This article is not a guide to action for owners. Vaccination has been and remains the work of a veterinarian. But we hope that this publication will help to improve mutual understanding between the owner and the veterinarian, and will also be of interest to those specialists who rarely deal with small pets.
For dog owners, I have only one recommendation: choose a good veterinarian, and he will choose a good vaccine and vaccination schedule. As for veterinarians, then the matter is somewhat more complicated.
The first difficulty is that no matter how and whoever tries to explain or advise, almost any practicing veterinarian will still vaccinate the way he is used to doing it: “EPM” so “EPM”, “Hexadog” so “Hexadog”, twice so twice, four times so four times.
The second difficulty is that you need to clearly understand what result you need to achieve when vaccinating, and make a choice between a “hard” and a “soft” vaccine, i.e. to know which vaccine strain of the virus should be used, choose between a monovalent and a multivalent vaccine, numerous vaccination regimens, and numerous vaccine manufacturers.
If you have or maintain a kennel - large or small, breed and sell dogs, value your reputation and clientele, then the most important thing for you is to get intense immunity, while you can assume that some of the animals will have post-vaccination complications. In this case, you will need a hard “vaccine strain, for example,“ Vaccum. ”If you or your client have one dog and it is important for you what will happen to this dog, and not the total result, you need to choose a“ soft ”vaccine, such as "EPM" or "VNIIVViM-80".
When choosing between a poly- and monovalent vaccine, the following circumstances need to be considered.
All currently available vaccines against carnivore plague contain live vaccine virus. In monovalent vaccines, it is the only useful for immunization with an antigen, more precisely, an immunogen. the composition of polyvalent vaccines, the finished form of which is supplied in a single bottle, in addition to it, contains other immunogens, such as live hepatitis vaccine viruses. Polyvalent associated vaccines, the finished form of which is delivered in two bottles, contain a live virus (or several viruses) in a bottle with a dry substance, and inactivated viruses and bacteria in a bottle with a liquid
For example, the Hexadog vaccine in the first vial, which has the Trivirovac label, contains live vaccine viruses for the plague, carvivorous parvovirus enteritis. As part of Multikan-6, this ampoule contains the same as Multikan-4 ampoule - live vaccine viruses of the plague, parvovirus enteritis, and coronavirus hepatitis carnivores. In a vial with liquid, these vaccine viruses and bacteria: rabies and leptospirosis (the second component of Hexadog - “leptorabisin”), leptospirosis (“Multican-6”).
Benefits of Multivalent Vaccines: for one injection you immunize the animal against several diseases, save time, save money on a doctor’s visit, if you pay for immunization, save the animal from additional unpleasant procedures.
The advantage of monovalent vaccines is that when immunized with only one immunogen, you reduce the load on the immune system, increase the quality of the immune response, eliminate competition between viruses for the environment (for example, plague, hepatitis and parvovirus enteritis viruses reproduce in different cells and do not compete with each other, and viruses parvovirus and coronavirus enteritis are the same and will compete, avoid suppressing one virus immunological response to another virus (of the above, the most powerful immunosuppressive the carnivore plague virus has an effect), you can use different immunization schemes against different diseases, and this is important because the optimal vaccination schemes for different diseases differ, you can choose the best vaccine against each disease, if, of course, you know the vaccine manufacturers well .
In addition, when using monovalent vaccines, you are free to choose a solvent. In my opinion, the best solvent for dry vaccines is sterile distilled water for injection. Manufacturers of polyvalent associated vaccines generally recommend dissolving the dry component in liquid. If the manufacturing technology of the vaccine is perfectly maintained “from A to Z”, then there will be nothing wrong with that. If not, there can be unpleasant consequences: the substance that killed the viruses (bacteria) in the liquid part can also kill live viruses that are contained in the dry component of the vaccine. In this case, immunity to live viruses will not form.
Thus, decide whether to vaccinate with a monovalent or multivalent vaccine, depending on your specific conditions. And in fact, and in another embodiment, there are advantages and disadvantages.
