The so-called "therapeutic fasting - i.e. A regular resting opportunity for the digestive system is an integral part of a proper diet.
Regular meat consumption requires breaks so that the body can get rid of the accumulated toxins. Starvation can be introduced as early as puppyhood: starting from half a day once a week and one full day a month until the puppy has reached 4 months of age. Dogs over two years old should have one day of fasting per week.
Breastfeeding gives puppies healthy and strong bones and joints, excellent coat, helps to develop developed muscle mass. Up to four months, puppies get food 4 times a day: at 8 in the morning, at 12 and 4 days, and then at 8 in the evening. They should consume a sufficient amount of raw meat, especially in the last two feedings - it can be pulp of beef, horse meat or mutton, large lamb bones can also be used.
Never twist meat into mincemeat, the muscles of the stomach should take an active part in the digestion process, and the forcemeat is a half-finished product that helps to weaken them.
Up to ten weeks, the puppy should receive meat cut into pieces the size of a teaspoon, by four months each piece should be at least two teaspoons, and then gradually bring to size 1 piece - 100 grams. At eight in the evening the puppies feed mainly, in which they receive 110 grams of meat, one spoonful of chopped or twisted greens, this can be parsley, mint, watercress, onions, dandelions, gerbil, plantain, clover or celery leaves. The ground form is important here, as it is difficult for dogs to digest fiber. Greens can also be added to cereals, which the dog receives separately from meat.
A pinch of chopped seaweed can also be added to the main meat dish. Give raw bones to each feeding. Do not use only pork meat and bones, since pork often contains helminths that are dangerous for dogs (and for people). Puppies should receive drinking water without restrictions; make sure that puppies receive water also at the time of weaning. It is advisable not to use plastic and aluminum bowls for water, to protect the water from direct sunlight. Do not forbid the puppy to eat land or grass while walking, excrement of small and large livestock can also contain substances useful for the puppy.
Starting from four months, you can skip morning feeding and give the puppy food only three times a day: at 12, 16 and 20 hours. By this time, puppies should receive 90 grams of grain and 220 grams of meat. It is very important to increase the amount of greens to one dessert spoon. And after eight months, the number of meals should be reduced to two: at 12 - the dogs get cereals, and in the evening - meat, and of course do not forget the greens and seaweed. During fasting days, the puppy should drink only water. The puppy should never be forced to eat, if the puppy refuses to take food, the bowl should be removed and not offered the next 24 hours. Large portions of milk should not be given, but a little honey or cereal can be added to the milk.
Another important note: most working shepherd dogs can cost less meat, they can be transferred to a non-meat diet, provided that the dog will receive natural, raw foods and whole grain cereals. And of course, they should receive bones, this is an integral part of the diet.
And one more conclusion: many believe that dogs should not receive other products except meat - this is not entirely true, because even in the Bible foxes steal grapes. When wild dogs kill game, the first thing they eat is the stomach and entrails filled with grass, vegetables and fruits. It is easy to see that many dogs love fruits, especially dried fruits. I myself have witnessed that in Spain, many dogs received dry figs as their main product, and dates in Tunisia. All dogs like raisins, many like dry bananas, as well as nuts - they are also good for them.
History and features of shepherd dogs
Shepherd dog crushed due to a change in profile. Since the 17th century in Europe, so actively began to shoot wolves that they almost exterminated them. There was simply no one to protect the herds.
But, the need to protect the gardens of overgrown cities from damage has become aggravated. So called trampling of allotments by cattle. Dogs were required to skillfully control the herd during its distillation and grazing.
Rage and enormous dimensions were no longer required here. Do not fight with a bear. However, although rare, attacks on herds continued. Therefore fearlessness shepherd dogs saved.
In order to save the dogs themselves, the Europeans focused on the selection of dogs with colors different from the colors of the skins of predators and noticeable in the dark. People also defended their livestock and, at times, accidentally shot four-legged helpers. After sad stories, buy a shepherd dog began to try a bright color.
