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Actinidia: species diversity and garden cultivation

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Actinidia polygamous (lat.Actinidia polygama) - shrub liana, a representative of the genus Actinidia of the Actinidian family. Other names - actinidia polygamous, nasal actinidia or acute actinidia. In vivo occurs in Korea, China, Japan, the southern regions of the Primorsky Territory, Sakhalin and the Far East.

Culture characteristic

Polygamous actinidia - a woody deciduous liana, reaching a length of up to 4-5 m and possessing red-brown shoots. Young shoots are covered with dun bark. The leaves are large, ovoid or oval, rather thin, green, with a pointed tip and a blunt base, serrate or finely serrated along the edge, arranged alternately. In autumn, foliage is covered with silver-white spots.

The flowers are fragrant, medium in size, single or bundled in 2-3 pieces, in diameter reach 2-2.5 cm, are formed in the axils of the leaves of young shoots. The fruit is a multi-seeded juicy berry, has a cylindrical or fusiform shape with a slightly pointed nose. Depending on the variety, it may have a sweet pepper or spicy pepper taste. The unripe fruits of polygamous actinidia are very hard, when ripe - tender.

This species blooms in early June (within 30 days), the fruits ripen in late September. Outwardly, it is similar to actinidia colomict, has a number of minor differences and taste characteristics of the fruit. Surprisingly, unripe fruits have a burning taste, so plants are often called peppers. Unfortunately, polygamous actinidia cannot boast of frost-resistant properties and resistance to diseases and pests, but it has one definite plus - it is very decorative, and is perfect for decorative gardening.

The growth of actinidia is fast, it is supportive with half-shaded areas. But it is quite demanding on soil conditions, prefers well-moistened, drained, loose, fertile, water- and breathable soils. It does not tolerate community with clay, boggy, saline, calcareous and waterlogged substrates. Like other species of the genus, it needs a durable and strong support. Trees are not suitable for these purposes. Growing in central Russia is possible, although in harsh winters annual shoots partially freeze.

Application

Polygamous actinidia leaves contain coumarins, monoterpenes, saponins, flavonoids, in unripe fruits - alkoloids, in mature ones - ascorbic acid, carotene, vitamin P, in seeds - stearic, palmitic, butyric, arachidonic, linoleic and linolenic acids. For this reason, all parts of the plant are actively used in folk medicine.

For example, in China, fresh fruits are used to quench thirst, and powder obtained from fruits and roots is used as a painkiller. Polygamol extract is used in Japanese medicine. It is included in the composition of diuretics and restorative drugs. Infusions of shoots and fruits are used for rheumatism, lumbago, dizziness and even gonorrhea.

Common varieties

* Patterned - late ripening variety. It is represented by elongated cylindrical fruits with orange peel with noticeable longitudinal stripes. The taste and aroma are pepper-fig. Average weight - 4 g.
* Forest - medium-late ripening variety. Allows you to get elongated cylindrical fruits of orange color. The pulp is tender, juicy, sweet, has a pleasant taste. The aroma is pepper and fig.
*Firebird - late ripening variety. It is represented by elongated cylindrical fruits of a dark orange color. The taste is burning, the aroma is weak pepper. Average weight - 5 g.

* Healing - late ripening variety. It has cylindrical fruits with orange or dark orange skin. The taste and aroma are pepper-fig. Average weight - 3.5 g.
* Zlata - a variety of mid-late ripening period. It is characterized by elongated cylindrical fruits of orange color. The pulp is sweet, tastes good, pepper-fig aroma. Average weight - 6 g.
* Twinkle - late ripening variety. Fruits are elongated, conical with a shiny orange skin. The taste and aroma are pepper-fig. Average weight - 3 g.

*Beta - late ripening variety. Allows you to get cylindrical fruits of orange-red color. The taste of the pulp resembles sweet pepper and ingi, the aroma is pepper and fig. Average weight - 3.5 g.
* Yellow spindle - late ripening variety. It is represented by elongated oval fruits of orange or reddish color. The taste resembles bell peppers and figs, pepper-fig aroma. Average weight - 5 g.

Plant description

To the genus Actinidia from the family of Actinidia (Actinidiaceae) belongs to 75 species native to Southeast Asia. Almost all of them are perennial creepers, dioecious plants, that is, females and males grow separately.
The woody shoots of actinidia climb to a very high height. Their leaves are simple, slightly serrated along the edge, with a sharp tip, arranged alternately. Small flowers from 1.5 to 3 cm sit in the axils of the leaves. The colors are usually white, but there are also yellow.


