Urolithiasis disease - The formation of urolith stones in the kidneys and urinary tract. Uroliths are formations of polycrystalline or organic origin. The size of uroliths varies from small grains of sand to large stones, and can be found in any part of the urinary system - from the kidneys to the urethra. There are several types of urolith stones:
Struvites. The basis is magnesium ammonium phosphate and a small amount of organic matrix. They are detected in highly alkaline urine, often together with a urinary tract infection. The most common type of urolith.
Oxalatecalcium and cystine found in urine with acidic pH.
Urataammoniumacid and silicates are detected in neutral or acidic urine.
To establish the cause of urolithiasis is quite difficult. Prerequisites for the development of urolithiasis can be considered:
metabolic disorder (diabetes),
myeloproliferative diseases (leukemia),
shortage of drinking water,
bladder parasites (pinworms),
bacterial infections of E. coli, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Proteus.
Other causes of uroliths and urinary retention can be anatomical defects - diverticula of the bladder ("pockets"), as well as immobility of the animal due to paralysis or paresis of the pelvic limbs.
The manifestation of symptoms depends on the degree and time of urinary retention, the presence of infection, the degree of stretching of the walls of the bladder. Causing urinary retention, urolith stones cause stagnation of urine, which favors bacterial growth. Mechanical irritation of the mucous membranes, trauma to acute uroliths leads to the development of a secondary infection. An infectious or ascending infection can lead to kidney disease (pyelonephritis), urocystitis, or urethritis.
Males suffer from urolithiasis more often than females due to a longer and narrower urethra.
It must be remembered that urolithiasis is a chronic disease that often occurs with relapses.
What symptoms can be noticed:
- Excessively frequent licking and nibbling of the genitals
- Difficult urination (painful, often urine comes out in drops)
- Paroxysmal pain (colic)
- Muddy urine
- Moisturizing the hair around the genitals
- Stretching the walls of the bladder, enlarging the bladder
- Hematuria (presence of blood in the urine)
- Urinary retention, until the end of urination
- Hunched posture, apathy
- Decreased appetite
- Dehydration (dehydration)
What is Renal Colic?
Pain syndrome (renal colic) is manifested when the stone passes through the urinary tract or an increase in hydrostatic pressure and expansion of the renal pelvis due to obstruction, which contributes to the occurrence of hydronephrosis. Renal colic appears suddenly and moves from the lumbar vertebrae to the bladder and testicles (in males). With obstruction of the urethra with stone, the pain syndrome is most pronounced. At the same time, the rat tries to urinate, licks or bites its genitals, peeps. Urine is often excreted in drops, often with blood due to mucosal injury.
Treatment of urolithiasis depends on the location of the stones in the urinary tract. Antimicrobial agents are used to treat stone urolithiasis. Sometimes antibiotic therapy does not eliminate the uroliths, because they are very large or there are a lot of them. In this case, surgical treatment is performed: cystotomy with removal of stones from the bladder, urethrotomy to eliminate obstruction with removal of calculus from the urethra, or nephrotomy to remove stones from the kidney. Removing stones from the kidneys, ureters, or urethra in rats is extremely difficult, almost impossible. Lack of treatment and leaching of stones from the urinary tract can lead to complete obstruction (blockage) with the transient development of acute renal failure and death. Euthanasia in the case of severe pain and severe disease, as well as the inability to help the rat, will be the necessary and only solution.
The doctor needs to find out the genetic predisposition (if possible), previous diseases, the nature of feeding, the time of absence of urination, the presence of blood in the urine (hematuria), the presence and nature of colic, as well as the total amount of liquid drunk by the animal. This information should be prepared by the OWNER of the animal.
During the general examination of the animal, the doctor palpates the bladder to identify its fullness and distension.
To confirm the alleged diagnosis of the disease, the doctor prescribes a general clinical analysis of urine. It may be necessary to conduct a blood test to detect infection, dehydration of the animal, the development of hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, azotemia. Sometimes a bacteriological examination of urine is carried out with the cultivation of pathogens.
Allow to establish the localization of the pathological process. Many stones are radiopaque and easily detected by radiography. Ultrasound diagnostics is a safe method for detecting nephropathology with the ability to assess the size of uroliths, and study blood flow in the kidneys.
Treatment. Appointed by a veterinarian.
