Evergreen cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)
A tree is meters tall with a trunk in diameter, with relatively thin, closely connected branches forming a narrow-cylindrical or pyramidal crown. The trunk is straight, slightly runny, covered with a thin, grayish-brown from the surface and reddish-brown inside, longitudinally superficially cracking bark.
Shoots are round-tetrahedral, directed in all directions. The leaves are small, elongated rhombic, barely serrated along the edge, with an oval, resinous gland on the back, dark green, dull or somewhat shiny, adhering to the shoots for a large extent and tightly pressed to it.
Blossoms in February - April, male spikelets are thin, elongated-cylindrical, in length, from pairs of stamens, each of which with female spikelets is roundish in diameter. Cones reaching a larger size in the first year, usually open before ripening in August - September in the second and third year, first green, then shiny brown and more gray, round or slightly elongated, in diameter, from 8-12 scales, the last incorrectly 5-6-angled, tightly adjacent to each other, somewhat swollen or flat on the outside, with a short and blunt point in the center.
Seeds on each scale, long, reddish-brown, shiny, with a narrow wing. Fruiting occurs from 4 years and then abundant annually, full-grain seeds about 37%. Germination lasts up to 10 years. Seedlings with 2 cotyledons, (18) mm long and wide, flat, linear, notched at the apex, green, shiny above, and whitish below.
The wood is sapwood, yellowish pink, with a characteristic pungent odor. Annual layers are clearly visible on all sections. On the cross section, the annual layers are wavy. Late wood is brownish-yellow, relatively narrow, early wood is lighter and wider than late. Core rays with a simple eye are invisible in any of the incisions. There are no tar moves. The wood is soft and light, close to a pine in mechanical properties.
Cypress wood is used for furniture and for small carved and turning crafts, it is resistant to insects. Essential oil can be extracted from young branches. It grows rapidly, reaches 3 meters by 3 years, 4 meters by years, yielding growth of about 50 cm per year, up to 30 years, growth decreases from age, by 100 years cypress reaches its maximum height. The root system is powerful, pivotal on loose soils. Longevity is 2,000 years, however, in the Crimea, by the age of 100, trees begin to suffer greatly from root and foam rot and die in the Mediterranean basin.
In warm places in southern Germany, it is sometimes damaged by frost. It begins to spread in Chile. It was introduced by ancient Greek settlers on the southern coast of Crimea, it was introduced again here from 1778 in Alupka and from 1813 in the Nikitsky garden, and from here it spread along the southern coast of Crimea from Feodosia to Sevastopol and up to 300 meters above sea level, giving the whole space a specific southern landscape, Bakhchisarai suffers from frost.
Major role especially Cupressus sempervirens f. pyramidalis plays in the landscape of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, starting from Sochi and further south, but individual instances are found on the warmest slopes and north of Sochi, 30 km south of Tuapse. It is cultivated in Tbilisi, Baku, in Tashkent, the cypresses have frozen out, in Ashgabat at 8 years old, it blooms and bears fruit. At a young age, cypress tolerates a fairly strong shading for a long time, but it grows well in full light. Drought tolerant.
Propagated by sowing, usually directly into the ridges, followed by the selection of pyramidal forms, which go to school from the age of 4 and 5 to 5 years of age in planting in place. Cutting by cuttings in sand, rooting after 30 days, pre-treatment of cuttings with KMnO solution4 accelerates and strengthens root formation. Reproduction by vaccination is possible, mainly in garden forms.
Cupressus sempervirens, especially its pyramidal shape, is widely used and deserves even greater distribution in alley landings, road casing, in groups, solitary landings, the most beautiful monumental hedges, walls and protective strips work out of it. Cypress tolerates cutting well, since it tolerates dense standing, and with its rapid growth it is also promising for forestry on the southern coast of Crimea, obviously, to a height of at least 400 meters, and on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, in its southern part, to a height which, however, should be verified empirically.
Evergreen cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)
They prefer a mild climate: the Black Sea coast, China, the Himalayas.
Century-old trees reach gigantic sizes, growing up to 35 - 40 m tall.
Representatives of this genus are widely used for decorative purposes. They are an excellent material for green sculptures.
Plants are planted, forming hedges, artificial forest belts. Some species can be grown at home.
Evergreen cypress - what it is and how it looks
A tree may have a straight or curved trunk. It is covered with a thin smooth bark, which in youth has a light brown color, then gradually darkens, becomes gray-brown and becomes covered with grooves.
What does cypress look like?
For your information! The branches have a quadrangular or rounded cross section, the leaves are small. Skeletal branches grow and stretch upward, fitting snugly against the trunk. Shoots are soft and thin, branched. It was not for nothing that the nickname “slim as cypress” appeared.
Young individuals look more fluffy due to the awl-like leaves that lag behind the branch. As they grow, they become scaly and pressed to the shoots. The green color is dark green.
In the first years of life, needle leaves resembling spruce needles. In the fourth year of life, they become scaly. If you look closely, each leaf has a groove that differs in texture and color. This is oily iron. The description of cypress will be incomplete, if not to mention the incredible, aroma of needles.