Actinidia flowers. Photo from happymodern.ru

The main advantage of actinidia is its fruits. These are oblong-shaped berries, yellowish-green in color, 2-3 cm in length, tasty and fragrant, having a very rich composition of nutrients. Let's get to know some representatives of this kind. In our country, 4 species of actinidia grow, all in the Far East. These ancient plants survived from the pre-Ice Age, when there were subtropics.

Actinidia colomictus

In the Far East, Actinidia colomicta (Actinidia kolomikta) Here it is common in forests, on hillsides, where it rises to a height of 1000 to 1800 m. Its thin shoots with smooth brown bark grow up to 7 m, climbing trees.

Beautiful leaves have the ability to change their color during development. At first they have a bronze hue, then they turn dark green. Before flowering, the tips of the leaves, especially those exposed to light, turn white and after flowering they gradually turn into pink and raspberry color.


Actinidia leaves change color

Such elegant leaves, along with brilliant light shoots make the plant decorative. During the flowering period, which lasts 20 days, the creepers look especially beautiful, they are constantly felt fragrance emitted by elegant white flowers.

After flowering, fruits are formed - elongated berries, similar to small cylinders up to 1.8–2 cm long. They are green in color with light touches, have a delicate aroma and pleasant taste.


The fruits of actinidia colomict

With the onset of autumn, when the leaves of the creeper acquire a light yellow, pinkish or violet-red color, the colomict is also beautiful. This species is the most winter-hardy, grows well and bears fruit in all regions of Russia. There are many varieties suitable for cultivation.

Polygamous Actinidia, Polygamous Actinidia, Nose Actinidia, Acute Acinidia

Actinidia polygama
Family Actinidia (Actinidiaceae)

Primorsky Krai, Japan, Korea, China

in the first 3 years it grows slowly, then faster

• in the fall in boxes or hotbeds with shelter for the winter,
• spring in boxes

spring sowing required
• soaking in water for 4 days,
• stepwise stratification: 2 months at a temperature of 18-20 ° C, 2 months at 3-8 ° C and 1 month at 13-15 ° C

• spring and summer green cuttings,
• air layering

in the middle lane annual shoots may freeze

Dry leaf and spruce cover is required only in the first 2 years

requires a place protected from the wind

not required, if necessary, cut frozen shoots

from early July to early August, about 30 days

• green leaves, paper-thin, oval or ovoid with a blunt base and pointed tip, serrate or fine-toothed along the edge, alternate,
• a week before flowering, covered with silver-white spots

  • the flowers are quite large, 2-2.5 cm in diameter, with a delicate aroma,
  • dioecious plant: on male plants stamen flowers are formed, on female - bisexual in external structure, but female in purpose

solitary or 2-3 in a bunch, develop in the axils of the leaves on young shoots

  • juicy berries up to 2 cm long, cylindrical, with a pointed nose, spicy or sweet taste, for which they received the name "pepper",
  • unripe fruits are hard, light green, when ripe they become tender, juicy, orange,
  • the fruits ripen late, at the end of September, hang on a vine for a long time, like lanterns,
  • Varieties with long cylindrical, large spindle-shaped fruits laterally compressed
  • used for decorating walls, tree trunks, fences, creating pergolas, arches,
  • as a fruit crop, see Actinidia polygamum

iridoids (matatabilactone, matababiester, iridomemecin, neonepetalactone, actinidialactone, etc.), triterpenoids, carotenoids (beta-carotene), alkaloids (actinidine, etc.), tannins and coloring substances, vitamins

infusion of fruits and dry stalks of actinidia polygamum is used in the treatment of lumbago, rheumatism, paralysis and dizziness

Varieties of actinidia colomict

  • 'Grape'. The variety is fruitful, early - in August the first berries begin to ripen. Ripened fruits are about 2.4 cm, with a thin skin of greenish-olive color and a very pleasant sweet, slightly sour taste.
  • 'Sweetened.' It ripens later, in late August - early September. The berries taste sweet, larger than the grape, up to 3.4 cm long, with a pointed tip. Covered with orange skin, acquiring different shades.

Other varieties: 'Waffle', 'Coin', 'Parkovaya', 'Gourmand'.

You can choose actinidia seedlings in our catalog, which includes offers from various online stores. Choose actinidia seedlings.

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