The fascinating gaze of cats for many centuries surrounded by beliefs and a mystical halo. Animals are credited with being connected with the other world, as they are able to see in the dark. After studying the eyesight of the representatives of the cat family, scientists realized how dissimilar to the familiar human gaze the surrounding world appears before them. This is due to the fact that pets are predators and must be ready to hunt in any light.
What cats look at this world: the structure of the cat's eye
For how cats see our world, the device of their visual organs is responsible. Particularly interesting is the work of their pupils, who are strictly upright. When animals come to a bright light, they narrow, and in the dark expand as much as possible.
The idea of good visual acuity of these animals is not true. They see the world around them blurry and fuzzy, and in the daytime - worse than a person. At this time, animals prefer to sleep, going hunting with dusk. Like people, they have binocular vision, that is, they see one picture with both eyes. However, the viewing radius in cats is greater - 200-270 degrees (in humans - 180 degrees).
The structure of the eyes of the feline family largely determines their habits and manner of behavior. The organ of vision consists of:
- Outer fibrous membrane (sclera). It resembles a part of the ball in shape and includes collagen fibers. A thin layer of cells (cornea) passes light beams into the eye.
- The vascular layer. Located in the central part. It is a network of vessels that transport blood filled with oxygen and nutrients. At the junction of the sclera and cornea, the ciliary body is located, the task of which is to keep the lens in the anatomically correct position. It is a muscle that tenses and relaxes. This phenomenon is called accommodation. The iris is colored yellow or green, less often - blue and is located on the front wall of the shell of the vessels.
- Retina. It consists of photoreceptors, due to which light signals are converted into electrochemical ones. Information obtained with their help enters the brain of animals. A blind bottom is located on the retina - an opening for the exit of a nerve and blood vessels that does not have photoreceptors (cones and rods). Feline has more sticks, because they need to navigate in the dark. Cones are responsible for the ability to see during the day and recognize colors, which is insignificant for small predators.
The structure of the eyes of a cat
The vision of all mammals is the same. The pupil passes the light flux through the lens onto the retina, forming an inverted image there. The retina through the optic nerves transmits a signal to the area of the brain responsible for visual perception. The brain flips the image and forms the real picture.
But there are still differences in the perception of the world. They are due to the structure of the eyes and evolution.
Features of cat eyes and the effect of anatomy on vision.
- The proportions of the eyes and body. Compared to humans, cats have huge eyes. If we correlate the proportions of the body and eyes, then people's eyes would be the size of a large orange. Therefore, the lens of the eyes in cats is larger, respectively, and the field of view, too. Human vision spans 180, against 200 feline degrees. But the zone of peripheral vision, in which objects are clearly visible, is larger in humans. The size of the eyes is determined by the focus. People quite sharply see everything in front of them. Cats focus only on individual objects, the rest of the picture is blurred, they do not pay attention to it.
- Lens elasticity and size. In humans, the lens is softer and smaller. Therefore, people see more clearly. A person is able to examine objects in all details at a distance from 5 centimeters to 50 - 60 meters. Eyes with a large and hard lens are better seen in the dark and focus well on prey a meter away from the hunter. But, at a distance closer than 60 centimeters and further 6 meters, cats' eyesight is worse than humans. They do not see very well far and close. Therefore, sometimes they have to be pushed closer to the food until they feel it with their nose.
- Pupil shape and size. The main difference is the clicks in cats and round pupils in humans. Cat fins act faster, slightly compensating for the stiffness of the lens. Due to its specific shape, in the dark the pupil occupies up to 90% of the eye, and in bright light it is barely noticeable. This helps to see well at dusk and protects the cat's eye in the sun.
- Retina consists of nerve endings called cones and rods. The sticks are responsible for the perception of light, cones of color. The ratio of rods to cones in humans is four to one, in cats twenty-five to one. Thanks to this, a person distinguishes colors better, and cats can see well in the dark. Also, sticks help cats hunt, they respond well to fast movements.