In accordance with its mission, shepherd dogs are proportionally built, physically developed and hardy. Running miles behind herds over rough terrain is exhausting. Hairy all dog shepherds, too, for good reason.
Thick and long coat protects from rain, heat. The fur coat maintains body temperature even when the temperature is 40 degrees outside. In addition, the wool is clogged in the mouths of attacking predators.
The fight against attacking predators in shepherd dogs is associated with a protective, not a hunting instinct. Be developed last, the dog will begin to be distracted from basic duties, because not only wolves run through the fields, but also hares, martens.
Representatives of the breeds of the group should not pay attention to them. The beast is interested in dogs only when it threatens cattle.
Pictured shepherd dog Border Collie
Individuals expressing aggression towards humans and disobedience were rejected from herding dogs. Therefore, the heroes of the article are selflessly devoted to people, complaisant in communicating with the owners.
However, shepherd dogs are wary of strangers. To damage the herd can not only animals, but also people. Dogs instinctively know this, announcing the arrival of strangers with a loud bark.
By the nature of the herding breeds restrained and observant. These are not upstarts, gibbering about and without. But, if there is a reason, the dog can be aggressive. Allotments for pastures are usually divided between people.
The dog knows its territory and transfers it to apartment life. Getting a shepherd in the role of a companion dog, you need to understand that the pet will guard his house, the area with him, the path along which he walks, the owners car. However, we will talk about the nuances of the content of the heroes of the article in a separate chapter.
Cattle Dog Care and Maintenance
A shepherd dog in the house requires an observation post. The pet instinctively strives to keep the situation under control, lie low and watch. Because of this, shepherd dogs are perceived by many as phlegmatic. However, in moments of danger and threat, dogs show miracles of speed of reaction, dexterity and quick wits.
At home, herding dogs are often considered aggressive. Meanwhile, up to 3-4 years old dogs behave atypically. This is due to the late maturation of shepherds.
The animal growling at the guests in the hallway is only uncertain puppy. Shepherd dog asks for help from the owner. He must show that he owns the situation and there is nothing to worry about.
Pictured Australian shepherd dog
Remembering the natural obstacles to the protection of herds, shepherd dogs are especially vigilant in the dark, fog, in a smoky space. If a strong smog in the city, evening, it is better to take a pet on a leash.
The rest of the time, shepherd dogs walk perfectly without a leash, muzzles. However, you must keep a distance with the four-legged. The approach of strangers to themselves and their attacks in their direction, the animal perceives as an attack. In a crowd with a shepherd walk on a leash, controlling the behavior of the dog.
Alertness of shepherd dogs requires systematic socialization during puppyhood. Stroking from the hosts gives positive emotions and fixes the touch in the mind as something pleasant.
Try to take the puppy to crowded places, playing there with him and encouraging goodies. Bring a calm and faithful friend. True, he will not stop barking. The need is connected with the notification of the surrounding expanses that there is protection near the “herd” and it is not worth approaching.
Zychny barking makes it difficult to keep shepherd dogs in an apartment building. The heroes of the article are more suitable for private homes. It is for homes, not enclosures in the yard. Exclusion from the family circle herding dogs are experiencing hard. The measure of ignorance for educational purposes is also unacceptable.
Pictured is a Hungarian shepherd dog
It is important for the owner of the shepherd dog to prove his independence. Otherwise, the pet will perceive the owner as a weak unit in need of protection. From now on, even a relative cannot say hello to the hand.
The dog will begin to defend the ward. It may be a child. The ratio of shepherd dogs to children, by the way, depends on upbringing and socialization. Working dogs are not always patient with babies.
The physical data of shepherd dogs require long walks with pets. The heroes of the article are not for busy people. Four-legged need to devote at least a few hours a day. However, the nuances of care depend on the chosen breed. Consider a few popular ones.