Cypress trees feel good both in the sun and in the shade, tolerate a drop in temperature to -20 ° C. Thanks to soft needles, it is easy to cut to give a beautiful shape.
Adult specimens easily tolerate transplantation, but it is worth being careful not to damage sensitive roots, you need to transplant with an earthen lump. When buying a seedling, its roots must also be covered and protected.
Despite the possibility of self-seeding, at home it is easier and faster to plant a plant by cuttings. Flowering of the tree begins in the period from March to May. Pollen turns into dirty green shoots and can cause allergies, and woodworms and moth scare away.
Note! Cypress wood is used to make furniture. In its properties, it is similar to walnut specimens.
A bit of history
Cupréssus is of very ancient origin. The first specimens appeared before the onset of the ice age.
Amazing wood has a large amount of resin. Thanks to this, it does not spoil for many years. The ancient Egyptians used trunks to build sarcophagi. Researchers have speculated that it was from it that Noah's Ark was built.
Where does cypress grow
The birthplace of conifer is North America. In nature, the tree is widespread in Guatemala and California; it can also be found in other countries of the northern hemisphere. It grows in the USA, China, Lebanon, Syria, Crimea, the Caucasus, in the Himalayas, subtropics and tropics of the Mediterranean. On New Year's holidays, cypress dress up instead of a Christmas tree.
Evergreen cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)
Adult forms grow up to 30 meters tall, approaching the age of 2000 years. Young trees have a pointed crown, which becomes colony-shaped as it grows, and the crown is rounded. Trees with a pyramidal crown are called - pyramidal cypress.
Cypress - coniferous or deciduous tree
The Latin plant sounds like “Cupressus”. It does not have sharp needles, visually its crown is similar to foliage, so people wonder: cypress - coniferous or deciduous?
What is cypress can be understood by studying the classification:
- the kingdom is plants
- department - conifers,
- class - conifers,
- the order is pine
- family - Cypress,
- genus - Cypress.
The answer is unambiguous, cypress - coniferous tree, it is correct to call its crown a conifer. In addition, seeds that ripen in cones are used for reproduction.
Note! Many confuse cypress with cypress. These are two different plants that belong to different families.
Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica)
Cupressus arizonica is smaller than the previous species, but more frost-resistant. Unpretentious, can grow on dry alkaline soils. The color of the needles is light green. Great for forming hedges.
Cypress - gymnosperm plant
When they say that the plant is gymnospermous, this means that its seeds are not located in the fruit and are not protected by anything, that is, they are open. Such plants have neither flowers nor fruits.
Almost all gymnosperms are evergreens, they form ovules, which eventually turn into seeds, covered with flat scales attached to the stem. In conifers and shrubs, ovules resemble a spiral in shape and form cones.
Cypress is a genus of trees that is monoecious. This means that on each tree, both male and female cones of gray-brown color grow. Each diameter is 3.5 cm, with several seeds under each flake. Cones ripening occurs in the second year of life.
Large-fruited cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa)
This species grows faster than its predecessors, is resistant to sea winds. Therefore, it is used for forest shelterbelts, planting near the coast. The root system is powerful, requiring a large depth of fertile soil.
How much cypress grows
Cypress is a long-liver, at home its life span is up to 300 years, in natural conditions up to 1-2 thousand years.
The evergreen cypress shows the fastest growth in youth, in the first three years of life. During this period, the plant reaches 1-2 m, after which it adds another half a meter a year. At the age of 50, growth stops and goes slowly, and reaches its maximum height by 100 years and is 30 m.
Swamp cypress (Taxodium distichum)
Taxodium distichum, has another name - two-row taxonium. This is an amazing plant.
Wild specimens reach enormous sizes: about 36 meters high, and a trunk diameter of 1 - 3 meters. Separate trees were seen with a trunk diameter of 5 meters.
A significant difference from other species - it is deciduous. Thick, ten-centimeter bark, reddish-brown in color, ridged with longitudinal cracks.
Two-row taxonium, prefers moist swampy places. This species has root outgrowths - pneumophores, shown in the photo below. They help the tree breathe during flooding. Outgrowths can rise above 1 - 2 meters above the ground, have a conical shape. Interestingly, pneumatophores are not always formed, but only if there is swampiness.
Cypress: types and description
Each view has its own characteristics and fits perfectly into the garden. The most popular type is pyramidal. Less well-known, but no less attractive - Italian.
Note! You can also grow Apollo in the garden. It is also a tall and narrow tree, but the crown is more fluffy and branched.
It is radically different from all other species of cypress bog or taxodium biline. It grows on swampy soils or along the banks of sluggish rivers. Having chosen the right place for planting, you can grow it yourself by buying seeds or a seedling. The root system of the marsh species is pivotal, so a permanent place of growth is immediately selected. Pseudophores or lateral rhizomes, which grow throughout the trunk and create a wall around the plant, add decorativeness. There is no need to look after such a tree.
