About animals

Frechilla (Phylloscopus trochilus)


The song is loud, but pleasant and gentle, a little sad, consists of several whistling knees. It can be depicted very roughly as “file-foot-foot-foot-tyuviluvil-footyu” - a bit like a finch’s song, but without a “stroke”, much more tender and not at all in such a cheerful tone. There may be slightly different song options. A singing male either sits on one of the upper branches of a tree or bush, or sings in crowns, often combining singing with feeding. They sing during daylight hours, especially in the morning. The singing season is extended until mid-late July, and occasionally songs can be heard all summer until departure. With anxiety - a clean and graceful whistling "fyut".

Content, nutrition, reproduction

The warbler prefers to settle in gardens, parks, mixed and deciduous forests, but avoids dense thickets. Foam songs are very similar to finch sounds, but with more intricate and clean trills. They arrive in early April, but at the end of July they are about to winter again. Their food is small insects - beetles, pupae of butterflies, aphids, cicadas, small spiders. Also, do not mind the birds feasting on berries. Nests are built on the ground in the form of a hut, using grass stems, leaves, pieces of moss. One clutch is 5-7 eggs; male and female incubate them alternately. After 2 weeks, chicks appear, they grow quickly and after 2 weeks leave the nest. Towels can do masonry twice a year.

photo: Little warbler quickly gets used to captivity

Chopsticks are caught in early spring, they are fed a nightingale mixture, flour worms, ant eggs, insects, pieces of berries. They are kept in an enclosure or an oblong cage, and a freckle sings most of the year, with the exception of molting months. Two males should not be put in one cage - they will fight. At the age of one year, birds can already produce offspring; during this period, grass stalks, moss, leaves can be put in a cage - the birds themselves will nest.

In the cage there should be a bathing place, a drinking bowl, a feeding trough, several poles, you can build a small house. Vesnichka gets used to captivity easily, is unpretentious in maintenance.

photo: Chamomile warblers sing almost round-the-clock

Interesting facts about warblers

  • The total number of representatives of this species in Europe is more than 40 million pairs,
  • With good care, weights can live in captivity for up to 12 years,
  • The males are the first to return from the warm lands - they take up space for the nest and often fight among themselves for the best sites,
  • During the nesting period, the male sings songs from morning to evening, sitting on a selected tree. The song is smooth, with pleasant whistles and trills.

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Pyachuraўka-budaўnichok (earlier - Chick-vyasnichka)

The whole territory of Belarus

Family Slavkovye - Sylviidae.

In Belarus - Ph. t. acredula, in the west of the republic - a transitional zone between Ph. t. acredula and Ph. t. trochilus.

Common breeding migratory and transit migratory species. It is very widespread in the republic.

Small (much smaller than a sparrow), a slender, mobile bird. The color of the plumage is rather plain greenish-gray, with a lighter yellowish bottom and the same light eyebrow. There are white spots on the sides of the tail. Legs are yellowish or grayish brown. All the stumps are very similar in appearance, in the hands of the flyweed it differs from other species in the ratio of the length of the feathers: the first primary fly is much longer than the upper covering feathers of the hand, the second primary fly is shorter than the fifth, but longer than the seventh. The weight of the male is 8-14 g, the females are 7-14 g. The body length (both sexes) is 11-11.5 cm, wingspan 18-19 cm. The wing length of males is 6-7 cm, 4.7-6 cm, tarsus 2 cm, beak 1 cm. The length of the wing of females is 6-6.5 cm, tail 5-5.5 cm, tarsus 1.8-1.9 cm, beak 0.7-0.9 cm.

The song is somewhat similar to the finch song, but higher and slower, not so loud. It differs from other chunks in a song from an alternation of pleasant whistling sounds of an increasing or decreasing tonality of “tweet-tweet-tweet-tweet, tyu-ty-ty-tu, viu-vi-vi-vi, Li-fu-fu-tu. ".

In non-breeding time, especially during migrations in spring and autumn, it is found among willows in floodplain and upland meadows, in low shrubs, often in dense gardens among rural and urban settlements.

It lives mainly in deciduous plantations, often in mixed, sometimes in coniferous forests, while avoiding closed, deaf areas, it never goes far into solid forests. It prefers well-warmed stands with undergrowth, forest edges, overgrowing felling areas, overgrown marshes with shrubs, and coastal willows with abundant grass stands. It is very common in island small forests, young growths, including in artificial forest plantations of pine, as well as in undersized shrubs, roadside and forest shelterbelts. It is found in parks, squares, gardens, cemetery groves, in summer cottages, in manor buildings.