Cattle dog breeds
List will open australian shepherd dog. It is ideal for driving cattle over long distances, but problematic in the home. Representatives of the breed crave constant work, action.
Every day the dog should go to bed and fall asleep “without hind legs”. Lack of fatigue leads to problems with behavior. Energy begins to spill into aggression, eccentricity, willfulness.
Pictured is a Hungarian shepherd dog Moody
On the photo shepherd dog Australia with medium-long hair, erect ears, elongated muzzle. An animal of medium height, lean and muscular. Genetically, the breed is a mixture of bobtail brought by the colonialists and a wild dingo dog. Later, collie mixed blood. The first option was too biting and aggressive.
Deserves attention and hungarian shepherd dog. She is also called Moody. Unlike Australian shepherds, representatives of Hungary are universal. Moods become not only shepherds, but also hunters, companions, search engines.
Dogs of the breed are especially good at detecting drugs. Hungarian dogs get along well with active people, whether they are hunters, fishermen or athletes. Only one person is recognized as the owner. The family members of the mudi owner are treated calmly.
Outwardly, the Hungarian shepherd dog resembles a fox. The same wedge-shaped head with a pointed muzzle and erect ears. Moody sizes are average. The coat of dogs of the breed is moderately long, silky. On the head and legs, the hair curls.
French shepherd dog larger than its predecessors. At the withers, dogs of the breed reach 70 centimeters. Pets weigh about 50 kilograms. The shepherd's appearance is typical of shepherd dogs, because the breed belongs to them.
In the photo, the French shepherd dog Beauceron
The second name of the species is Beauceron. The name is related to the desire to separate the breed from the long-haired Shepherd dogs from Bree. Now their name is Briards. The Beaucerons were brought out in the town of Bos.
In terms of grazing herds, the Beauceron wagon, drives cattle equally well and protects it. Trying to take the lead in the house, the shepherd agrees to equal cooperation. With such rights, the dog becomes a true friend, moreover, it is friendly to children.
However, the Beaucerons often suffer from mental disorders. Instead of a fearless defender, a coward and, even, an alarmist can grow up. Therefore, the psychological situation in the master's house is important. French shepherd dog - a pet for idyllic families.
From exotic recall shepherd dog. Named after the Azores belonging to Portugal. There, a large dog of a fighting physique was bred. The breed specializes in protecting herds. The appearance of the dog echoes the features of hyenas.
Pictured French shepherd dog Briard
At the withers, Azorean dogs reach 60 centimeters, and weigh more than 50 kilos. This indicates a dense, broad-bones and muscular physique of the breed. They have something from Staffordshire Terriers.
Like the latter, Azorean shepherds are monogamous, hardly survive the change of owners. To strangers, representatives of the breed are too aggressive, but they differ in intelligence. This fact allows you to train pets.
In the hands of professional dog handlers, shepherd dogs from the Azores become calm and docile to everyone. Only now, the breed is listed in the top 20 of the rarest dogs in the world. Corresponding to the price of the dog. For an animal with a pedigree they ask for at least 800 from US dollars.
In the photo, an Azorean shepherd dog
Complete the list bernese shepherd dog. It is also known under the name Sennenhund. There were representatives of the breed from the Roman Molossians. Outwardly, the Sennenhund resembles St. Bernard, just as powerful, with a wide muzzle and slightly loose lips.
The power of the dog is associated with historical application. In the old days, Bernese dogs were used not only as shepherds, but also as draft power.
The character of the Bernese Mountain Dog is complaisant for a shepherd dog. But, you need space. Bernese dogs get along well in the courtyards of private houses. Do not put on a chain.
Pictured is a Bernese shepherd dog, also called Bernese Mountain Dog
The Sennenhund’s house is cramped, and the owners are uncomfortable, because the shepherd molts year-round. The dog has a lot of wool, it is long. In general, you wash yourself to clean sofas, clothes and floors.
Anatomical and physiological characteristics of dogs
- Body temperature: 37.5-39.0 ° С (puppies - up to 39.5 ° С).
