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Orchids - you need to know


  • Propagation of orchids by stem offspring 13
  • Planting orchids in pots 12
  • Orchid Care 9
  • Orchid species most suitable for indoor culture 7

The group includes the genera Anselia, cymbidium, gram-tofillum. All its representatives are large plants, unsuitable for indoor culture. Bloom profusely. Extremely spectacular flowering cymbidiums and grammatophyllum. The latter are suitable for landscaping large rooms such as conservatories. Distributed in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, the Philippines.

In room culture, cymbidiums are the most common. Outwardly, these are large plants with bulbs 5.10 cm high and leaves up to 1 m long. Bulbs are closely grouped, which makes it difficult to divide plants. Peduncle is often long (up to 1 mi or more). The flowers are large, numerous, of various colors.

Cymbidium group (Cymb>

Group cymbidium includes childbirth Anselia, cymbidium, grammatophyllum. All its representatives are large plants, unsuitable for indoor culture. Bloom profusely. Extremely spectacular flowering cymbidiums and grammatophyllum. The latter are suitable for landscaping large rooms such as conservatories. Distributed in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia. Indonesia, the Philippines.

In room culture, cymbidiums are the most common. Outwardly, these are large plants with bulbs 5-10 cm high and leaves up to 1 m long. Bulbs are closely grouped, which makes it difficult to divide plants. The peduncle is often long (up to 1 m or more). The flowers are large, numerous, of various colors.

Cultural condition

An abundance of light is desirable at all stages of development. Cymbidiums are one of the most photophilous orchids. They are obscured only if the plant is in the greenhouse and can overheat in the bright sun.

Cymbidiums need cool nights to grow and bloom well. It is not dangerous to lower the night temperature to +5 - + 7 ° C. Many species normally tolerate an increase in daytime temperature to +21 - + 32 ° C during the growth period. The winter temperature is maintained at +10 - + 15'C during the day and + 7- 10 ° C at night. In summer, the plants are kept outdoors (for example, on the balcony), cleaning them into the room only when the night temperature drops to + 5 ° C, etc.

During the growth period, orchids are abundantly watered. Since cymbidiums do not have a period of complete rest, watering is never stopped. When flowering, water moderately. Good results are possible when watering plants at the end of summer with cold water.

Growing cymbidiums, they use both ordinary (epiphytic) substrates and mixtures rich in humus. In the first case, plants are regularly fed.

Orchids are planted in a variety of dishes with good drainage. Transplanted in 2-3 years, usually after flowering, better before the start of new root growth. When transplanting, overgrown specimens are divided, separating parts with three or four bulbs. After transplanting, before starting the growth of new roots, water carefully. If necessary, the first time the plant is covered from direct sunlight.

Cymbidium Low - Cymbididiinae lowianum Rchb. f. Homeland - North India, Burma. Bulbs are densely grouped, oval, up to 10:12 cm high. There are several leaves. They are belt-shaped. up to 60-90 cm long. 5-7 cm wide. Peduncle slightly curved, up to 1 m long, with 15-25 flowers. Flowers with a diameter of 7-10 cm, fragrant, long guarded. Sepals and petals are greenish-yellow with reddish veins. The lip is yellow with dark reddish marks. It blooms in winter - spring.

Orchid Glossary

Brektei - strongly modified leaves of inflorescences (bracts).

Bulba (pseudobulb) - the thickened part of the stem in sympodial orchids. They play the role of accumulator of nutrients and water, in case of prolonged drought, which is typical for plants leading an epiphytic lifestyle. Bulbs have a variety of shapes, depending on the type of orchids - cylindrical, conical, club-shaped or spherical. Each bulb has one or two sheets. But since the nutrient reserves are in bulbs, the leaves of such orchids are usually thin and narrow, gradually dying. Monopodial orchids do not have bulbs and the reserves of nutrients and water are deposited in juicy fleshy leaves.

Vegetative shoots - These are shoots without generative organs, consisting of an axis, leaves and buds. They can be apical and lateral, shortened and elongated. Elongated vegetative shoots are often called growth shoots. Vegetative shoots differ from generative shoots in growth duration and length.