At a reception when the bladder is full, a veterinarian can perform a catheterization of the bladder. Antispasmodics and sedatives are used to relieve pain. With the development of dehydration, crystalloid solutions are used subcutaneously or intravenously. Injections are carried out carefully, taking into account the possibility of evacuation of urine.
You may need to consider the need for surgery to eliminate obstruction and remove stones.
In the future, the doctor treats the disease, presumably causing urolithiasis (for example, diabetes). The use of antibacterial therapy is justified in the detection of infection in the urinary tract. In case of parasitic diseases, special antiparasitic drugs are used.
Often, the doctor prescribes diet therapy, taking into account the need for low protein and calcium in the feed.
IMPORTANT: With a sharp deterioration in the quality of life, a decision must be made on humane euthanasia.
Caring for a sick animal.
The quality and duration of your life depends on your attention for the sick pet and the timeliness of the assignment!
What can be infected from a rodent?
If you acquire a healthy decorative little animal from a detachment of rodents or hare-like (decorative rabbits) and properly maintain it, the risk of getting infected from the pet is not great. But since it is, we will consider the most common diseases that a person runs the risk of catching from animals with sharp front teeth.
Hares and rodents are ill with almost all types of infectious ailments:
Each of the subgroups contains one or more pathologies that can be transmitted to humans and other warm-blooded creatures.
How can you get infected from a rodent?
A person can catch an infectious disease from a rodent in almost any way known in medicine:
- fecal-oral (alimentary) and water,
- contact (contact-household),
- transmissible / liquid (with the bite of fleas, ticks, lice, etc.),
- as a result of a bite of an animal,
- by airborne droplet / dust or aerosol route.
Several factors contribute to infection.
- Non-observance of the norms of pet hygiene and personal hygiene of the person (the owner does not wash his hands after playing / feeding / harvesting the rodent cage).
- Feeding the animal from its own plate / from the mouth.
- The presence of open wound or burn surfaces on the human body.
- Eating food in unprocessed (not washed, not boiled) form from rodent sites.
The greatest risk of catching anthropozoonosis (a disease that affects humans and animals) is subject to agrarians breeding rodents and hunters. And those who have direct contact with flour, grain, and hay infected with rodent droppings.
The causative agent of this infection is Yersinia Pestis. The bacterium penetrates the human body by aerosol or when a person bites a flea. The source of the pathogen is a sick person and a rodent. The disease is severe, internal organs are affected. If the disease takes a bubonic form, peripheral lymph nodes are affected. They swell, become inflamed, necrotic. Fortunately, at the present stage, this disease can be defeated with antibiotics.
Tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease)
This is not one disease, but a group. Their causative agents are borrelia, spirochete-like anaerobic bacteria. The transmission path is transmissible. A person becomes infected from a rodent by a bite of an ixodid tick. Feline can additionally become infected by eating a sick rodent - the carrier of arthropods, in the digestive system of which there are viable Borrelia. In humans, the disease proceeds with damage to the musculoskeletal system, eyes, heart, nervous system and other organs.
The risk of infection of a decorative rodent with this disease is minimal. In nature, rodents are sick. Cats and dogs are relatively resistant to the pathogen. Among feline cases of anthrax were recorded. Animals are more likely to become infected at a young age. Infection occurs when a corpse of a sick rodent is eaten. The pathogen is a rod-shaped immobile bacillus.
A person can become infected from a sick rodent if he takes care of him, especially if he works without protective gloves and has wounds on his skin. When inhaling dust containing spores of a microorganism. Bacilli can enter the body through the mouth, in violation of personal hygiene. The disease is severe for a person, occurs with temperature, drowsiness, cephalalgia. It can take skin, pulmonary and intestinal forms.
A bacterial infection is severe for humans, caused by leptospira (a mobile spiral bacterium). Causes a person to damage the capillary network, liver, muscles, and kidneys. It proceeds with wave-like fever. Previously, the disease was called hemorrhagic fever.
- infected rodent
- domestic animals (cattle).
From rodents to pets, the wand migrates freely. From person to person, infection does not occur. The route of infection is contact, alimentary and water (when bathing through the skin). You can become infected directly from a rodent while caring for a sick animal.
The disease is caused by Pasteurella (an immovable stick of oval shape). Many animals (including cats and dogs) also suffer from this ailment. A person becomes extremely rare. In medicine, no more than a hundred such cases are described. The pathogen can enter the body through the mucous membranes of a person from a sick rodent, and when bitten by an infected cat / dog. Basically, it is the latest infection options that are found. Transmission of disease between people is not registered.