After the gathering, the shifts are arranged a “wintering” - stratification. To do this, they are kept in the refrigerator for several months, then subjected to soaking before planting.
Sowing is done in a special soil mixture for conifers. Shoots appear in a month. Since the seedlings grow slowly, the first 1 - 3 years they are grown at home, like a room flower. For the winter, it is advisable to arrange a "wintering", maintaining a cool air temperature.
Evergreen Pyramidal Cypress (Cupressus Sempervirens) - tall coniferous tree. It has a dense crown, which rises in the sky with an arrow.
It grows slowly, the maximum height of the cypress is 20-40 m. The peak of growth reaches 80-100 years. The wood is gray-brown, dark.
Note! The root system is small but powerful, the roots are branched, like a shrub. That is why it is so easy to transplant even an adult plant.
The roots of the tree are sensitive, with them you need to be careful when transplanting and gardening. Even with minor damage, the tree may dry out.
The leaves of the pyramidal cypress densely cover the spreading branched branches. Young leaves are thin and sharp, more reminiscent of needles. As they grow, they become soft and resemble scales. On the underside there is oil gland.
The needles are small, bright green in color. Soft to the touch, it is impossible to prick it. The needles of an elongated-rhombic shape are located crosswise and tightly pressed to the shoots. The length of each flake is 10-15 cm.
Male and female cones reach maturity by the end of the second year of life, have a round or oval shape. Young fruits have a green tint; by the end of ripening, they become covered with scales and darken. The diameter of each cone is 3 cm. Seeds retain germination up to 6 years.
Propagation by cuttings
For cuttings, only young branches are taken, separating from the top of the head. The processes are treated with a root stimulant, then deepened by 1/3 in the soil.
Seedlings are covered with a plastic jar or glass. A kind of greenhouse is aired daily. It takes about 2 months to root.
Italian cypress loves the sun. It is planted on loose drained soil, which requires top dressing every two years.
Small needle-shaped leaves eventually become scaly diamond-shaped. In landscape design, it is used to create an emphasis on a site or hedge.
Note! The shape of the tree is conical, the branches are ascending and pressed to the post. A monolithic silhouette is created by lateral shoots growing in all directions.
This species is resistant to drought and frost, does not require special care.
The maximum height of the plant is 20-25 m. The root system of Italian cypress, like other species, is fibrous, shallow and sensitive.
Cypress is not the most expensive tree, but even those who can’t afford to plant a hedge or make a composition of several trees should remember that a coniferous tree will look great and alone. At the same time, one does not have to worry on which side of the site to plant it; it is not picky about the growing conditions.
It is represented by a plant with an evergreen crown, growing in the form of shrubs and trees. Cypresses are representatives of the Cypress family.Culture, depending on the variety, takes on various forms of crown - sprawling or even. It is considered a century-old tree, since the life expectancy of individual individuals can exceed three centuries. The height of cypress trees can exceed 25 m, while shrubs grow up to 2 meters. Tree growth activity is observed in the first years of life, adult plants grow slowly.
The roots are sprawling, dense. The rhizome lies to a depth of 2 meters in the ground. Young individuals have a small rhizome with an abundance of additional roots. The diameter of the main roots in adult cypress reaches 15 cm. The roots are light inside, covered with a brown layer on top.
Depending on the form of growth, cypress can have one trunk or several stems growing from the base of the rhizome. The trunk is erect and curved, covered with gray-brown bark. The bark of young plants is smooth, lighter than the coating of adults. With age, the trunks darken, acquire vertical cracks in the stems and trunk. A tree trunk in diameter is about 1 meter, however there are patriarchs with a diameter exceeding 5 meters. At a distance of about a meter from the base, branch branches extend from the trunk. Trees have a variety of shapes - from pyramidal to sprawling weeping. Branches decrease in size as they reach the apex. The diameter of the crown below the tree can reach 5 meters, and on top is about a meter. Branches are fluffy, covered with smaller branches and shoots.
The stems of shrubs are dark brown, covered with smooth bark. Shrubs have several stems. Spreading branches, have an abundance of subordinate branches and stems. Sprigs are covered with small scales, giving the bush volume. The stems are covered with smaller twigs, densely covering the entire bush.
Over the entire surface, cypress is densely covered with a green crown, consisting of many needles. Needles are needle-shaped leaves that cover each twig and shoot of a plant. Young trees have needle-like leaves, which darken over time and acquire a scaly shape. The leaves of adult cypresses are pressed to the branches, forming a dense surface. On the outside of the leaves, a groove is visible, which is an oily gland. The color of the leaves is green or green-blue. The leaves of the shrub are embossed, quite long. The length of a thin plate can exceed 5 cm. On the stems, the soft needles are held by a modified petiole, which forms part of the leaf, narrowed at the base. The peculiarity is that the leaves can be divided into several parts.