When choosing a plague vaccination schedule, the following two paradoxes need to be considered.. On the one hand, vaccination should be started as early as possible, and on the other hand, vaccination should not be too early. The puppy needs to be vaccinated repeatedly, but the correct intervals between vaccine administrations must be observed, and you have to take breaks during the change of teeth and immunization against other diseases (if you use monovalent vaccines).
Nikolay Vlasov, All-Russian Research Institute of Veterinary Virology and Microbiology
What is carnivore plague in dogs?
Infectious (viral) disease - the plague of carnivores - can occur in three forms. The most acute is the acute form, the disease is also divided into subacute and acute. In an animal, an infection causes a malfunction in the intestines, stomach, and nervous system. Plague can cause fever, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, inflammation of the mucous membranes, and skin exanthema.
Individuals with weak immunity are susceptible to the disease, especially puppies - their immunity has not yet been formed. The greatest risk of plague infection is in German shepherds, Chinese crested dogs, bull terriers, huskies, Pekingese, collies, pugs and lapdogs. Veterinarians have noticed that resistance to plague is manifested in terriers and outbred dogs. There is no seasonality in the disease, it can occur at any time of the year.
Carnivore plague has been known since the domestication of animals, and is widespread.
Modern veterinary medicine does not guarantee complete protection against the disease, even in case of vaccination. However, it reduces the risk. The vaccine against dog plague only "teaches" the body to resist the virus. Further control of the disease depends on the immunity of the animal. Veterinarians can unequivocally say that the vaccinated animal tolerates the plague much easier and recovers faster.
The principle of the vaccine against plague
After vaccination, dogs develop immunity. Vaccination results in increased protection against infection. In other words, after vaccination, the animal’s body independently searches for areas with weakened infectious agents, begins to secrete antibodies, which, in turn, further neutralize the virus. When faced with the plague pathogen, immunity will not allow the development of the disease.
Vaccines come in several forms:
- monovalent - they contain antigens of one disease,
- polyvalent form immunity, opposing several pathologies. Recommended for adult dogs.
According to the vaccination schedule, the first vaccination is given to the puppy one and a half to two months after birth. Immediately after the puppy is born in the blood, there are antibodies that enter the blood through the placenta or along with mother's milk. They are enough to protect the dog that has just been born from infections and diseases, but after a month and a half their action ends, and therefore the mother’s protection is weakening.
Before the term of 1.5-2 months, vaccination is not worth it, since the immune response may not form. The puppies are first vaccinated at the age of six to ten weeks.
An approximate scheme for the prevention of diseases:
- The first vaccination against plague, enteritis, parainfluenza, infectious hepatitis, and leptospirosis is given at 8-10 weeks of the dog’s life, the second after 21-28 days, is revaccinated at 1 year
- For the first time they are vaccinated against rabies at 12–13 weeks of life, they do not receive the second vaccination, they are revaccinated every year.
- From diseases such as trichophytosis and microsporia, the dog is vaccinated initially in 1-6 months, a second vaccination is given in 10-14 days, and booster vaccination - in a year.
- Revaccination is advised to be done after the dog has milk teeth replaced.
Varieties of vaccines
The vaccine is often administered intramuscularly and subcutaneously. After the introduction of the vaccine, immunity will be formed within 3-4 weeks. There are many drugs for vaccination, both domestic and foreign:
- Nubivak DHP - forms protection against plague, viral hepatitis and parvovirus enteritis.
- Nubivak DHPPi - is a "live" multivaccine.
- Nubivak PuppyDP is also a dry “live” vaccine. Suitable for vaccinating puppies from a month of age.
- Biovak - 1000 rubles and above, a domestic vaccine (can be put at home).
- Hexadog - protects the pet from damage by parvovirus and adenovirus.
- Multican - 1000 rubles and above, a domestic vaccine (can be put at home).
- Dyramun Max 5 / 4L - forms immunity from parainfluenza, hepatitis, enteritis and plague.
The cost of the drug Nubivak can reach up to 1,500 rubles. All prices are approximate, they will vary depending on the region of residence and on where the vaccine is given - at home or at the veterinarian.
