General form. Obviously square and stocky, it’s like “a lot in the small”, expressed in a compact form, good proportions and well-developed musculature.
Character. Very charming, noble and intelligent.
Temperament. Balanced, cheerful, lively and cheerful.
Head. Large, round, but not "apple-like", without recesses in the skull. The muzzle is short, blunt, square, not upturned. Wrinkles are clearly marked.
Eyes. Dark, very large, round in shape, with a gentle, meek and desire-like expression, very shiny and full of fire when excited.
The ears. Thin, small, soft, like black velvet. Two varieties - "rosettes" - small ears folded above the head, laid back so that the inside is open. “Buttons” - ears laid forward, pressed firmly against the skull with their edges, cover the internal holes. The latter are preferred.
The mouth. A little snack. A crooked (crooked) mouth, prominent teeth and protruding tongue are highly undesirable. The front teeth (incisors) of the broad lower jaw are always in a straight line.
Neck. Slightly curved, resembling a crest, strong, thick, long enough to carry the head proudly.
Forelimbs. Legs are very strong, straight, of moderate length, mutually parallel. Sufficiently placed under the body (located "well under the dog"). Shoulders well inclined.
Torso. Short, stocky with a wide chest and well-convex ribs. The top line is straight, never curved (concave) and not inclined (beveled).
Hind limbs. Legs are very strong, of moderate length, with well-defined angles, straight and mutually parallel when viewed from behind.
Paws. Not as long as a hare, and not so round as a cat. The fingers are well separated, the claws are black.
Tail. Set high, twisted as tightly as possible, pressed to the back. Double curl is more desirable.
Movements. Seen from the front, the forelimbs rise and fall, being strictly under the shoulder. The paws are directed straight, not deployed either inward or outward. Seen from the rear, the picture is similar. The forelimbs move with a good, strong swing. The hind limbs move freely, with good mobility in the knee joints. Gait is characterized by light rolling movements of the back.
Wool. Thin, smooth, tender, short and shiny (never stiff and fluffy).
Color. Silver, apricot, fawn and black. Each of these suits should be clearly expressed so that there is a clear contrast between the main color and the mask. Marks should be clearly distinguished: the muzzle or mask, ears, warts on the cheekbones, a spot on the forehead in the form of a rhombus or fingerprint, and a dark line on the ridge should be as black as possible.
The size. Ideal weight 6.3-8.1 kg.
disadvantages. Any deviations from the points mentioned above should be regarded as flaws, and the seriousness with which they should be taken into account must be in strict accordance with the degree of deviation.
Note. Males should have two normally developed testes fully descended into the scrotum.
The place of origin of pugs, indicated in most sources, is considered to be Ancient China.
In early Chinese manuscripts, “square, low dogs with a short muzzle” are mentioned: “Ha Pa” and “Lo Tse” (long-haired and short-haired, respectively). "Luo Jie."
There is no exact data on the origin of this breed.
Pugs supposedly appeared before our era. These small dogs lived in the rich homes of the nobility. Their main purpose was always to be close to the owners and move with them everywhere.
Wrinkles on the forehead of pugs in ancient times were called the imperial sign, since the pattern of folds on the forehead was clearly visible and resembled hieroglyphs.
In 1553, pugs were first brought to France by Turkish ambassadors. They wanted to present the dogs as a gift to French aristocrats. It is believed that it was they who distributed pugs throughout Western Europe.
A modern pug owes its appearance to the British. It was in England that serious work was begun on the selection of individuals (the creation of new or improvement of existing animal breeds). Having first appeared in England, pugs had longer noses, longer legs, the body was less "square", the ears of the dogs were very short cut.
In 1883, the first club of pug lovers was founded in England. In 1885, the first exhibition was held. The breed standard was adopted in 1888.
At the end of the twentieth century (80s), several pugs came to Russia. This breed quickly took root in the country.
Characteristics of the standard of purebred individuals
- General form. The pug is square and stocky with good proportions. The muscles are well developed.
- Character. Very charming, noble and intelligent.
- Temperament. Balanced, cheerful, lively and cheerful.
- Head. Large, round, but similar in shape to an apple (there should be no notches on the skull),
- Square muzzle, dumb. The right pug head should fit into the square. Wrinkles should be clearly visible.
- Eyes. Round, large eyes of dark color, protruding forward. Eyes should be set wide.
- The ears. Fit tight to the head, set high. Two varieties of ears:
“Rosettes” - ears folded above the head, the inside of the ear is open.
"Buttons" (preferably) - tightly pressed with the edges to the skull. Internal holes are not visible. The ears of this species are laid forward.