In the spring, male and female cones appear on the plant. The culture is monoecious, with heterogeneous fruits appearing in various parts of cypress. male cones - microstrobiles, are small growths hanging down from shoots. At the end of the male cone there is a spore-bearing leaf. Male individuals are arranged in several pieces. Females are located close to males, so that pollination can pass. Female cones are much larger, attached to the stem using a small rod. Cones are scaly, under the top layer seeds are pressed tightly to the center. The unripe cone is tightly clogged, but with maturation it opens and throws nuts around the territory. The shape of the female cones is ovoid, the color is brown.
Landing site preparation
The plant prefers bright diffused light, however, young specimens must be protected from scorching sunlight. The soil must be drained, well permeable to moisture.
Landing pit is prepared as follows:
- Dig a hole with a depth of at least 80 cm,
- good drainage is required, coarse sand or chipped brick is suitable,
- the soil mixture is made up of identical parts of turf, humus, sand and peat, or use a mixture of turf land and coniferous humus,
- leaving consists in regular plentiful watering and a little darkening of seedlings.
Bushes are difficult to tolerate, so they are planted with an earthen lump. If the roots of a dug seedling are protected by a cloth, then they are not removed during planting. The fabric will rot over time.
Cypress trees in the wild grow on the territory of the subtropical and tropical temperature regimes. Plants are thermophilic; therefore, wild crops do not live in temperate climates. However, today several house varieties and hybrids that are actively grown in the northern latitudes have been bred.
The habitat is North America, the Caucasus, the Sahara and the Himalayas. Wild animals grow in China and Oregon. You can also grow wild cypresses in Russia - in the Crimea and Sevastopol. The habitat of the plant is the Mediterranean. Cultures live throughout Syria and Libya. Hybrid varieties are grown everywhere.
Cypress trees are thermophilic cultures that grow in the wild environment along the outskirts of rivers and coastal zones. The plant is cultivated in the form of alleys, as well as separate decorative trees. The culture is not picky about the soil, fertility and a sufficient amount of nutrients are not important for it.
Arizona cypress cupressus arizonica
A fairly frost-resistant plant growing in the form of trees up to 20 meters high. The plant has a spreading crown, with a diameter of up to 5 meters at the base. The culture is quite unpretentious in leaving. The peculiarity of the tree is to peel the bark, as the culture grows.
The leaves of this species are tiled, covered with grayish foliage, tightly adjacent to the base of the tree. The abundance of branches gives the culture a fluffy look. In spring, cones appear on the plant, which have a purple-blue hue. Foliage of this species has pointed edges. As they ripen, the fruits become brown. Cones are located almost vertically, on dense legs.
Cypress evergreen cupressus sempervirens
A tree whose height reaches 30 meters. The plant has an even pyramidal shape, therefore, is valued as a decorative individual. The branches of the tree are tightly pressed to the bark, have an ascending form of growth. Leaves have dark green shades. The foliage fits snugly on the stem.
The trunk of the tree is quite narrow, rarely exceeding half a meter in diameter. This structure makes cypress vulnerable to strong winds and drafts. In spring, young shoots appear on the shoots. A monoecious plant ripens by the beginning of autumn, throwing about 20 seeds from a female brown, round-shaped cone. Fruits are arranged vertically on the plant, attaching to the base with a petiole.
How to grow indoor cypress
Homemade cypress in a pot looks very attractive. Green sculptures give room design a special twist.
Houses contain large-fruited cypress, it forms small trees, sometimes reaching two-meter growth.
There is another plant that is mistakenly called indoor cypress because of its large external similarity. This is an Elwoody cypress. Breeders bred different varieties for indoor maintenance.
Ephedra are quite difficult for home growing. To do this, a number of conditions must be observed.
Lusitanian or Mexican cypress cupressus lusitanica
The habitat of the culture is the middle strip of America. The plant is a giant, the height of the tree can reach 50 m. A reddish shade of the bark is considered a feature of the culture. Unlike other species, cypress has a spreading crown, which begins to form already from the base of the tree. The diameter of the crown at the base of the culture often exceeds 5 meters. The horizontal branches on the trunk are located quite close to each other, so the crown of the tree is very thick, in sunny weather creates a good shadow. Old trees lower their branches almost to the ground.
Mexican cypress leaves are dark green. Foliage is densely located on all branches, forming a dense tent. The leaves are scaly, closely pressed to the shoots. Culture, despite its size, is thermophilic, does not tolerate frosts.
How to care for cypress in a room
- Lighting diffused, avoid direct sunlight.
- Special soil for conifers.
- Good drainage is required.
- Regular watering, without stagnation of water.
- Top dressing with special fertilizer.
- In winter, it is desirable for the plant to create cooler conditions, about +15 C.
Cypress Kashmir cupressus cashmeriana
The plant is native to Spain and the Himalayas. It is a giant, up to 45 m in height, having the shape of an even cone. Despite the height, the diameter of the trunk rarely exceeds the mark of 70 cm. The appearance of the plant is decorative, due to the crown forming a narrow cone. The leaves are narrow, needle-shaped in young trees, change shape to scaly in adults. The foliage is painted in a bluish tint.
Kashmir cypress does not tolerate frosts, for which it easily adapts to drought and prolonged heat. The plant grows rapidly, note the easy tolerance of damage to the branches. The tree quickly gains maximum dimensions, after which it ceases to grow, while maintaining decorativeness.
