According to legend, the beloved monkey of one of the eastern rulers became a beautiful motley flower. When the animal, playing, climbed a high rock, and then fell from it and crashed, the ruler was in such grief that the deity took pity and turned the monkey into a flower. Oddly enough, but this comforted the grieving ruler, and he commanded to grow these flowers not only in his garden, but throughout the state.
The English call Gubastik - "monkey flower".
Monkey Flowers - monkey flowers - Mimulus is also called in its homeland. In appearance, the flower really looks like a monkey face. The scientific name for Gubastik is Mimulus. The Latin word "mimo" is also translated as a monkey.
But there are other versions of the translation of the name of the flower. For example, the Latin word "mime" - mime is translated as an artist, jester, magician. This name can be explained by the brightness of the flower.
Mimulus - Gubastik - Mímulus - a perennial garden plant from the Frim family. But in our country, because of frosts, it is grown as an annual.
In total, there are about 150 species of this plant.
Mimuli are shrubby and grassy, can be high up to one and a half and two meters high and low - below half a meter.
The stems of the mimulus can be erect, branched, creeping, naked and pubescent.
Bright green leaves, usually ovoid in shape along the edge with denticles, are opposite on the stem.
The beautiful flowers of the gubastik have an irregular shape - the upper dicotyledon lip of the tubular corolla is bent backward, and the three-lobed lower one is advanced forward.
The flowers are located at the ends of the stems, in the axils of the leaves on long peduncles and collected in loose racemose inflorescences.
The color of the flowers is bright, juicy and of different colors - white, pink, yellow, orange, brown, red ... In many species, flowers are mottled - white with pink and red spots, pink with red stripes, red with brown stripes and spots.
Gubasti bloom profusely and continuously from June to August. Mimulus hybrid varieties are not only beautiful, but also hardy.
The fruit of gubastika is a small box cracking into two halves.
Oval seeds of brown color, very small. They retain viability for more than three years.
It is difficult to say where the historical homeland of Mimulus is, although most of these species come from North America. But gubastiks in the wild grow in South America, Asia, Africa, New Zealand and Australia. There are a lot of them in Chile. But in Europe in the wild, the mimulus is not growing.
In North America, gubastiki can be found not only in moist places near water bodies, but also in deserts and mountains. There, these plants often form extended thickets.
They bloom from April to July, and during the heat and drought they plunge into a state of rest in order to bloom again when the winter rainy season begins.
We most often grow these types of lipsticks: +
- mimulus or gubast copper-red - a miniature plant, not higher than 15 cm with copper-red flowers. This variety began to be grown since 1861.
- mimulus or yellow lipast, introduced to the culture even earlier, in 1812. It grows to 60 cm, the stems are straight, branched, yellow flowers.
- mimulus or speckled blast in the wild grows in Alaska near the shore of reservoirs, and sometimes in shallow water. It is quite high - up to 80-90 cm. The flowers are yellow with dark red spots.
G.I.Langsdorf discovered this species in 1808, and the famous botanist, professor F.B. Fisher in the estate of Razumovsky "Gorenka", near Moscow. He called this species - speckled mimulus.
This plant grows best near ponds.
- mimulus or gubastik orange He loves warmth, has luxurious shiny dark green leaves and bright orange flowers.
This species is often planted in containers and hanging planters. If the shoots of this species are not tied to the supports, then they hang beautifully, resembling ampelous plants.
Florists often along with this gubastik plant beautifully flowering undersized annuals.
- open mimulus has graceful branched stems up to 50-60 cm in height. From June to August, it blooms with small pale lilac flowers.
- primulaceous mimulus not higher than 15 cm. On its numerous shoots sitting on long peduncles bloom in pairs or three soft yellow flowers. It blooms from June to September. Primrose is a perennial plant.
English breeders have bred many decorative varieties of hybrid mimus.
All gubastiks love sunlight, although they can grow and bloom in partial shade.
But direct exposure to sunlight for the lips can be fatal.
Dampness loves only open gubastik, although in the summer most gubastiks grow well near ponds, but in winter they would prefer a dry place.
In summer, all gubastikas need abundant watering with standing water.
The soil for comfortable development of these plants need loose with a high content of humus and peat.
After the first flowering wave, which lasts several weeks, the plants are cut short and fed with liquid complex fertilizer. After new shoots grow, and they grow quickly, the second wave of flowering begins.
In the fall, faded inflorescences and stalks of gubastas, together with fruit-boxes, are cut off, if they want to preserve, the plants are transplanted into small pots and placed in a moderately cool room for the winter, placed on a bright windowsill.