- To fall. Bite is a small snack. Teeth should not be visible. The tongue should not be stuck out.
- The front teeth (incisors) of the broad lower jaw are always in a straight line.
- Neck. Slightly curved, similar to a crest, strong, thick, not too short and not too long.
- Torso. Short, stocky with a wide chest and well-convex ribs. The top line is straight, never arched (concave) and not inclined (beveled).
- Front and hind limbs. Legs are very strong, straight, of moderate length, mutually parallel. Shoulders well inclined. Hind limbs with well defined angles.
- Paws Paws with well-separated fingers and black claws.
- Tail. High set, twisted as tightly as possible, pressed to the back, small length. Double curl is more desirable.
- Wool. Thin, smooth, characterized by softness and tenderness.
- Movement. Gait is characterized by light rolling movements of the back. If you look at the pug from the front or back - the legs are directed straight. The front legs move with a strong swing.
- Color. Color yellowish-yellow, silver or black. Light colors are accompanied by a black mask (darkening on the muzzle and ears, on the forehead in the form of a rhombus, dark warts) and, possibly, a dark stripe (belt) on the ridge from the occiput to the base of the tail.
- The size. Ideal weight 6.3 - 8.1 kg.
Males should have two normally developed testes fully descended into the scrotum.
Below are a few visual photos with a general view of the dog, the structure of the skull and head, eyes and ears.
Ears should be soft, thin and small, regardless of variety.
Characteristic features, how do they look?
The main characteristic features of the pug: short legs, short hair, wrinkled face with large bulging (but not very) dark eyes, medium-sized black nose, smooth teeth with a bite like a bulldog, tail hook.
Growth from 28 to 32 cm, weight 6.3–8.1 kg, life expectancy 13-15 years.
Pugs belong to the group "decorative and companion dogs"
Color Feature Information
The coat in dogs of the pug breed is of several colors, which can be called recognized: beige, silver, apricot and black.
The beige color of the coat and its shades are classic, from very light (almost white) to darker.
- A puppy is considered silver if its coat is very light and sparkles a little with a cold shade of white or silver.
- Apricot color has a warm shade of yellow with a rich orange tint.
- Silvery and apricot pugs are extremely rare.
Puppies of black color should not have spots of other colors on the coat.
Puppies of a black color are more expensive than pugs of light colors.
In the XVII and XVIII centuries, black pugs were not valued for breeders and were often destroyed immediately after birth.
Since about 1886, breeders seriously set about breeding black pugs. This was facilitated by the Madison exhibition, which presented four black pugs.
They became winners in their class, which sparked interest in black pugs. After that, several nurseries began to specialize in breeding pugs of black color.
At exhibitions of any level, dogs of the pug breed of black color are especially meticulously. The coat of the animal should be shiny deep black. If the coat contains white or red hair, the dog will not be allowed to participate in the exhibition. A disadvantage, but not a defect, in evaluating a dog is a bright spot on the chest.
Care and maintenance
Pugs - suitable only for living at home. Life in the yard or in the open air is contraindicated for them. Due to their compact size, they will feel comfortable even in a small apartment.
However, you need to ensure that the pet is not in a stuffy room or in the sun to avoid overheating.
Pugs are funny cheerful dogs that love to move and play. Lack of movement can lead to impaired blood circulation, because pugs have large muscle mass and, if it atrophies, this can lead to the death of the animal. Overwork from running around the pet is also undesirable due to a weak breathing apparatus.
Close attention requires pet food, because he can be very obese and this will affect his life expectancy. It is necessary to monitor the ratio of phosphorus and calcium in the diet, as their incorrect ratio and excess of the latter can adversely affect the nervous system of the animal and lead to mental disorders, loss of consciousness and, in general, to a violation of the pet’s health.
Pet hair must be combed at least twice a week.. This is not only a necessity, but also a great pleasure for the dog. You can also carry out water procedures using special shampoo.
The pug’s eyes and face should always be clean.. The fold over the nose must be treated with chlorhexidine 1 - 2 times a week, because she can mate. After processing, folds must be wiped dry.
Training and education
Pugs are very stubborn dogs. Due to the decorative type and such disposition, they are not very amenable to training and command execution. But pugs cannot be spoiled too much, because if you sometimes don’t be strict with them, they will begin to be basically harmful (for example, not to respond to your nickname, even if they know it well).
Pugs love a lot of attention and a good attitude towards themselves. They are patient and very curious. This breed has self-esteem and pride, and can also be jealous if the owner has turned his attention to someone else for a long time.
Representatives of this breed get along with everyone. They try to treat cats in the house calmly, but with some arrogance. There are no problems with other dogs either.