Velamen - hygroscopic tissue of a spongy structure, consisting of dead cells filled with air. Velamen covers the roots of epiphytic orchids and is designed to absorb water from the air and with precipitation. Velamen is characteristic only for orchids growing on drying substrates.

Generative escape is an escape bearing individual flowers or inflorescences. A generative shoot develops from a generative bud having the rudiments of a flower or inflorescence.

Hybrid - from lat. hibrida, hybrida - a cross, an organism (cell) obtained by combining the genetic material of genotypically different organisms (cells), i.e. hybridization. In natural populations of cross-pollinating plants, almost every individual is heterozygous for many genes, i.e., it is a hybrid, which is necessary to maintain a certain level of genotypic variation in the population. Distant hybrids (of different taxa — species, genera, families) are quite rare in nature and, as a rule, sterile. This suggests that natural selection impedes both their formation and their survival. However, the appearance of certain plant species was associated with the formation of distant hybrids.

Lip - one of the tepals, differs from the rest of the leaves in shape and / or color and size.

Two-stamen orchids - in which the flower has two fertile stamens (in the anthers of which pollen grains form). There is a third stamen, but it is modified, underdeveloped, does not have anther, called staminodynia. Orchids of the genus Paphiopedilum belong to the two-stamens.

Baby - a new young plant formed on the mother's vegetative path.

Column - an organ formed by the fusion of stamens (one or two) with a column and stigma of a pestle is characteristic only for orchids.

Rhizome or Rhizome - rhizome - underground more or less durable shoot of perennial herbaceous plants, as well as shrubs, used for the deposition of reserve substances, vegetative renewal and reproduction. It differs from the root by the presence of scaly leaves, scars from fallen leaves (sometimes their dry residues), buds and adnexal roots, and the absence of a root cap. Rhizome (rhizome) grows annually and forms aerial shoots from the apical or axillary buds. Rhizomes often form branched systems. Old parts of the rhizome are gradually destroyed. Long rhizomes with significant annual growths and well-defined internodes serve mainly for vegetative propagation and resettlement, short rhizomes with small annual growths and close nodes are mainly for storage and vegetative renewal.

Meristem - from Greek. meristos - divisible, - the educational tissue of plants, long retaining the ability to divide and the emergence of new cells, has a high metabolic activity. Some meristem cells are initial, they are delayed at the embryonic phase of development and, dividing, provide a continuous increase in plant mass, other meristem cells gradually differentiate, forming various permanent tissues (integumentary, conductive, mechanical, basic, etc.). The meristem carries all the genetic information of the plant, from it any organ and the whole plant can form.

The apical meristems - cones of shoot and root growth - are laid very early in the embryo. The formation of cotyledons and the laying of leaf primordia on the shoot cone increases the differentiation of lateral meristems into prokambia and cambium. In the process of growth, the meristem plant is partially preserved in its roots, in shoot nodes, buds, stem internodes, etc. With the help of meristems, orchids are grown in test tubes on an industrial scale ("Meristem culture"). Those. if you cut off a microscopic piece of the meristem and place it in vitro on a nutrient medium, under sterile conditions, you can grow a new copy of the orchid. It is believed that the meristem is sterile, and the thinner its layer is cut off (under a microscope), the more likely it will be sterile.

Mycorrhiza - from miko. and Greek. rhiza - root, - fungus root, symbiosis of the mycelium of the fungus and the roots of a higher plant. Ectotrophic mycorrhiza is distinguished, in which the fungus braids around the root, remaining on its surface and endotrophic, when the fungus penetrates the root (mycorrhiza of microscopic fungi from the class of imperfect orchid and heather plants). The fungal hyphae in the cells branch tree-like or form capitate capillaries. Mycorrhiza is considered either as a mutualistic symbiosis, from which both a mushroom and a plant benefit, or as limited parasitism. Mycorrhizal fungi probably decompose some organic soil compounds inaccessible to the plant, promote the absorption of phosphates, nitrogen compounds, produce substances such as vitamins and growth activators, and themselves use substances (possibly carbohydrates) that they extract from the root of the plant. The seeds of some plants (orchid) are able to germinate only in the presence of a fungus.