The fruits are quite small in size, up to 2 cm in diameter. Female cones contain about 20 seeds, covered with dense scales. In the fall, the cones open, allowing the seeds to blow out in the wind.
Plants suffer damage to the roots rather painfully, so the transplant is carried out, subject to certain conditions.
- The procedure is carried out in the spring, after leaving a state of rest.
- The new pot is 3-4 cm larger than the previous one.
- The flower is taken out with a lump of earth, and with it is planted in a new container. The topsoil is removed. Then all voids are filled with fresh soil.
- Water abundantly, shade from the sun.
Large-fruited cypress cupressus macrocarpa
A sufficiently frost-resistant plant, whose habitat is considered broad-leaved forests of North America. The culture grows in the form of a conical tree. The crown is quite narrow, rarely exceeds 2 meters in diameter. The plant is tall, mature trees reach 25 meters up. Starting almost from the base, the tree branches heavily. The stems are located horizontally to the trunk, pubescent with an abundance of needle foliage. Adult trees, unlike young ones, often acquire a rounded crown shape, since the branches grow in a chaotic manner.
A feature of the culture is a yellowish shade of foliage, which is attached to the base of the stems. Young shoots thin the fresh aroma of lemon. The leaves of young trees have a light green color, which subsequently acquires a golden structure. The leaves are needle-shaped, arranged in a circle on the stems, the abundance of foliage makes the cypress fluffy.
In spring, cones appear on the plant. A feature of the culture is a rather large diameter of female fruits, which can reach 4 cm. Cones are oval in shape, attached to the stem with tight legs.
How to grow cypress in a garden
Cupréssus is an adornment of any garden. Pyramidal columns give an elegant look to the site, they protect well from the wind. Therefore, they are used as wind protection.
However, growing trees in the country is not possible in all climatic zones. They are vulnerable to cold: frost damages the root system and crown, right up to freezing. Even frost-resistant varieties will need to be warmed with the onset of cold weather.
- Landing areas are selected bright, open, without stagnation of water.
- A landing pit is dug of sufficient depth, approximately 80 cm.
- A layer of drainage is laid at the bottom, which is covered with a loose soil mixture.
- Seedlings shade from the sun, regularly watered.
Diseases and Pests
- This plant is most often susceptible to fungal infections. A very dangerous disease is cypress cancer. It is caused by a fungus, characterized by cracking of the bark. The wounds gradually merge, forming deep cracks from which the tar oozes.
- Treatment consists in removing diseased branches. Then the wounds are disinfected and treated with a healing composition.
- On hedges you can see aphids. It gives out a characteristic reddening of the crown areas.
- Drying and yellowing of plants occurs due to the invasion of worms.
From the invasion of pests, appropriate chemicals are used.
Weeping cypress cupressus funebris
Coniferous tree with evergreen leaves. The natural habitat of cypress is China. It grows in the form of a tree, whose height is about 18 meters, with saggy, weeping branches. A feature of the culture is a spreading crown, with branches down, almost to the ground.
The translucent crown has the shape of an uneven pyramid with a wide base. The diameter of the crown near the ground is about 7 meters. The plant does not tolerate frosts, withstanding temperatures only up to 10 degrees below zero. Young cultures have a smooth, dark brown bark, which over time becomes covered with cracks. The diameter of the tree trunk is about a meter.
Cypress Gowena, or California Cupressus goveniana
Small shrubs or trees whose height is about 10 meters. A well-developed tree crown has a spherical shape. The branches of this plant are intertwined between each other, forming a curved tree shape. The plant is especially that the culture does not have glands secreting tar. At the same time, the needles do not have a bluish tint, they are painted in an even green color.
The plant is monoecious, propagates by pollination. Male and female cones are located next to each other. At the same time, males are practically not noticeable, they are growths of green. Female cones stand out, are first greenish, then brown. Culture throws seeds in the month of October.
Cypress Macnaba Cupressus macnabiana
Shrub type living in dry places of North America, Crimea. It is a shrub with a height of about 10 meters, with a spreading dense crown. The plant is covered with a smooth to the touch grayish bark. Leaves are needle-shaped, with a sharp end. The crown of the bush in the light takes on a dark green hue. The peculiarity of the culture is that female cones remain on the bush almost all the time.
Depending on the size of the plant, the length of the fruit changes. So, young seedlings of this variety have a fruit length of up to a centimeter, and old seedlings form buds up to 3 cm in diameter.
The habitat of the species is the Crimea and its coast. The plant is represented by a tall tree, up to 20 meters long. Trees are painted in a dark green shade, have a magnificent spreading crown, in the form of a narrow cone. The culture is a hybrid, therefore, wild individuals are not found. A plant is a long-liver, whose life span can be up to 200 years.