Sometimes the owners do not have the funds to purchase expensive vaccines for the pet. You can save and buy a domestic complex vaccine or drugs designed to prevent only certain diseases, but the cost of this will not decrease much.
The introduction of a dose of the vaccine is a simple process, but requires certain skills. They can be vaccinated for free at state veterinary clinics. In this case, you need to prepare to defend in a decent queue or wait until the veterinarian is "at lunch."
Free vaccination of dogs is made exclusively from rabies. This is because the disease is transmitted to humans. Secondly, most often this service is provided free of charge only in those areas that are considered disastrous in terms of the spread of a disease. A full range of vaccinations, which will include the vaccine for the plague of dogs, is unlikely to be obtained.
But you should not forget about such state-owned clinics. They often do not have a high service level, but there is no “for consultation”, “for service” markups, etc. Payment is made exclusively for vaccination, and in most cases they will offer you the most effective and affordable drug. Thus, if you don’t get completely free vaccinations for your dog, you will save a lot of money.
Only healthy animals are allowed to vaccinate. Before vaccination, the specialist conducts a comprehensive examination of the condition of the dog. The examination includes measurement of body temperature, blood is taken for analysis. And only after the veterinarian is convinced of the absence of contraindications, immunization is performed.
Vaccination is not carried out during a tooth change. The vaccine is given either before or after a complete change of milk teeth.
A recent infection is also a contraindication. In this case, immunization is transferred to another time, when the four-legged friend will be completely healthy.
Two weeks before vaccination, the animal must be proglistonized. To do this, use special anthelmintics in tablets, there are also emulsions for puppies, adults, which can be purchased at a veterinary pharmacy, clinic, or pet store in any city. Along with this, dogs are treated for ectoparasites with insect-acaricidal agents (for example, Bars Forte, Dana, Lawyer).
Condition after vaccine
After the vaccination is carried out, the owner needs to monitor the condition of the pet. It is necessary to pay more attention to his habits and well-being. In most cases, vaccinations against plague and other infectious diseases are safe, but there are deviations.
After vaccination against the plague of carnivores, it is very important to keep the pet in quarantine for 10-15 days - at this time immunity is developed. You can’t walk with the puppy at this time, it is also worth restricting contact with relatives, especially stray dogs, birds and rodents.
Adverse reactions to vaccination may be as follows:
- loss of interest in the environment, loss of strength and quarrelsomeness,
- lack of physical activity
- allergic rash
- blue skin and mucous membranes,
- indigestion, nausea, vomiting.
In the days after vaccination, the pet will be very susceptible, so it is worth protecting it from stress, not allowing the pet to be supercooling, or intense physical exertion. If you have any alarming symptoms, you should immediately take the dog to the vet clinic for an appointment with the veterinarian.
Irresponsible vaccination of a puppy or adult dog can have negative consequences in the future.
Puppies are especially in need of preventive actions. They need to first administer vaccines to prevent the onset of the disease. You don’t have to worry about the well-being of the pet - the disease after manipulations passes almost without complications.
In the presence of immunity, the body forms antibodies that are in direct contact with the virus. The drug contains a small portion of the virus necessary to detect the strain. For example, a rabies vaccine prevents the onset of this disease in a puppy, an adult animal.
Immunization is an annual procedure that must be done in a timely manner, guided by the schedule of compulsory vaccination of dogs.
A newly born puppy receives a set of necessary antibodies with breast milk. After three months, immunity is reduced. At this time, the baby's body should be supported. If you doubt when the vaccine was given, it is better to take the dog to the veterinary clinic. Here he will be tested for antibodies.
It is necessary to immunize adults, healthy individuals. You can not be vaccinated with recently giving birth, nursing bitches. Interval - a month before and after the event.
What you need to know
The rules for vaccinating dogs must be strictly observed. Before the due date, it is impractical to do the procedure, since the puppy is protected from various kinds of infections with breast milk.
It is better to refrain from vaccinations during tooth growth. This period is accompanied by fever, painful conditions.