Gastric can be propagated by seeds.
Seeds are sown in March in a container on top of moistened soil, not sprinkling them with soil, covered with a film or glass. Seeds germinate at a temperature of + 15-16 C.
After the first shoots appear, the temperature can be reduced to +12 C and put the seedlings in a bright place. Seedlings are fed with potash fertilizers 2-3 times a month.
After the danger of night frosts has passed, the seedlings of the lips can be planted in a permanent place.
Seeds can be sown directly into the ground in April or early May.
Gubastiks often breed self-seeding.
These plants can also be propagated by dividing the bush and cuttings, placed in the soil with a high content of sand, they quickly give roots and take root. Top cuttings are covered with a glass jar.
Gubastiks are very beautiful flowers. They will decorate any personal plot, will please the eye if they are dropped off in containers on the veranda, balcony, loggia.
They are used in homeopathic and folk medicine.
Especially these plants, according to Dr. Bach, help people shy and fearful in case of disorders of the nervous and cardiovascular systems.
Gubastik preparations are released abroad in the form of essences, drops and are taken several times a day for 2-3 drops, having previously dissolved them in a small amount of water.
No contraindications and side effects were found.
Gubastiks help people get rid of all sorts of fears, phobias, anxieties, gain courage and self-confidence, and make communication with others easy.
Cultivation and care
Gubastiks prefer sunny slightly shaded areas with moist nutrient breathable soil. To improve tillering, they should be pinched. Watering and top dressing are required. Almost all species after the first flowering wave need to be partially cut, then after a while they will grow new shoots and bloom again.
In our climate, mimuli are grown as annuals. You can try to save especially liked copies until spring. To do this, they should be dug, transplanted in containers, completely cut, placed in a bright, cool place and minimally watered.
Gubastiks are propagated mainly by seeds. It is impossible to plant seeds in the soil, otherwise they will not germinate. At 18 ° C, seedlings appear quickly. With the advent of these leaves, it is desirable to lower the temperature to 12 ° C so that unwanted stretching does not occur.
With good lighting and periodic dressing after 7 weeks, the plants will bloom. In the summer, mimulus can be propagated by cuttings. Rooting takes place quickly in the soil with the addition of sand and cover with a jar.
Use in landscape design
Mimuli look great on flowerbeds and discounts. They can be planted in a frame of borders. Many species are suitable for landscaping the coastline of water bodies. Red and primrose gubastiks, being soil protectors, are suitable for stony hills.
Among the many species, there are those that can grow in water. These are red and copper red gubastas. They are planted in containers and placed in a reservoir at a depth of not more than 10 cm.
Plants with small but numerous blue or blue flowers go well with mimulus in various mixborders. It can be ageratums, lobelia, mid-sized phlox, etc.
There are a lot of hybrid mimuli, among them there are varieties bred specifically for growing in hanging planters. For example, “Brass mankis”, characterized by saturated orange with speckled flowers. The variety is not demanding on bright lighting and high humidity, and blooms throughout the summer. Tanks with such plants can be hung on trees, bringing bright colors to the garden.
Landing and care of the mimus
Bloom: twice a season.
Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in late March or early April, planting seedlings in open ground - in mid-May.
Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
The soil: humus loams of slightly acid reaction, that is, with the addition of peat.
Watering: frequent, especially in hot weather: the soil on the site should be slightly moist at all times.
Feeding: once a month with a solution of 15 g of complex mineral fertilizer.
Cropping: after the first flowering, which lasts several weeks, the shoots of the plant are pruned. The second flowering occurs on the newly overgrown shoots.
Pests: aphids, whiteflies, slugs.
Disease black leg, powdery mildew, gray rot.
Mimulus flower (gubastik) - description
Gubastik flower, although it is a perennial, but in the culture is grown as an annual plant, although some species can withstand frosts down to -20 ºC. In height, herbaceous species of mimulus reach 70 cm, and shrubs grow up to one and a half meters. The stems of the plant are branched, erect or creeping, bare or pubescent. The leaves are opposite, most often ovate. Irregularly shaped plain or spotty flowers with a diameter of up to 5 cm are collected in loose brushes. The corolla of the flowers is tubular, with the bipartite upper lip bent back, and the lower three-lobed lip is advanced. The fruit of the plant is a box with small brown seeds, which, when ripe, crack in two.
Mimulus looks great on a flower bed, in rock gardens, suspended structures and containers. They also use it as a groundcover.