Culture is growing quite slowly. The maximum increase in size is observed in the first decade after planting cypress. The leaves are needle-shaped; they take on a scaly shape with age. The foliage is attached to the plant with the help of small petioles. As it grows, cypress darkens, the bark from a light brown hue changes to a dark boer color. The stems of the tree are located almost vertically to the trunk, forming an ovoid shape.
Room representative of cypress. It is a hybrid that is derived from evergreen cypress. The peculiarity lies in the small size, which allows you to grow flowers in room conditions. The plant is picky about the conditions of growth, requires special conditions. Decorative culture lies in a light green shade of needles.The leaves are needle-shaped, small enough, rarely exceed a centimeter.
The culture, despite the high requirements for lighting and temperature, is quite unpretentious to the state of the soil and the amount of moisture. A perennial room is slowly gaining in size, increasing to a maximum of only 10 years.
A plant resembling thaw in appearance. The appearance of the indoor perennial has a pyramidal shape with even outlines. The height of the bushes does not exceed 30 cm. The bark of the tree is smooth, dark brown, in adults it is covered with small cracks. The branches fit snugly to the trunk of the plant, forming an even dome.
The needles on the shoots are opposite to each other. The culture has needles located cross to cross. In young cultures, needle needles, however, with age, needles become scaly. The fruits of the plant can be smooth or covered with scales, depending on the gender of the cones.
In the wild, cypress can be seen in marshy places, with a lot of moisture in the ground. North America is considered a natural habitat, but culture is also found in Asian countries. It is a large, sprawling tree, the height of which can reach 40 meters. The trunks are large and wide, in diameter often exceed 10 meters. The peculiarity of the culture is that it drops needles for a period of rest.
The plant has an upright trunk, covered with gray or brown bark. The bark is thick, about 10 cm wide. The crown of the tree is spherical, rare. Needles of a light green tint, fall off in winter. Cones are brown, scaly, contain about 20 seeds of a rounded shape inside.
Cypress home growing and care
It is quite difficult to grow a plant at room conditions. The plant slowly grows and develops. In addition, in order to get a decorative look of this subtropical shrub at room conditions, it is necessary to create a comfortable environment for it. Cypresses are quite whimsical plants, require a sufficient amount of light and temperature.
For cultivation, it is important to choose the right temperature for the flower. Cypress trees live in places containing the optimal amount of heat and light. In summer, the optimum temperature for growing the culture is considered to be 22-24 degrees. For this, a flower pot is placed in the northern or western part of the room. In winter, the temperature regime changes dramatically. For cypress, it is necessary to choose a room with no heating objects. To create optimal resting conditions for the winter, it is necessary to place a container with a flower in a temperature of no higher than 10 degrees.
Location and lighting
The location of the flower in the room also depends on the climate. Cypress trees prefer good lighting, so in the room you need to choose a place in which the flower will be enough light. However, it is important to prevent direct sunlight from entering the culture. Burns form on the flower, which destroy the culture.
When growing a culture in a room, in winter the culture needs additional lighting. To create the necessary conditions, cypress put on the lamp for at least 8 hours a day. With a small amount of lighting, cypress quickly fades, lowers the leaves.
Indoor cypresses do not tolerate stagnation of moisture in the soil, therefore, the culture provides regular, but moderate watering. Watering the plant is necessary as the topsoil dries. The amount of watering depends on the age of the shrub. So, young shrubs do not require a large amount of water in the ground, unlike adults, who need a moderate amount of water.
In addition to regular watering, the plant is sprayed daily. In summer, the number of sprayings is twice a day, and in winter they are not carried out. As raw materials use clean warm water, room temperature. The frequency of soil irrigation in winter is reduced to 1 time in 7 days.
Cypress lives in loose and fertile land. A mixture purchased in a store is suitable as a substrate. However, experienced gardeners prefer to mix the soil themselves. River sand, turf soil and peat, which make up equal parts of the culture, are mixed as a substrate. Also, two parts of leaf soil are added to the resulting mixture.
To grow a flower, you need to create high-quality drainage. For this, holes are preliminarily created in the container through which excess water for irrigation will exit. A drainage layer is also created, which should occupy at least 1/3 of the volume of the tank. Foam, stones, brick or pebbles are used as drainage.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
For cypress it is important to choose the right top dressing. Since complex fertilizing for flowering plants is not suitable for culture, and organics in general can lead to the death of a culture. The correct fertilizer for the flower is the mineral complex in liquid form, intended for conifers.
Fertilizer is applied 1 time per month. At the same time, in the winter fertilizers stop. When buying fertilizer, you need to see the composition of the fertilizer. It should not have nitrogen, but magnesium must be present.
The soil in pots for indoor plants, loses fertility two years after planting. To return the flower to life, it needs to be transplanted into new soil. It is necessary to transplant cypresses in the spring, before the period of active vegetation. As a transplant method, a transshipment method from one pot to another is selected.
When transplanted, the plant is preliminarily prepared for extraction from the ground. For this, the culture is abundantly watered so that the earth easily departs from the pot. After that, the plant is carefully removed from the pot, trying not to damage the rhizome. With gentle movements, the roots free of excess soil. The roots inspect and break off young root shoots. Places of root petiole circumcision are treated with a solution to prevent decay.