- Respiration: 15-30 respiratory movements per minute.
- Pulse: 80-120 beats per minute.
- Maturity: (first estrus in a female): 7-10 months.
- Frequency of estrus: 2 times a year: in spring and autumn (in some breeds only 1 time per year, e.g., bassenji).
- Duration of the cycle: 15-21 days, of which:
proestrus (preparatory phase before ovulation of the egg): 9 days,
Strus (ovulation period): 6-12 days, ovulation occurs in the middle third of this phase,
- Duration of pregnancy: 63 days.
- Weaning time from mother: 12 weeks.
Keeping, grooming and feeding dogs
A dog is a pack animal. She needs society and contact with her mates. Socialization is very important already in puppyhood: free play with brothers several times a week should be carried out until adulthood. The animal should learn the first rules of communicating with people at the age of several weeks (accustoming to cleanliness in the house, to certain hours and place of feeding, walking on a leash without tension and gnawing it). From 6 to 8 months should be known "initial basics" - to sit, place, to me, to stand, by 12 months. the dog must master them completely.
City dogs are generally no worse kept than dogs outside the city. Urban, as well as rural, need daily walks, free walking without a leash in suitable terrain and social contacts. Pure enclosure is also not suitable for dogs, as is keeping in an apartment with less than an hour daily walk.
Traditional prepared feeds are suitable for feeding.It is important that there are no sugar additives in the feed (see the composition on the package) and, if possible, preserving, coloring and other auxiliary substances that can cause allergies. The dose of food depends on the size of the dog, its age and degree of activity, the smaller, older and less active, the fewer calories an animal needs. Dry feeds are more concentrated than wet ones, feeds for older dogs are usually less high in calories, and more intense for puppies. Ideally, feeding is carried out 2-3 times a day (for puppies in accordance with the age of up to 5 times) and daily. The legendary fasting day, as proven, does not bring the slightest benefit to the animal. Low-calorie “crunch” - rice crackers or beef skin chewing sticks - are suitable as treats. And here you should pay attention to products without sugar and fat. Bones, especially raw ones, are not suitable as dog food. Fragments can injure the intestines, and in general, the use of bones leads to blockages up to bowel obstruction.
Coat and organs of hearing - long-haired dogs need daily combing. Suitable brushes, scraper and scallops with rounded bristles or teeth, as well as gloves for grooming with rubber spikes. The fallen lumps should be cut out, because under them an infection (pyoderma) can develop, and they are biotopes for parasites. For short-haired breeds, both gloves for the care of the coat, and skrebniki (similar to equine) from metal with blunt teeth that do not pull out the coat, are suitable only for the collection of fallen integument.
In winter, in long-haired breeds, the coat between the paw pads is cut short to prevent the formation of ice lumps on the hair and trauma to the pads. If the dog should be trimmed in summer, then sensitive hairs on the face should be left. The coat in the tail should not be trimmed, as poorly healing wounds may appear on the tail. Bathing with shampoos or soaps should be an exception (for example, as a medical use for skin diseases).
Ear cleaning: The frequency and intensity of ear cleaning depends on each animal individually. Hanging or semi-permanent hearing organs need more frequent cleaning than standing ones because of poor ventilation. Cleaning mechanism: depending on the size of the dog, pour the appropriate dose of the product for cleaning the ears into the auricle, massage the fingers with the ear canal at the skull and finally let the dog shake its head. Remove earwax and dirt thus removed with a paper towel. If there is a very dark secret, redness inside the ear, itching or soreness, an examination by a veterinarian is necessary - a suspicion of external otitis media.
Dog vaccination schedule. Standard vaccination in Central Europe
Basic immunization:vaccinate with 8 weeks of life against infections:
- infectious inflammation of the liver (contagious hepatitis in dogs),
- aviary cough
Revaccination: after 3-5 weeks, the earliest from 12 weeks of life:
- contagious hepatitis of dogs,
- aviary cough
- as well as the first rabies vaccination.