When to sow mimus at home? Mimulus seeds should be sown for seedlings in late March or early April. Because of their small size, you can’t evenly distribute them on the surface of the substrate, so it is impossible to grow sponge seedlings without a pick. As a substrate for seedlings, you can use universal soil with coconut fiber and perlite, adding a little clean sand to it: the main thing is that the substrate is light and loose. The seeds are not planted in the soil: they are moistened with a spray gun, covered with transparent film or glass and kept in a bright place at a temperature of 15-18 ºC. Under such conditions, the mimus from the seeds will begin to germinate after 2-3 days.
Mimulus seedling care
After the mass emergence of seedlings, the mimulus seedlings can stretch, and to prevent this, it will be necessary to lower the temperature of the content to 10-12 ºC and place the seedlings in the brightest place. Watering seedlings is carried out daily in the afternoon, seedlings respond well to spraying from a fine spray. At the stage of formation of 4 true leaves, the mimulus is picked in separate cups: 3-4 seedlings are planted in each. After the mimulus recovers from the pick, you can feed it with potassium fertilizer in a weak concentration. The second feeding is carried out after 7-10 days.
When to plant Mimulus in the ground
In early May, you can start hardening procedures, which in two weeks should gradually prepare the plants for life in the open air. Gubastik seedlings are planted in open ground in mid-May, when the threat of return frosts passes. Gubastik grows well both in open sunny areas and in partial shade. The plant prefers soil loamy, humic, with the addition of peat, that is, slightly acidic. Before planting, the site is dug up, leveled and watered. Seedlings in cups also need to be moistened well.
How to plant mimulus
For seedlings, dig holes of such depth that they fit the root system of seedlings with an earthen lump. The distance between the holes is 20-30 cm. Landing is carried out by transshipment method.
By the way, if you live in an area with warm springs, you can sow Gubastik in the second half of April directly in the open ground, provided that the average daily temperature is kept at 15-18 ºC. Seeds after sowing are not embedded in the soil, but covered with a transparent film, which is not removed until seedlings begin to appear. When the seedlings grow and get stronger, they are thinned out.
How to grow mimulus in the garden
Planting and caring for the mimus will not cause you any problems, since the plant is unpretentious. Mimus cultivation involves pinching young plants to enhance their tillering.
Gubastik is hygrophilous, therefore it needs frequent watering, especially in the summer: the soil around the plant should be slightly moist all the time. If you find small holes on the leaves of the gubastik, watering should be reduced. After moistening the soil, it is advisable to loosen the soil around the bushes and remove weed grass.
Mimulus is fed once a month with a solution of 15 ml of mineral complex fertilizer in a bucket of water.
During the growing season, the mimulus experiences two flowering periods - spring and autumn. The first stage of flowering gubastika lasts several weeks. As soon as it is over, you need to cut the plant as short as possible and apply fertilizer to the soil: very soon, new shoots will grow in Mamulus and it will bloom more than ever. During flowering, wilted flowers and inflorescences must be removed so that the plant does not look messy.
Mimulus pests and diseases
Mimulus in the garden exhibits an enviable resistance to diseases and harmful insects, but in the seedling stage it can be affected by a black leg or powdery mildew, and in these cases you can not do without treating seedlings with a fungicide solution. In sultry weather, there is a risk for gubastik to get gray rot, an effective way to get rid of which does not exist: diseased plants will have to be removed and burned.
With excessive irrigation, gastropod mollusks show interest in the mimulus. To protect the plant from their dangerous attention, reduce watering and mulch the soil around the bushes with sawdust.
Aphids and whiteflies can also settle on the mimus, and get rid of them with a solution of acaricide - Actellica or Actara.
Mimulus orange (Mimulus aurantiacus)
Originally from the southwestern United States. This is a thermophilic plant with shoots up to 1 m high.Orange or salmon-pink flowers with corollas up to 4 cm in diameter stand out against the background of its dark green shiny leaves. Shoots of this species need support, otherwise they bend to the ground and spread along it. Mimulus Orange is a very attractive plant, often used for growing in hanging baskets and containers. He can spend the winter in a cool room.
Gubastik yellow (Mimulus luteus)
comes from Chile. It was discovered at the beginning of the 18th century by the French priest Feye, traveling around South America, and in 1763 the plant was described by Karl Linnaeus. This is a perennial grown as an annual, with erect, branched stems up to 60 cm tall, bare or pubescent, and ovoid or heart-shaped leaves with sharp teeth along the edges. Yellow flowers of plants of this species are collected in terminal or axillary inflorescences. In culture, the species since 1812, but rarely grown.