Mycotrophic plants - from miko. and. Troph, - plants with mycorrhiza on the roots and extracting nutrients from the soil with the help of fungal hyphae that are symbiotically connected with the roots. Mycotrophic plants - all gymnosperms, most monocotyledonous (75%) and dicotyledonous (80-90%). For each type of mycotrophic plant, the form of mycorrhiza and the degree of its development depend on age, environmental conditions, etc.

Monopodial orchid has a major axis formed by a single shoot with unlimited apical growth.

Single Stamen Orchids - only one fertile stamen is preserved in their flower (in the anthers of which pollen grains are formed).

Pollinius - the formation of pollen grains, glued together using a substance - viscin, becomes waxy. When germinating on the stigma, pollinia forms a large number of pollen tubes, which increases the chances of fertilization. Pollinia can be filiform, round, pear-shaped, angular and club-shaped. In the process of pollination, polylines are transferred from one flower to another.

Peloric flower - from Greek. pelorios - monstrous - the flower with the correct (actinomorphic) whisk, unlike other flowers of the same plant that have irregular (zygomorphic) corollas. A peloric flower develops at the top of an inflorescence. It is possible that the formation of a peloric flower depends on the uniform action of gravity on the corolla due to its apical, and not lateral, as with other flowers, position.

It is considered generally accepted that an actinomorphic flower is the initial state of the trait, and zygomorphic is a derivative. This phenomenon in orchids is a developmental disorder, both inherited (mutations) and non-inherited, which lead to the development of actinomorphic flowers in plants in which they are normally zygomorphic.

Pollinaria - from lat. pollen, genus case pollinis - fine flour, pollen, a special formation adapted for the transfer of large masses of pollen by insects or birds on the stigma of a flower. It consists of pollinia, legs and sticking (pads), with which the pollinaria is glued to the pollinator.

Pollinia - from lat. pollen, genus case pollinis - fine flour, pollen, - pollen grains of one half of the anther (teka), glued to the total mass with a special substance - viscin, part of pollinaria. When sprouting on the stigma, pollinia forms a large number of pollen tubes, which is an adaptation to ensure reliable fertilization. Pollinia are characteristic of the family of gony and orchid.

Sympodial Orchids - in which the main axis is a system of shoots with limited apical growth, formed from the side buds of shoots of the previous order.

Turgor - the natural stress of plant cells. A plant can live only with a water balance, i.e. when the amount of water entering the plant is not less than it is consumed. When more water is consumed (with intense evaporation), the cells are dehydrated. In this case, the voltage of the plant cells decreases, this is called the loss of turgor. The leaves and tops of the shoots droop and wilt. If the plant is not watered on time, the process may become irreversible.

The loss of turgor can be caused not only by a lack of watering, but also by watering and spraying with highly concentrated solutions of mineral fertilizers.

Epiphytes - plants that have no connection with the soil: they are fixed on the trunks and branches of trees or other plants. Use moisture and minerals from atmospheric precipitation. As a rule, they have an open root system, sometimes they have no roots.

Classification of orchid family groups

Currently, there are many thermophilic species of orchids on sale, so a lover of these beautiful flowers can easily make a wonderful collection for their rooms.

But first, let's get acquainted with the classification of groups of the entire orchid family:

  • Blethian (Bletinae) - consists of the genera: Bletia (Bletia), Calanthe (Calanthe), Khizis, Fayus. In home collections, there are mainly several terrestrial types of bleletillas, calanthus and faience.
  • Dendrobium (Dendrobiinae) - includes childbirth: Bulbophyllum (Bulbophyllum), Cirropetalum (Cirrhopetalum), Dendrobium (Dendrobium). Of greatest interest are rhizome dendrobiums.
  • Catasetinae group - consists of the genera: Catasetum, Cloesia, Cycnoches, Mormodes, Dressleria.
  • Maxillaria (Maxillariinae) - consists of the genera: Lycaste Lycaste), Maxillaria (Maxillaria), Zygopetalum (Zygopetalum). The most decorative lycasts, among which the species stands out: Likasta Skinner (L. skinneri).
  • Spirant (Spiranthinae) - the group consists of genera: Hemaria (Haemaria), Macodes (Macodes), Anectochilus (Anoectochilus), Gudayera (Goodyera). Most of the considered leafy species are rhizome terrestrial orchids, with a rosette of rather large unusually beautiful velvety leaves, various shades with sparkling silver, golden, reddish veins.
  • Hologin (Coelogyninae) - the group consists of genera: Coelogyne, Pleione, Dendrochilum, Solidota. Of the greatest interest for room culture are the species of the first two genera, orchids with large beautiful flowers, plentiful and prolonged flowering.
  • Tsipripedievye (Cypripedieae) - consists of the genera: Paphiopedilum (Paphiopedilum) and Fragmipedium (Phragmipedium), known under the name "Venus slippers."
  • Cymbidium (Cymb> Oncidium, Cumbria (Oncidiinae, Cambria) - which includes remarkable representatives of such genera (by common features) as Brassia, Miltonia, Odontoglossum, Oncidium, Rodriguezia, Trichopilia.