After root separation and treatment, the plant is placed in a new pot. The roots are gently covered with new soil. Petioles, which were previously separated, can also be planted in a new pot - they will quickly give growth to a new plant.
Cypress is a decorative and deciduous plant that does not bloom, but bears fruit. Many species form decorative fruits - cones of various shapes and sizes.
Since the active growth of cypress occurs in the first two years of life, a few years after planting, the crop requires pruning. The plant easily tolerates pruning, and various shapes can be given to the crop. In addition, in the spring, sanitary pruning is performed, in which dried branches, leaves and cones are cut. In order not to harm the plant, remove only a third of the size of the branches.
You can grow cypress on the site. To do this, select shrubs or trees that easily tolerate the climate in which the planting is planned. When growing trees in open ground, cypress trees are placed in a shaded area. Young plants require regular watering and cultivation around the soil. The soil at the place of cultivation should be loose and fertile.
Before planting the soil in the soil, prepare the soil. For planting, the soil is carefully dug up, adding peat, sheet soil and river sand to the planting pit. The landing pit should be dug approximately one third more than the volume of the rhizome. When planting several crops at the same time, it is also necessary to study additional characteristics that will allow you to determine the distance between plantings.
Landing in the open ground is carried out in the spring. At the same time, for young individuals it is necessary to create a fulcrum from wooden beams. After several years of growth, the support can be removed. For planting in the garden, they select well-lit places with the optimal amount of shading.
Young bushes require regular watering, so they require constant care. Since the plant is actively growing in the first two years, at this time it is necessary to make maximum efforts to create comfortable conditions. The optimal amount of moisture for the plant is a bucket of water per week. During a period of drought, watering is carried out twice a week.
Twice a month, young bushes planted in open ground cypresses are fed with mineral fertilizers specially prepared for conifers. Mullein or bird droppings are also suitable for fertilizing. After 4 years of planting, the plants cease to feed often, reducing the frequency of fertilizers up to 2 times a year.
Plants planted in open ground need regular pruning. In spring, trees are pruned for sanitary purposes. During the summer, cypress trees are trimmed to give the bush a shape. About one needs to remove about 30% of the thickets. Autumn spend a haircut to stimulate plants to the appearance of new processes on the branches.
Plants require shelter for the winter. Even the most winter-resistant plants are damaged and may not survive severe frosts. Only a few species can withstand frosts below 20 degrees. A temperate climate often presents temperatures far below this mark, so for reinsurance it is necessary to shelter the culture in advance. As preparation, the soil around the plants is covered with a layer of spruce branches or dry foliage, and the cultures themselves are covered with material.
Tips from experienced cypress gardeners
Experienced gardeners who grow cypresses in their areas know some secrets that help preserve the decorativeness of the culture and create the right conditions that are comfortable for trees. Among the most important tips are:
- It is necessary to plant cypress in a lighted area, with scattered rays of light. Thus, the culture will receive the optimal amount of solar energy, and burns can be avoided,
- Indoor plant should be in moist soil,
- Cypresses need regular spraying,
- Pruning should be carried out immediately after the appearance of dry foliage and branches. Thus, the decorative effect of cypress is preserved,
- Cypress needs to be shaped regularly - the culture easily tolerates pruning, while the growth of young shoots is stimulated and the needles are rejuvenated.
With the right approach, cypresses quickly gain in growth, forming a dense crown, preserving decorativeness for a long time.
The secret of the popularity of cypresses
Cypress trees have recently begun to gain popularity among gardeners. Decorative culture lies in a spectacular and majestic form, as well as needles that persist throughout the winter. In addition, the variety of species allows you to grow a culture not only in the garden, but also in the rooms, which makes cypress more widespread.
Cypress trees, despite the high level of care requirements, are quite unpretentious to growing conditions, can survive any climate change. Plants often become ornaments in gardens, parks, alleys, as well as flower beds and balconies.
To preserve the appearance of cypress trees during the winter, additional care for the crop is required. It is necessary to carefully prepare the culture for the rest period. So, with the onset of autumn, gradually reduce the amount of watering, to freezing completely eliminating them. Indoor plants are watered once a week throughout the rest period.
Cypresses, even those that can easily tolerate frosts, must be covered for the entire rest period. As a shelter for the top of the tree, any non-woven fabric material is suitable. The roots also need to be insulated by overlaying the soil near cypress with spruce branches or a layer of dry foliage. In winter, snow is folded and compacted under the base of the culture to form thermal insulation. The top of the tree is also left covered with snow, however, preventing damage to the branches by the weight of the snowdrifts. To prevent the fall and breakage of the trunk under the weight of snowdrifts, the branches are tied together, and the plant is supported by wooden branches.
In the spring, shelters are removed, foliage from under the plant is removed. After the onset of heat, dry branches that do not survive the winter are removed. With the right approach, with the onset of spring, you can see the appearance of new fruits on cypress trees.