Speckled Mimulus (Mimulus guttatus)
It was discovered in 1808 by G.I. Langsdorf. Initially, plants of this species grew in the western regions of North America, but due to their polymorphism and plasticity they quickly spread to the north and east of the mainland, as well as to New Zealand and even to the temperate zone of Europe. Speckled Gubastik reaches a height of 80 cm. It has branched erect stems and yellow flowers with dark red specks in the throat of the corolla. The plant has a variegated form Richard Bish with gray-green leaves with a white rim.
Gubastik red (Mimulus cardinalis)
Or gubastik purple also comes from North America. This is a perennial with a pubescent and branched stem from the very base, which is grown in an annual culture. Compact bushes of this plant reach a height of 40-60 cm. Its leaves are opposite, serrated along the edge, ovate, with convex veins. Fragrant tubular flowers with a double-bent limb are painted in a scarlet red hue and are located on long pedicels in the axils of the leaves. In plant culture since 1835. The best varieties of the species are:
Auranticus - a plant with orange-red flowers,
Cardinal - variety with flowers of scarlet red color with yellow specks,
Rose queen - a variety with pink large flowers in a dark speck,
Red Dragon - a plant with red flowers.
Mimulus copper red (Mimulus cupreus)
From Chile - a perennial with a height of only 12-15 cm with bare shoots slightly rising from the ground and axillary copper-red or copper-orange flowers opening up on short peduncles with a diameter of up to 3 cm, gradually brightening to golden yellow. In a culture a look since 1861. The plant has such garden forms:
Red Empire - a plant with a fiery red corolla,
Andean nymph - a variety with cream flowers with specks of light purple hue,
Rother Kaiser - a plant with red flowers.
Primrose chamomile (Mimulus primuloides)
It differs from other species in that it is actually a perennial mimus, that is, a plant that is grown in a perennial culture. It has many thin shoots up to 15 cm high, egg-shaped or oblong leaves collected in a rosette, and yellow flowers on long peduncles,
Musk Mimulus (Mimulus moschatus)
It is a North American endemic. It is a herbaceous perennial with fleecy stems and leaves secreting mucus with a musky odor. Upright or creeping stems reach a length of 30 cm. The leaves of this species are opposite, oval, up to 6 cm long, yellow flowers with a diameter of up to 2.5 cm.
Mimulus open (Mimulus ringens)
Or open mimulus - a typical species of the genus, a perennial herbaceous plant from 20 to 100 cm high with a branched stem, oval opposite leaves and small lavender flowers.
Tiger mimulus (Mimulus x tigrinus)
He is a mimulus leopard, he is a mimulus tigrinus, he is hybrid gubastik (Mimulus x hybridus), it is large-flowered mimulus, it is maximus mimulus - the group name for forms and varieties obtained by crossing speckled and yellow gubastiks. These are hybrids with spotted flowers. Usually they do not reach a height of more than 25 cm. Their leaves are ovoid, serrated along the edge, flowers of variegated colors are collected in terminal or axillary racemose inflorescences. This is the most popular type of mimulus in culture. Among its varieties, the most popular are:
Feuerking - a form with red flowers in a brown dot and a yellow throat,
Sun in the shade - a plant up to 25 cm high with variegated flowers,
Viva - a plant up to 25 cm high with yellow flowers covered with large dark red spots,
Magic spots - a variety with a height of 15-20 cm with creamy white flowers with spots of red and raspberry color,
Magic mixed - a series of varieties up to 20 cm high with two-tone or plain flowers of pastel colors,
Twinkle mixed - a series of varieties with a height of 20-30 cm with flowers of various colors: from white to deep red, from plain to spotty,
Brass Mankiz - abundantly blooming ampel hybrid variety with speckled flowers of bright orange color.
Features of Mimulus
The flowering plant Gubastik is perennial, but it is cultivated in the middle latitudes as an annual. But there are quite frost-resistant species that are not afraid of frosts down to minus 20 degrees. The height of the shrubs reaches 1.5 meters, while herbaceous plants grow no higher than 0.7 m. Branched creeping or erect shoots can be bare or have pubescence on their surface. Opposite leaf plates are often ovoid. Loose racemose inflorescences consist of spotty or plain flowers, having an irregular shape and reaching a diameter of 50 mm. They have a tubular nimbus with a dicotyledon upper lip bent back, while the three-bladed lower lip is advanced. The fruit is a box inside which are small seeds of brown color. Ripened box cracked into 2 parts.
