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Types of green spaces


The main types of green spaces and decorative styles

Green spaces are divided into four categories: common, limited use, special purpose, personal use.

Common plantings - city parks, squares, boulevards, greened streets, forest parks. They are intended for the entire population and are visited freely.

Limited-use plantings are created at institutions, hospitals, rest homes, kindergartens, field camps. They are used by a limited circle of people.

Special purpose plantations include botanical gardens, decorative nurseries, erosion-control planting on the slopes, boulevards and lawns that separate highways, wind and fire protection strips.

Private gardens near individual buildings in villages, towns, suburbs are plantations of fox. In our country, special design organizations for such sites develop scientifically sound landscaping plans that take into account the local landscape and select an assortment of ornamental plants that best suits the given soil and climate zone.

The main types of green spaces are botanical gardens, parks, forest parks, squares, boulevards, green streets, green planting in residential areas and around institutions and enterprises.

Botanical gardens are created at scientific institutions whose task is to study the plant world and enrich the local cultural flora. Here species that are of interest to the national economy, including ornamental plants, are being tested, they breed and breed new varieties of flowers and flowering shrubs. Much attention is paid to introductions (introduction to the plant culture of other continents and soil-climatic zones).

The main part of the territory of the botanical garden is assigned to the arboretum (arboretum) - a constantly growing collection of tree and shrub plants. For species with a great botanical diversity, special plantings are distinguished - rosaries (for roses), sirengari (for lilac), dahlia (for dahlias), exotarium (for exotic plants). Botanical gardens are centers of propaganda of landscape art among the population, and their plantings are a model for landscaping cities and other settlements of our country.

Parks serve for the cultural recreation of workers. They occupy large areas of several tens or hundreds of hectares. They are arranged near natural or artificial reservoirs - rivers, lakes, ponds. The parks house buildings and structures for servicing vacationers - attractions, buffets, restaurants, bookstores and newsstands, boat stations, equip arbors, observation decks, hard-walked walkways along which garden benches are located.

In the front part of the park flower beds are broken. Trees and shrubs are planted in small numbers - singly or in groups. The rest of the territory is dominated by alley, group and continuous plantings of tree-shrub species.

Forest parks are natural areas adapted for recreation. When they are created, forest plots located near water sources (lakes, rivers) are selected. Local vegetation is enriched by artificial replanting of ornamental plants that fit into the surrounding landscape. Glades and lawns saturate with flowers, improve their grass cover. A network of walking paths is arranged in the forest parks, and they also include the installation of garden benches, tables for board games, awnings to protect from the weather.

Square - a small green space in the city, town, village. They are broken down in squares, in the centers of microdistricts, in front of the buildings of theaters, train stations, boards of collective farms, village councils. Has a rectangular, oval, rounded or square shape. All the footpaths converge to its geometric center. The layout of the square is subordinate to the architectural features of the buildings located nearby. It is a place for a short rest.

Boulevards are arranged along the embankments and on city streets. Consist of pedestrian walkways 3-6 m wide, on both sides of which lawns are broken. In the middle of lawns, single-row strips of plane trees, lindens, spruces, spherical acacias, chestnuts and other tree species are planted. Lawns are edged with borders.

Greening of the streets is carried out by planting single or double rows between the sidewalk and the pavement. Trees with a narrow, thick crown, giving a good shadow in the summer heat, are best suited for this.

Shrub species in the form of low hedges are often planted along tree strips. They protect pedestrians from dust and dirt falling from the pavement. On the streets adjacent to the factory districts, it is advisable to place gas-resistant trees and shrubs: makluru, tamariks, Canadian poplar, prickly spruce, goat, barberry, currant golden, thu.

Green spaces of limited use should constitute a single decorative ensemble with adjacent streets and areas. The facade of the main building is usually decorated with a flower garden or a small square, and the borders of the adjacent territory are planted with one or two rows of tall trees. The rest of the area is decorated in accordance with the purpose of the landscaped object.

When landscaping schools take into account the educational and educational value of the planted plantations. The range of decorative breeds used here should be quite extensive. Auxiliary and outbuildings in the courtyard of the school can be landscaped with climbing plants. Sports and playgrounds, vegetable and grain areas, a fruit garden and a berry planted around the perimeter of low trees or shrubs. At schools, small greenhouses are sometimes built, in which, in addition to vegetable plants, flower seedlings and flowers are grown to decorate school premises on public holidays.

For landscaping kindergartens, breeds are selected that protect the patio from city noise, dust and smoke. At the same time, they should serve as wind protection, and in the summer create a pleasant shadow. Most of all, balsamic poplar and Canadian, western thuja, field maple, walnut, viburnum, lilac, golden currant and other fruit crops.

Thorny and poisonous plants for landscaping kindergartens are unsuitable.