The causative agent is a spherical bacterium - Francicella. Carriers of rodents. A person becomes infected by alimentary, aspiration (ingestion of dust containing a pathogen), with a tick bite. The disease proceeds with a high temperature (up to 40 ° C), muscle and joint pain. As complications, peritonitis, inflammation of the pericardium, meningoencephalitis are recorded.
This is a viral disease that often affects cattle (large and small), as well as pigs. But there have been cases of this disease in cats, dogs, horses and rodents. A person from a rodent can become infected by direct contact, caring for a sick animal.
Fatal disease for humans and animals. Transmitted by the bite of a sick animal. It occurs with aquaphobia, convulsions. In an untreated state, a person ends in death. Infection of a domestic rodent is unlikely. The attack of wild rabid rats or squirrels by epidemiological services was recorded.
Bulbar palsy (Aujeszky's disease / pseudorabies)
The disease is caused by herpes virus. For animals, it almost always ends in death. Susceptible to it: livestock, rodents, dogs and cats, hedgehogs, bears and many other animals. Man is also susceptible. This virus infrequently infects a person. However, cases of its infection with itching and fever have been described.
Six hemorrhagic fevers
The main carriers of these ailments are rodents. The disease is caused by arenoviruses and arboviruses. Diseases are named mainly at the place of registration of foci.
These are serious illnesses. Hemorrhagic syndrome is common to them. In most cases, the disease is transmitted by eating contaminated products, by aerosol (inhalation of dust) and through damaged mucous membranes.
This is a group of diseases caused by several types of rhabdoviruses. Carriers are rodents (mouse, cotton hamsters, field voles). In humans, it manifests itself in the form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and in cardiopulmonary form (with respiratory symptoms and signs of heart failure). With the last form of pathology, mortality is from 50%. The disease is reported in the United States.
The disease is caused by nematodes / roundworms called trichinella. Intermediate hosts for them are rodents and pigs.
A person cannot infect directly from a rodent. Parasites penetrate the human body when they eat poorly processed pork. It is unrealistic to get infected from a domestic rodent. Trichinella, parasitizing in the human body, cause heart disease, shortness of breath, joint and muscle pain. The disease can have fatal consequences.
One of the most serious helminthiases (cestodoses) of a person. Echinococcus (tapeworm) has a complex path of development and changes several hosts. It parasitizes in humans, hunting dogs, livestock, in one of the intermediate stages in rodents. The final owner is the canids. Pigs, cows, sheep become infected by eating grass contaminated with parasite segments. These are intermediate hosts, like humans. Canids become infected by eating organs of the intermediate hosts affected by echinococcus. A person becomes infected by an alimentary route and by contact with sick animals (final owners) or their hair. The risk group includes hunters, tanners, shepherds and slaughterhouse workers. In humans, helminth forms an echinococcal cyst in the internal organs (liver, lungs and others), which leads to disruption of the functioning of this organ.
Diseases caused by protozoa
Pathology is caused by giardia. They parasitize in the small intestine. The disease can be asymptomatic or with enteritis. Rodents (who excrete the pathogen with feces), humans, cats and other animals suffer from this disease. Infection occurs by the fecal-oral route, when eating unwashed vegetables and fruits, violating hygiene rules when caring for a sick animal.
Fungal infections / ringworm
This is trichophytosis or microsporia. This pathology affects not only rodents, but also most warm-blooded animals. They can be infected and people. In humans, the fungus can affect both the scalp and skin (most often the hands, feet, inguinal folds, face and axillae).Sometimes affects the nail plate. The process can be superficial and deep. But it is always accompanied by an itch.
As for domestic rodents, the main measures for the prevention of various infections are:
- Purchase a beast in a well-established pet store.
- Compliance with all measures of keeping a pet and the rules of pet hygiene.
- Hand washing after contact with a pet.
- Feeding him from personal dishes, and not from his plate.
To avoid infection from wildly living rodents, you should:
- Do not contact with rodents.
- If the products are bitten by these animals or their cereals are found in cereals, flour, cereals, it is worth abandoning the use of these products.
- Food stocks should be stored in isolated containers inaccessible to rats and mice.
- In storage rooms only wet cleaning is allowed. This reduces the risk of aerosol contamination.
- Clean in protective clothing and a respirator.
All foods must be thoroughly washed before use. Do not forget about the rules of personal hygiene.