale shield may also settle. Plaques similar to wax droplets appear on the surface of foliage and shoots. Thrips and aphids can also settle. In this case, aphids can be seen with the naked eye, and thrips is quite difficult to detect, and infection can be judged by the appearance of silver stripes on the surface of the foliage, as well as by the little black points that are the excrement of insects.

In the presence of a spider mite, whitish dots form, and a spider web appears. And often a flat tick settles, the leaves in this case change color to whitish-silver. An onion tick can hit the root system and the base of the shoots of weakened specimens. Any kind of tick is fought in the same way as with a spider mite.

It can become infected with fungal and bacterial rot. If brownish spots appear on the foliage, then the affected areas must be removed. Such a plant needs very good ventilation, between the irrigations the soil should dry out almost completely. And such a flower should be placed in a warmer place, and you should not shower or spray the leaves. Treat with systemic fungicides (foundationazole, follow the instructions), as well as a broad-spectrum antibiotic (tetracycline, dilute with water in a ratio of 1: 2). The plant is sprayed with the resulting solution and watered the soil with it. A fully recovered flower should not have new spots for a long time, while old ones should not increase.

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