The most popular types of orchids

When purchasing orchids, you should first of all take an interest in their belonging to a particular genus and species. Orchids are famous for the abundance of species with an unsurpassed pattern on flowers. The graceful flowers of these exotic aristocrats amaze with an abundance of stripes, dots, specks, color overflows.

Ascocentrum and Ascocenda
The genus acocentrum is often called a "miniature epiphytic orchid." In their appearance, they slightly resemble orchids belonging to the popular genus Wanda, although the ascocentrums are smaller in size. Ascocendes are common in culture - intergeneric hybrids of the asconcentrum with vandas, which are one of the most advanced and popular miniature hybrid genera of the Sarkantian subtriba. They are distinguished by constant and abundant flowering up to 6 peduncles per year. In this aspect, only phalaenopsis can be compared with them.

About 50 species, native to the tropics of Mexico and Honduras. The flowering period may be different, depending on the species. Some types of brassavol are more, others are less picky, but in principle, all will require attention and regular care. It responds well to nightly lowering the temperature to 13 - 15 degrees. In winter, watering is greatly reduced and put in a well-lit place, it is possible in full sun. In summer, the place should be very bright, but from the midday sun the orchid should be shaded.

Dendrobium (Dendrobium)
Most common in culture noble dendrobium (D. nobile), dendrobium phalaenopsis (D. phalaenopsis), flowering and several others. In nature, this is a typical epiphyte, which is reflected in the name (Greek. Dendron - "tree", bios - "life"). There are more than a hundred varieties and hybrids of this species. Indoor dendrobiums of Parish and Lindley are also grown.

Phalaenopsis (Phalaenopsis)
The genus Phalaenopsis was founded in 1825 by the German botanist Carl Ludwig Ritter von Blume (Carl Ludwig Blume). Phalaenopsis in translation from Latin - "similar to a butterfly." And it is not for nothing that he received such a name - an inflorescence even from afar, even close by - an exact copy of a fairy-tale flock of flying butterflies with bright silk wings. The Phalaenopsis plant has a very short stem and succulent paired leaves. In nature, they grow in tropical areas from the Himalayas to Australia. In the genus, there are up to 60 species and a large number of artificial hybrids. Flowering time may depend on the particular species or hybrid. This type of orchid is ideal for beginners, as it is quite unpretentious.

Orchid Wanda (Vanda)
The name is borrowed from India, where in Sanskrit this word was used to refer to a certain type of orchid. Vanda has two rows of leaves, differing in structure - there are species with flat, and there are with cylindrical leaves. Peduncles are long, most often with a large number of large flowers, appearing from the axils of the leaves. Wanda has blue - a rare color for orchids. Many types of flowers have a pleasant aroma. Flowering occurs in the autumn-winter period. There are many hybrids, they are often found on sale, but it is difficult to call a vanda easy in culture. These large orchids are one of the most photophilous, requiring constant attention, as well as high humidity. Night temperature in winter should not fall below 14-15 degrees. In summer, you can set it in full sun. For it to bloom, you will have to provide it with bright lighting, high humidity.

Cymbidium (Cymbidium)
This genus of orchids is very well suited for indoor use. Hybrid cymbidium (Cymbidium hybridum) obtained as a result of selection is popular. Individual hybrids reach a height of 70 cm. Blooms in winter, for several months. Flowers of pastel shades (diameter up to 4 cm) are located on strong erect peduncles. It is believed that cymbidium is able to help a person reduce short temper and irritability.