The nature of relationships with children
Pugs are considered very friendly and patient dogs. Therefore, they get along very well with children. In addition, pugs love a lot of attention, and children are ready to give it. They are very friendly and sociable, so they can easily become the best friend for the child.
If the baby likes to sit at home, the pug will sit next to or on his knees. On a walk, he is a dedicated companion with good stamina.
Pugs are prone to overweight, so you need to carefully monitor their nutrition.
Feeding should be systematic and balanced. You cannot feed a pet with frozen meat and fish. The dog should have its own place and dishes for eating. Also, the dog should always have a bowl of drinking water at room temperature. If you train a dog to eat from the floor, then it will always pick up everything from the ground. Fatty and smoked foods, as well as sweets in large quantities are strictly prohibited.
Sometimes you need to pamper your pet. The delicacy can be fruits, cheese, some cookies.
From an early age, the pug owners should monitor its nutrition and diet. Food for puppies 1 - 1.5 months may be: raw lean meat, porridge, sour-milk products and dry specialized dog food. With the right approach to feeding, the dog will grow up strong, healthy and active.
The number of feeds per day for puppies and adult dogs is different:
- From 1.5 to 2 months, meals 5-6 times a day.
- From two to 4 months - 4 times a day.
- From four to 6 months - 3 times a day.
- After 6 months, the dog eats as an adult, twice a day in the morning and evening.
For adult dogs, it is not recommended to use muscle meat and heart in the diet. Such meat negatively affects the digestion process in the animal. Vegetable products are useful for eating, because they contain a large amount of protein and vitamins.
For good digestion, you can mix meat and plant foods, which contain fibers that saturate the intestines. Very useful for the pug are fresh vegetables and fruits, saturated with vitamins.
Pugs eat well both natural food and ready-made specialized dog food.
If you pass a hand along the pug's ribs, which are properly looked after and taken care of, they will not be probed.
- «Chronic corneal erosion "- one of the specific diseases in pugs. This is an eye disease, which initially appears as a slight clouding on the cornea, it leads to spasm of the eyelids and lacrimation. Further, blood vessels begin to sprout around this defect. Erosion can be cured with antibiotics, vitamins and iodine. More specific drugs are prescribed by the veterinarian.
- Another specific pug disease is loud snoring in a dream. This haunts all snub-nosed dogs.
There are common diseases that can be found in dogs of all breeds:
- Dog flea. When fleas are identified, it is necessary to treat the animal and its place (or the entire house) with special tools that can be purchased at the pet store: shampoo, spray, aerosol. The tool must be selected, taking into account the age of the dog and its features.
- Dog louse. It is also a carrier of diseases. Dog lice control methods are similar to flea control methods.
- Skin mites. They appear in the dog as damage to the coat and / or skin. If ticks appear, the dog must be urgently taken to the veterinary clinic so that the veterinarian conducts a comprehensive examination.
- Rabies is a serious infectious disease, and there is no cure for it. For prevention, the dog needs to be vaccinated against rabies. It is done once a year, in the spring.
- Internal parasites. The most common and well-known type of internal parasites is worms. Their presence leads to an upset gastrointestinal tract; in animals, susceptibility to diseases increases. Some of the possible symptoms are vomiting, colic, diarrhea, or constipation. The appetite of the dog increases or disappears altogether. Worms in puppies can be fatal.To avoid this, once every three months it is necessary to carry out deworming. Deworming is carried out in 2 stages: initial intake and repeat after 10 days.
- Gastritis. It is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa. First of all, in the treatment of gastritis you need a hungry diet. Also, the dog needs peace.
Pugs should be regularly examined in a veterinary clinic to prevent a disease or to recognize it at the initial stage. Many representatives of the breed are susceptible to allergies, and respiratory tract diseases are also found.
Systematically need to treat the animal from parasites (worms, ticks, fleas).
Advantages and disadvantages
Among the advantages of pugs, one can single out that these are very kind, patient animals that get along with everyone. They are small in size, so they can easily take root even in a small apartment.
Among the shortcomings of this breed, one can distinguish their innate stubbornness, the periodic manifestation of jealousy and the fact that dogs are unsuitable for living in the open.
In addition, pugs are very curious and trusting, so they can easily become the subject of theft. But such a quality as trust is also a big plus and allows the pug to quickly find a common language with everyone.
Conclusion on the topic
Pugs are great friends for people and other pets. They are calm, good-natured, playful, lively and at the same time very miniature. Pug gets along well with all four-legged and two-legged inhabitants of the apartment, with great joy he is ready to become a friend for children.
With competent and responsible care for a small pet, he will be around for about 15 years. Over the years, the pug owner will never get a reason to doubt his allegiance.