In endemic areas, the 3rd vaccination from 16 weeks of age is recommended for complete protection, especially from parvovirus. Revaccination annually.
Feeding: traditional food for puppies from Hills, Eukanuba or Royal Canine meets the needs of small and large breeds (energy, easily digestible, with a suitable ratio of Ca and P, a sufficient amount of vitamin D and others). Vitamin or lime supplements are especially needed.
The first deworming should be carried out already by the breeder, until the age of 4-5 months every 2-3 weeks, deworming is recommended against roundworms, whipworms and tape helminths. To acclimatize shy animals, you can treat the environment with canine pheromones.
Overweight in dogs
Obesity in dogs is becoming an increasingly urgent problem. The reasons most often are overfeeding and limited mobility.
- Keep a feed journal: keep track of every feed and every treat. After a week, control and discussion with the veterinarian which components of the feed can be removed.
- Feeding with diet food. You can half dilute the usual food with boiled unsalted rice. If the dog chooses food, leaving the rice uneaten, you can grind the rice to a mushy state, and then mix it into the food. Encouragement of low-calorie goodies: rice cracker, vegetables (many dogs like bananas and apples), low-calorie biscuits for dogs. Do not feed any leftovers!
- Movement: swimming, running, game: everything that gives pleasure and burns calories.
Doesn't want to be alone. Howling, scandalous
The dog as a pack animal reluctantly alone. However, every dog can get used to it. Begin with a few minutes. The landlord must leave the apartment without much noise. In no case do not try to persuade or reassure the dog for a long time! The animal perceives your behavior as if it has something bad to do, which you need to be afraid of. And upon returning home, you must definitely reassure, pet and praise the dog.
If the dog is messing up when he is alone (throwing the contents of a garbage can, gnawing shoes and other), exposing the animal at the crime scene can help: for this, the owner should slowly enter the apartment. If the dog starts his game, you can suddenly appear from the closet or closet and scold. Late punishments only upon returning home are ineffective.
Extreme behavior such as ruining an apartment, trying to break through a door or hysterical barking should be changed after a targeted treatment by the therapist on behavior problems.
Vomiting when traveling in a car, motion sickness
Kinetosis and fear of travel are widespread in dogs. General measures:
- it takes a lot of patience to train a shy dog to a car. As with home loneliness training, you should not do events from a trip by car. Excessive caress before boarding or during the first trip may give the dog the impression that it is disturbing its owner,
- some dogs get used to the car with treats or favorite toys,
- Do not use the car for "unpleasant" trips, for example, to a veterinarian. Start with small walking trips, such as a lake or a game lesson for puppies,
- do not feed before the first trip,
- If the dog vomits, do not scold or console.
The reason: eating feces is a natural behavior for dogs - mothers eat their puppies' feces and low-ranking animals try to establish their low role in the pack by eliminating their own smelling places. In a dog, as in a public animal, this behavior is undesirable. Young growth is especially prone to coprophagy or likes to fall out in feces. In some animals, this habit persists until 1-2 years.
Pathological reasons: the need for eating feces can be caused by a violation of the functions of the digestive glands: the animal may develop insufficient amounts of digestive enzymes and it tries to compensate for them in this way. In such cases, which the veterinarian can establish on the study of feces, the use of pancreatic enzymes can help.
Violation of feeding with the giving of low-calorie feed can also induce coprophagy. Often this problem is solved by feeding suitable, high-value and energy-rich feeds.
When striving to eat "strong-smelling" substances, daily feeding of a slice of scout or Limburg cheese (well-refined) is suitable. Some dogs also prefer licorice or ammonia lozenges. One rather crude but effective method is to spray a deodorizing mouth spray when the animal is caught eating faeces. The sharp mint flavor is harmless, but extremely unpleasant and often helps in severe cases.
When walking, pay attention to employment, for example, play ball or give play with another dog.