Oncidium (Oncidium)
On the branched peduncles of oncidium - butterfly orchids - golden flowers of an odd shape are often located. About 450 species come from tropical America, many are common only in the mountains. Brazilian species are often called butterfly orchids. American flower growers call them "dancing dolls." In Germany, the oncidium also received the name of the corpus callosum due to warty growths on the flower lip. Some orchid species bloom in late autumn, others in winter. Oncidium flowers of the bird-billed in shape resemble a bird's beak and exude the smell of vanilla. The most unpretentious is considered about. Forbesa, about. curly and about. wide.

One of the most popular orchids that can be grown indoors. Named after the English gardener U Cattley (William Cattley). Cattleya native to the tropical regions of North, Central, South America, is one of the most flowering species. The largest number of species grows in Brazil and the Amazon jungle. The extraordinary beauty of these orchids impressed the Europeans so much that some of them were given the names of Catholic saints and Christian holidays. The most amazing part of the flowers is a wide and bright painted lip. Flowers of the most varied color: raspberry, pink, purple, yellow, etc. There are many intergeneric hybrids - brassocattles, Leliocattles, sofroreliocattles. In the culture, the most common varieties of Cattleya hybrid and Skinner. The flowering period depends on the species. Different species require moderate or warm content. Cattleya needs good lighting, excellent ventilation, warm (minimum) temperature of 15-19 degrees, moderate humidity, well-drained soil. (see continued)

Lelia (Laelia)
The genus Laelia was described by John Lindley in 1831. Orchids with a sympodial form of growth resembling cattleya. They are very popular among flower growers not only in the countries in which they live, but also around the world. Growing conditions for Lelia: cool bright areas, high humidity during the period of growth and flowering, upon reaching maturity, a dry period is necessary. Lelia is photophilous, but depending on the species in summer more or less shade from the direct sun. In the period of ripening of new shoots (late summer - autumn), it is necessary to ensure an abundance of light and fresh air. In the summer they water quite abundantly, in winter they significantly reduce watering. The flowering period of leli varies from species to species.

Miltonia (Miltonia)
German flower growers noticed the similarity of a miltonia flower with a flower of pansies and called it “pansies” orchid. Miltonia native to the tropics of America, there are cold-loving (mountain) - "Colombian" and heat-loving - "Brazilian" species of orchids. Need regular care. For Brazilian miltonia, the optimum temperature throughout the year is about 21-23 degrees during the day, 13-15 degrees at night. All year round they need high humidity. In summer and spring, miltonia are protected from direct sunlight, in summer you can put in a shaded place. When kept in the apartment, there must certainly be access to fresh air.

Miltoniopsis refers to orchids that prefer cool growing conditions. Like its cousin cambria, after flowering, it needs to lower the temperature to 14 degrees. The roots of these orchids are much thinner and less fleshy than, for example, the butterfly orchids. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that in miltoniopsis the soil is uniformly moistened all the time. Water the plant more intensively in summer, in moderation in winter. At the same time, try to avoid both waterlogging and drying of the substrate. Such extremes can lead to the death of sensitive plant roots.

Makodes Petola (M. petola (Blume) Lindl.)
Macodes petola is not grown for the sake of small and inconspicuous flowers, but solely because of the beauty of their leaves. Belongs to the group of so-called precious-leaf orchids. This group consists of several genera (Ludisia, Macodes, Gudiera, Anectohilus, etc.), the systematics of which is constantly changing, the species roam by genera and subspecies. All of them from the tropical belt, without a period of rest, grow on mossy stones, trunks, forest litter. They differ from other orchids in the rich color of leaves shimmering with gold or silver streaks. A ground plant with fleshy creeping shoots, bearing leaves at the apex close to a loose rosette, short-leaved, broad-egg-shaped velvety emerald green (leaves) with a network of bright golden (silver), flickering veins in the light. The flowers are small, reddish-brown with a white lip, collected in a long erect apical brush up to 15 cm long. Sepals and petals are outstretched, the lip is three-lobed, inverted, the column is twisted in the opposite direction. It blooms in the autumn-winter period.