Cypresses can be propagated in two simple ways - by seed and cuttings. Depending on the time of year and the required number of crops received, one or another breeding method is used. Propagation of culture is a rather complex and time-consuming process that requires compliance with the order and rules.
Reproduction by the seed method occurs in spring. Fresh seeds collected in autumn from ripened fruits are used as seed material. Seeds are planted in open ground, previously moistened and loosened. Since seeds have a low probability of seedlings, it is necessary to plant several seeds at once.
For landing, choose a place protected from direct sunlight. During the first month after sowing, sunlight can be dangerous for the seed. After the appearance of 2 or 3 permanent leaves on the sprouts, crops can be planted in a sunny place. It is better to put cypresses in boxes, or to create shelter from the sun with improvised means, so you can avoid transplantation and damage to weak sprouts.
Young seedlings are provided with regular watering and heat input. Sprouts require a barrier against wind and drafts. Young seedlings are transplanted to a permanent habitat only 2 years after planting.
Cypress can be propagated with the help of cuttings in autumn or early spring. As a material, a woody stalk is used, which is carefully cut from the crop. The cut location of the resulting branch is treated with a liquid for the rapid emergence of roots. Then the cuttings are planted in small containers and covered with caps. Pre-moisten the soil and remove from weeds.
Cuttings need daily ventilation. In addition, pots with seedlings should stand at room temperature, but away from direct sunlight. Sprouts take root about a month after sowing. After the appearance of several roots, the plants dive and place on a permanent habitat.
Lack of moisture in the soil and in the air
In case of lack of moisture in the soil on cypress trees spider mites appear. The tree, at the same time, quickly turns yellow, small cobwebs appear on the foliage and between the needles. You can fix the problem by treating the tree with chemicals. In addition, it is necessary to quickly normalize watering and optimize air humidity near the crop.
Incorrectly selected soil or its poor quality
The depletion of the soil can be indicated by the appearance on the culture of dried, sluggish branches that lower their shoots. In addition, with a lack of nutrients in the soil, the crop ceases to grow, reduces the formation of new shoots and cones. As a solution to the problem, it is necessary to transplant the plant to a new place. In case of cultivation in the open field, it is necessary to feed the crop. If a whitish coating has formed on the plant, it is necessary to treat the affected areas with a soap solution.
The reasons for the appearance of dry areas on cypresses, it is worth identifying the cause of the pathology. So, cypresses dry out due to lack of moisture in the air, drought of the soil and the use of bad water for irrigation. In addition, among the causes of drying indoor varieties distinguish the lack of normal light and insufficient temperature. When optimizing care, the plant is quickly restored. Affected areas are advised to be removed.
With a lack of light, cypress trees begin to stretch very long. Moreover, the composition and quality of the crown suffers. With the normalization of lighting, the problem goes away, the plant grows rapidly in width.
Cypresses are actively used not only to decorate gardens and parks. You can meet culture today as a houseplant. Plants are used in economic activities.
Cypress wood is considered a valuable and long-term material that is not damaged by beetles and other insects. Since wood is easily processed, a variety of wooden products are obtained on its basis. However, today tall individuals are quite rare, so wood has a high cost. Cypresses are used to make fences and fences on the basis of wood. In the interior of the house, a lining and a parquet board of cypress are made from cypress.
Cypresses, due to their chemical composition, have a number of useful substances. Cypress preparations have an astringent, calming property. In addition, cypress is added to drugs that can stop and prevent bleeding. The chemical composition of the plant allows you to use it to normalize the level of hormones in the female body.
As the main medicine recognized by traditional medicine, cypress oil is used. It is proved that with the help of oils it is possible to stop bleeding, since the raw material envelops and helps to narrow the lumen of the artery. The tool is used to combat puffiness and excess weight. This is due to the pronounced diuretic effect of cypress. Oils help eliminate allergy symptoms by eliminating itching and soothing the skin. The use of oils helps to relax muscles, relieving cramps and eliminating muscle soreness.
In folk medicine
Cypress has received great importance and use for treatment in folk herbal medicine. In folk medicine, cypress is used as decoctions and infusions, as well as alcohol tinctures. There are a large number of indications for taking medications, including: swelling, urinary incontinence, circulatory disorders, bruising, fever. It is known to use cypress oil and decoction for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Decoctions and infusions of cypress help get rid of excessive sweating and migraine.
Who should not use cypress as a medicine
The use of cypress allows you to get rid of many pathologies. However, the plant cannot be used in some cases. The main limitation to use is allergy. In addition, doctors do not recommend taking oils and herbal medicine during the period of bearing a child, while breastfeeding and small children. Also, cypress can not be used with an increased risk of blood clots, with heart pathologies. The plant can not be used in children and women with mastopathy.
Among cypress trees there are specimens that have reached the age of more than 2 thousand years. In addition, there is one individual in the world that has reached the age of 3000 years. The plant was appreciated and appreciated for its longevity. Therefore, in ancient Rome, rich and valuable utensils were stored only in cypress chests.
Cypress trees themselves are natural fungicides that repel pests. Tree wood contains volatile, capable of eliminating moths.