When landscaping hospitals, they provide maximum protection for hospital buildings from noise, dust, smoke, wind, and summer heat. The internal territory of the hospital is divided into a type of small park with a predominance of tree-shrub vegetation. Pedestrian paths are shaded by alley landings and equipped with garden benches. They create small groves or curtains from breeds that have sanitary and hygienic significance and have phytoncidal properties (juniper, linden, pine, spruce, mountain ash, Tatar maple, bird cherry, goof).

In green building, various decorative styles are used: regular, landscape, mixed.

The regular (geometric) style is characterized by a strict layout, which is subordinate to the center or axis of symmetry of the green area. Flower beds and lawns are broken in the form of regular geometric shapes. Trees and shrubs are planted in straight rows and regularly formed. Regular style is relatively rare. According to its basic rules, parterres are designed in botanical gardens, parks of large cities, squares in front of large architectural complexes.

Landscape (landscape) style is based on natural compositions with a variety of landscape colors. It features a free layout of the landscaped area. Paths divide the stands into asymmetric parts, groups or massifs of trees have a free outline. Used in the construction of parks, forest parks, arboretums.

Mixed style combines regular and landscape features. Lawns, flower beds, footpaths can have the correct geometric shape. At the same time, wood and shrub species are freely placed in the form of picturesque groups and curtains. They are used in simplified stalls, squares and some boulevards.

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Linear landing

These are elongated planting of trees or shrubs. Among them there are: alleys, hedges, borders, trellises.

Alley called a two-way planting of trees along the road in the field, on the street or in the park. Alleys are most often created from any one type of tree species: birch, linden, maple, poplar, larch. The alley serves as a wonderful decoration of the road, emphasizes its straightforwardness, creates a perspective, protects pedestrians from the heat of the sun.

Birch Alley in Yasnaya Polyana

Hedge create along some borders instead of artificial fences. Most often, shrubs are used for these purposes. Protective hedges (along the border of the garden, etc.) are created from thorny bushes, and decorative hedges from bushes with beautiful flowers or foliage (privet, cotoneaster, jasmine, lilac). Hedgerows in park landings are trimmed.

Cotoneaster hedge

Border - a hedge of undersized (less than 1 m) beautiful shrubs (Japanese spirea, mahonia, etc.) that separates a lawn or flower bed from paths in parks and squares.

Trellis planting they are created at special trellised supports, to which the branches of planted trees and shrubs are tied, forming a green wall. Shrub trellis can also be created without a lattice by splicing branches of neighboring plants. Tapestries decorate the walls of buildings for decorative purposes or to protect against overheating.

Vertical gardening used for decorative decoration of blind walls of buildings, arbors, columns, lampposts. To do this, use various climbing (climbing) plants: grapes, hops, wisteria, etc.

In addition to trees and shrubs, grasslands are widely used for landscaping settlements: beautifully flowering annuals and perennials and green cereal grasses to create lawns, flower beds, and rabatka.

Lawn - a green area sown with herbs. Lawns can be freely growing, trimmed and blooming. They are used to decorate squares and parks and serve as a green background for placing flower beds, tapeworms or curtains of trees and shrubs on them. For green lawns, mixtures of various cereals are used, for example, pasture ryegrass - 25%, meadow bluegrass - 40, white bark - 35%.

For flowering lawns, they make up a mixture of cereal grasses, as well as annual and perennial flowering plants from among the usual ones: daisies, pansies, marigolds, poppy seeds, allisum, etc.

Flowerbed - curly bed of flower plants on the background of the lawn. The flower beds can be round, oval, square and any other shape. Their surface is usually raised above the lawn by 8 - 12 cm and has a convex shape. Sometimes a flower bed is placed around a fountain or sculpture (monument).

Flower plants in the flower bed are placed according to a specific pattern, taking into account the color of their flowers and leaves. In this case, one must take into account the laws of the correct combination of colors. The main colors are red, yellow and blue. Derivative colors: orange, green, purple. A harmonious combination is obtained if the main color is placed next to such a derivative in which it does not take part. For example: red with green (since green is formed from a mixture of yellow and blue), yellow with purple, blue with orange. Less harmonious, but tolerable, are combinations of the colors of the main (red with yellow or blue, etc.) or derivatives (orange with green or purple, etc.). Combinations of primary colors with derivatives are not harmonious if this primary color takes part in their formation. For example, red with purple or blue with purple, since purple is formed by a mixture of red and blue, etc.

Carpet (creeping) or tall plants, or both, are planted on the flowerbed. A beautiful shrub can be placed in the center of the flower bed.

Rabatka called a narrow (0.5 - 1.5 m) and long bed with flowers, as if an elongated flowerbed. Place rabatki along the tracks along the border of lawns. Flowering plants are planted on it in figures or rows along the long side.

Flower beds - various sites planted with flowering plants, including flower beds and flower beds.