Paphiopedilum (Paphiopedilum)
The slipper orchid, sometimes called the "venus slipper" - is one of the most famous and popular genera among various types of orchids. The shape of its flowers with a pronounced saccular lip is very much like a woman’s shoe. For the rooms, species that were easy to care for were selected, originally from the tropics and subtropics of Asia. As a rule, types and varieties of Paphiopedilum are offered for sale, which in winter can be kept in a warm room.

Hybrid papiopedilum is grown in culture - a large group of garden hybrids bred by crossing natural species. Flowering occurs in winter or spring, lasts from several weeks to several months. Among other species, one can mention the papiopedilum wonderful, cute, calloused, Spicer and Sukhakul.

Office of the Fly (Ophrys insectifera)
An unusually rare plant in our area of ​​unusual shape and color. Distributed in Europe, Asia Minor. It grows on moist, swampy meadows, lowland marshes, sometimes among shrubs, on the old bottoms of calcareous quarries, mainly on carbonate soils. All copies of this species in Russia are under protection.

Orchid Dracula simia - Dracula Monkey
It can be seen that nature was in a great mood if she drew a funny muzzle on velvet petals. To extend their kind, they have to constantly portray something or someone.

Orchid love
Very popular is the tiny Luba orchid, better known as the "night violet." Flowers emit a very pleasant aroma, which intensifies in cloudy weather and at night.

Vanilla - Scented Orchid
Fragrant orchids: the most fragrant of them is vanilla, the ovaries of which, dried in a special way, are very appreciated as a spice. Tropical orchid flowers have a more or less pronounced vanilla odor.

Bletilla (Bletilla)
A genus of flowering herbaceous terrestrial species of the Orchidaceae family. From 5 to 10 species from East Asia, some of them are popular garden ornamental plants. Bletilla hyacinthina is usually grown at home. In autumn, after the leaves die off, the temperature is lowered to 5-13 degrees and watering is almost completely stopped. After that, the orchid blooms in spring. Without a cold period of rest, it does not bloom. In summer, you can take it out to full sun, watering abundantly.

The scientific name of the genus is formed by adding a diminutive suffix to the name of the American genus of orchids - Bletia (Bletia). Representatives of these two genera are similar, while plants from the genus Bletilla are smaller.

Veilstekeara (Vuilstekeara)
Elegant and spectacular wilstekeara works of breeders. Vuilstekeara Cambria was obtained by multistage crossbreeding of cochliodes, miltonia and odontoglossum. From the first she got a bright color, from the second - a beautifully painted lip, and from the third - the shape of a star. In a culture known since 1914. The name is given in honor of the Flemish gardener who created this hybrid Vuylsteke (19th century.). It was created for existence in poorly heated rooms. About 100 years ago, after the first flowering of the hybrid, it was the most expensive flower in Europe. The most popular varieties: V. Cambria, V. Edna, V. Plush, V. Monica, V. Linda Isler.

This orchid needs frequent airing and plentiful watering, however, after the next watering, you should wait until the surface of the substrate dries. In winter, watering is significantly reduced, but the substrate is continued to be sprayed daily with warm water. In order not to spoil the appearance of the flowers, you need to make sure that they do not get splashes of water. In winter, the following temperature is optimal: during the day 18-20 degrees, at night - 13-18 degrees. In summer, you can put it on the balcony, and the plant can withstand a short-term drop in temperature to 5 degrees. For summer, you can put Voilsteekearu under the openwork crown of a tree in the garden. In the room, she will feel better on the east window. Flowers last up to 8 weeks, on an adult plant the peduncle branches. If in the fall the plant is put in a cool room for 2 weeks (with a night temperature of 12-13 degrees), then at the end of winter the veilstekeara blooms again.

All orchids, to one degree or another, like moist air. Phalaenopsis, oncidium, papiopedilium is no exception. You can create the most suitable living conditions for them with the help of a green pillow. In a large pot, plant a hygrophilous plant, such as indoor bamboo, and carefully place a pot of orchids between its branches. The increased humidity around tropical flowers is provided to you.