In the Berezinsky Reserve, it nests in various biotopes, preferring overgrown felling, burning, forest edges, and river floodplains.

In spring arrives in mid-April, in the north of the republic - in late April - early May. Males of warblers come 10-12 days earlier than females, occupy the area and soon after arrival they begin to sing. At breeding sites, regular singing begins in the third decade of April and continues until the end of July. The formation of pairs occurs, the female searches for a place for the nest and begins to build it. The construction of the nest begins in the third decade of April - the first decade of May, the difference in breeding periods for individual years is 8-10 days. The construction of the nest lasts 7-10 days. Breeds in single pairs.

The nest is located mainly on the ground, among a undersized undergrowth, near a glade, path, clearing, often on a slope of an overgrown ditch, a small ravine, and a pit. At the same time, he always hides it well in dead grass cover. In rare cases, the nest is arranged in juniper and Christmas trees at a height of up to 0.3 m above the ground.

The nest is a loose spherical structure typical of the warblers with a side entrance. The building material in it does not interweave with each other, but is neatly laid by a bird. They can serve as dry leaves and stems of herbaceous plants, moss, pieces of last year's leaves of trees, rotten wood, roots. The inner lining consists of thin and delicate blades of grass, roots, a significant number of feathers, sometimes hair. The height of the nest is 9 cm, the diameter of the tray is 5-6 cm.

Full clutch contains 6-7, sometimes 4-5, occasionally 8 eggs. In the Berezinsky Reserve, the clutch size varies from 4 to 7 eggs, more often consists of 6 (50.0%) and 7 (22.5%) eggs, on average - 5.8 eggs. Egg waste in the reserve is 14.9%, chicks - 15.6%.

The shell is slightly shiny or matte, creamy white, with a densely scattered fine rusty-red surface spotting, sometimes forming a more or less pronounced corolla at the blunt end. The color of deep spotting varies from gray to reddish-violet. Egg weight 1.2 g, length 14-16 cm, diameter 11-13 mm.

The nesting period lasts from May to the 3rd decade of July. During this time, the stonework has time to make two masonry (the second masonry - in the south of the republic). The bird begins to lay eggs in the second half of May, some pairs - in early June. Fresh clutches of the second breeding cycle are found in late June - 2nd decade of July. Fedyushin and Dolbik (1967) indicated the second breeding cycle only for the south of Belarus. Hatching begins with the last egg laid. Only the female incubates for 11-14 (normal 13) days.

Worried at the nest, the female emits a whistling urge to "fyut." Chicks receive food from both parents. Chicks are fed with various small invertebrates and their caterpillars. During daylight hours (17–18 hours), the number of feed deliveries to nests in which there were 6–7 chicks of 7–8 days of age varied within 250–320 times. At the peak of feeding, the chicks received 18–26 servings of food per hour. Peaks of feeding at 6, 11 and 19 hours.

On the 13th day, the chicks of life leave the nest. The cages are fed for another 7–8 days within the nesting area, and then migrate with their parents along different biotopes in search of food.

Vesnichki eat small bugs, leaf beetles, mosquitoes, flies, spiders, etc.

The number decreases already at the end of August, already in the middle of September there is an intensive flight of spring grasses, at this time single individuals and groups of 3-4 birds moving in the western and south-western directions often come across not only in the forest, but also in shrubs, thickets of reeds, household plots and summer cottages. The latest registrations of the springies in Belarus date back to the end of October.

The number of flyweed in Belarus is stable and is estimated at 0.95-1.1 million pairs.

The maximum age registered in Europe is 10 years 10 months.

1. Grichik V.V., Burko L. D. "Animal kingdom of Belarus. Vertebrates: textbook. Manual" Minsk, 2013. -399 p.

2. Nikiforov M.E., Yaminsky B.V., Shklyarov L.P. "Birds of Belarus: A Handbook-Guide for Nests and Eggs" Minsk, 1989. -479 p.

3. Grichik V. V. "Geographical variability of birds in Belarus (taxonomic analysis)." Minsk, 2005. -127с.

4. Gaiduk V. E., Abramova I. V. "Ecology of birds in the south-west of Belarus. Passeriformes: a monograph." Brest, 2013.

5. Fedyushin A. V., Dolbik M. S. “Birds of Belarus”. Minsk, 1967. -521s.

6. Shklyarov L. P., Stavrovsky K. D. "Ecology of nesting froths in the Berezinsky reserve" / Materials of the 10th All-Union Ornithological Conference. Minsk, part 2, book 2, 1991. S.297-298.

7. Fransson, T., Jansson, L., Kolehmainen, T., Kroon, C. & Wenninger, T. (2017) EURING list of longevity records for European birds.