Newly born puppies must be removed from communication with other pets. In order to avoid unwanted contacts, it is better to go to a clinic where vaccination of dogs is provided in the veterinarian’s office. For lack of such an opportunity, you can make manipulations at home.
When vaccination should not be done:
- if there is a disease
- in case of infection with parasites,
- at a temperature.
When asked why an animal is sick, a specialist can answer directly. Self-treatment often leads to negative side effects. Only a professional is able to navigate, prescribe the necessary drugs.
What types of diseases are especially dangerous
There are many infections that can cause health damage. The following is a list of especially dangerous ailments:
- Parvovirus enteritis, a threat to individuals of any age.
- Leptospirosis, which affects people, animals.
- Care disease (plague), the acute form of which causes the death of an individual.
- Rabies - leads to death and is dangerous for the owner (a person also becomes infected after being bitten by an animal).
Dog vaccination, vaccination schedule
The sequence of injection:
- against parvovirus enteritis, plague, leptospirosis - from 8 to 10 weeks,
- against rabies - from 12 to 13 weeks,
- rabies revaccination - at 12 months.
The interval between manipulations is 1-2 weeks.
This procedure must be carried out annually. Between the first and second vaccinations, quarantine is required, the duration of which is 2 weeks.
The following vaccines are administered according to similar rules. The main thing is to avoid hypothermia, to exclude swimming. As individuals grow older, the rules simplify - you can walk. All other recommendations must be considered.
Primary immunization is difficult to tolerate. At this time, appetite may disappear, temperature may rise, and various disorders may begin. Therefore, it is so important in the first year to create the most favorable conditions - to buy high-quality feed, to pour fresh water. If the animal feels uncomfortable - it is better to temporarily give him rest.
If the condition worsens within 3 days, it is recommended to seek help from a specialist.
Dog vaccination schedule
Vaccination of an adult dog is an important and mandatory procedure. All manipulations related to vaccinating four-legged friends are carried out according to the schedule.
Unfortunately, many owners neglect repeated vaccinations, which often leads to disease. Therefore, it is so important to keep a schedule, have a calendar where the next immunization numbers are entered.
Prevention against dangerous ailments is carried out according to the vaccination schedule for adult dogs. Most likely, the veterinarian will give injections for plague, parvovirus, parainfluenza, adenovirus.
Stages of carrying out:
To prepare a four-legged friend means to provide him with quality food, a regimen, and a favorable emotional climate.
The veterinary market is saturated with a large assortment of domestic, imported drugs of various costs. Experienced owners know that a quality product can be bought inexpensively. Whoever vaccinates an animal for the first time should remember the expiration date of the drug.
Be sure to do rabies prophylaxis. The vaccine of the domestic producer “Rabikan” has proven itself quite well. Government clinics do it for free.
You can find out how much this or that remedy costs on forums, in online stores. It is important to remember that a suspiciously cheap drug may indicate a fake.
The event is preceded by a general inspection, temperature measurement (the norm is from 37.5 to 39.0 degrees).
- We open the ampoule, and collect 0.2-1 ml of dexamethasone (bleed air from the syringe).
- Disinfect the vaccination site (livestock).
- Introduce dexamethasone intramuscularly, knead the injection site.
- We prepare the vaccine in the second syringe.
- Disinfect the place of the alleged injection again.
- We introduce the drug subcutaneously.
- We remove the labels from the bottles, paste them into the veterinary certificate (we mark the date of vaccination here).
- The number of the next vaccination is entered on the calendar.
Despite the simplicity of presentation, this procedure cannot be considered easy. The animal may behave inappropriately. This is especially true for breeds with choleric temperament. To avoid trouble it is better to seek help from a specialist. Another option is to invite an experienced assistant who has participated in such an event.
Education University: Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine. Year of release: 2010. Specialty: Veterinary medicine, Veterinary medicine. Experience I have experience in a veterinary clinic for more than 7 years. Work experience of FSBI “All-Russian State Center for Quality and Standardization of Medicines for Animals and Feed”