Rock plants, flowerbeds are decorated with such a plant, and it is also grown in containers and suspended structures. Mimulus can also be used as a groundcover.
Growing mimulus from seeds
At room conditions, sowing the seeds of Gubastik is necessary in the last days of March or the first - in April. Due to the very small size of the seeds, their uniform distribution over the surface of the substrate is a very difficult task. In this regard, mimulus seedlings need a mandatory pick. The soil used for sowing should be light and loose, so for this purpose a universal substrate is ideal, including perlite and coconut fiber, do not forget to pour a small amount of clean sand into it. The seeds are simply spread over the surface of the substrate and, without seeding, watered from the sprayer. Then the container must be covered with glass or film and put in a well-lit fairly cool (from 15 to 18 degrees) place. If everything is done correctly, then the first seedlings you can see after two or three days.
After most of the seedlings appear, the plant can begin to stretch. To prevent this, it is necessary to rearrange the container in the most lighted and cooler (10 to 12 degrees) place. Watering seedlings is necessary daily and do it in the afternoon. Also, seedlings are recommended to be sprayed regularly from a finely divided spray gun. After the fourth real leaflet begins to form on the plants, they will need to be dived into individual cups. In this case, 3 or 4 plants should be planted in each cup. When the seedlings take root in a new place, they will need to be fed, for this they use potassium fertilizer of a weak concentration. The second time the plants are fed after 1-1.5 weeks.
What time to land
Seedlings should begin to harden in the first days of May. As a rule, for half a month of such procedures, the plants have time to fully adapt to street conditions. Planting of plants in open soil should be done after warm weather sets in, and there will be no threat of night frosts, as a rule, this time falls in mid-May. Mimus can be grown in partial shade, and in well-lit areas. The soil is needed humus, loamy, slightly acidic (with peat). The site needs to be prepared, for this they are digging, leveling the surface and watering. Seedlings before planting also need to be watered.
First, prepare the wells. Their size and depth should be such that a clump of land together with the root system can freely fit in. A distance of 0.2-0.3 m should be observed between the bushes. Seedlings must be carefully transshipped into holes.
In the event that in the region where mimulus is grown, spring is quite warm, then sowing of seeds can be done directly in open soil from mid to late April. However, it should be borne in mind that the average air temperature during the day should be kept at around 15-18 degrees. The seeds are simply spread over the surface of the plot and, without being embedded in the soil, covered with a transparent film. Shelter should be removed only after the appearance of the first seedlings. Strong and grown plants must be thinned out.
Growing gubastik is quite simple, as it is a relatively unpretentious plant. To make the bushes more luxuriant, young plants must be pinched.
This plant is very fond of moisture, in connection with this he needs to provide frequent and systematic watering, especially in summer. It should be noted that the soil near the bushes should always be slightly moist. If small holes appeared on the surface of the sheet plates, this indicates that watering should be reduced. After each watering, it is recommended to loosen the surface of the soil near the plants, while simultaneously picking out weeds.
Top dressing is done 1 time in 4 weeks. To do this, use a solution of mineral complex fertilizer (10 ml of water 15 ml).
Throughout the growing season, Gubastik blooms 2 times: in spring and autumn. The duration of the first stage of flowering is several weeks. After its completion, it is necessary to trim the bushes as short as possible and feed them. After a short time, they will grow new stems, and the plants will bloom even more magnificent than before. In order to maintain the high decorativeness of the mimulus during the flowering period, it is necessary to timely pick off the flowers and inflorescences that have begun to fade.
Diseases and pests
Gubastik grown in the garden is very resistant to diseases and pests. However, the seedlings of such a plant can get powdery mildew or a black leg. Infected seedlings must be sprayed with a fungicide solution. In hot weather, a plant is likely to become infected with gray rot. Affected specimens will need to be dug up and burned, because this disease has not yet been learned to effectively treat.
If you water the bushes very abundantly, gastropods can settle on them. In order to prevent, the regime and abundance of irrigation should be reviewed, as well as to fill the surface of the site with a layer of mulch (sawdust). Also, these flowers can be chosen by whiteflies and aphids, in which case they will need to be treated with a solution of acaricide, for example, Aktara or Aktellika.
Mimuli are perennials, but they are thermophilic. If desired, the bushes can be saved if they are cut in the autumn, carefully removed from the ground and planted in pots that need to be brought into the house. For landing, a not very large capacity is chosen. These flowers are placed on the windowsill in a fairly cool room. With the onset of springtime, bushes should be planted in open soil.