- Fascinating and frightening fabulous glitter eyes in the dark. Possible due to another difference. Behind the retina in cats is tapetum lucidum or a light curtain. Light, reflected from it, falls on the retina a second time. The cat sees well in the dark, but does not shine, but simply sparkles with his eyes.
The eternal story of a cat and mouse catch-up. Rodents try to become invisible, run away and hide. Cats track down, catch up, search. All this happens at night and such a routine has been established for a long time. During this time, rodents became gray-brown, almost invisible at night.
Cats learned to distinguish 25 shades of gray and see mice at night. Cats do not see the world as colorful as humans, but at dusk they can easily distinguish a gray rodent on a gray background. So at night, in poor light, cats see the world in black and white, or rather, in black and gray. Evolution has done its job - if you want to eat, learn to see. Cats are well adapted to see in the dark, and also respond quickly to movement. Thanks to this, they became successful hunters.
Near and far
The maximum distance at which pets can distinguish objects is 60 meters. At this distance, objects are distinguished by them as solid spots. The radius of normal vision is limited to a range of 20 meters. Since animals hunt from shelters, they do not need to see objects that are too far away. They recognize stationary objects in the same way as people with a strong degree of myopia.
Close to the cat is also not necessary to see very well. Animals located closer than 50 cm are not perceived by the animals visually, but by touch and smell. This feature should be taken into account during games and communication with mustached friends. Best of all animals see at a distance of 0.75 - 6 m. This is the optimal value for calculating a good jump.
What colors do cats see?
How clearly cats are able to navigate the night world and what helps them during the day, we figured out, but what colors do they distinguish? Everyone knows from the biology course that there are photoreceptors in the lens of the eye, called rods and cones. The sticks contribute to the special night vision of cats, and animals distinguish colors through the work of cones.
Since the cones are smaller than the rods, the advantage is on the side of nightly acute vision.
The presence of tapetum, a specific formation responsible for the reflection of unabsorbed light, is curious in the structure of the eyes of cats. The tapetum sends all the light to the retina. People see the glow of the cat’s eyes as a result, although this is actually reflected light.
The old opinion that only achromatic colors are available to cats: black, white and shades of gray. But scientific studies on this subject have corrected the conclusions: since there are cones in the eye, therefore, the animal is able to distinguish the color scheme. What colors does cats see? Fluffy is available in blue, green and gray tones. They confuse yellow with white, distinguish violet color. Not available to them red, brown and orange.
Cat eyes features
Everyone knows that cat's vision can easily cope with pitch darkness. Zoologists, figuring out why cats' eyesight can easily cope without sunlight, found that this is due to the anatomical structure of the pupil. In the dark, pets do not see very well, while their pupils dilate during excitement or hunting. In order to better examine the subject that interests her, she narrows the pupils, thereby focusing on the prey. A vertical pupil is much more advantageous than a round pupil and helps to completely protect itself from sunlight, as a result of which it completely protects the cat's vision from ultraviolet radiation.
The cat's vision improves at night, she sees about the same as a person during the day.
People exaggerate the sight of a cat; in the daytime, pets see much worse than they do. The eyes of cats are very sensitive to bright light, a vertical pupil helps protect the special sensitivity of the eye. On a bright sunny day they squint and like to just take a nap, at which time they see blurry, fuzzy.
Cats, like their owners, have binocular vision, that is, each eye sees a certain picture, then it overlaps and folds into a single image. Moreover, cats have bypassed people here. In humans, the viewing radius is 180 degrees, and in a cat 20 degrees more - 200.
How many colors does a cat distinguish
Scientists are still arguing how many flowers cats see. Some believe that their color vision is limited to blue and gray. Others that it looks like a dog with less saturation and the number of shades.
To see the whole spectrum, the human eye uses cones that distinguish three colors - red, blue and green. There are only two cats - blue and green. This is the difference and explanation of the features of vision. Scientists conducted many experiments, forcing cats to respond to color. They stained what primarily attracts the predator - feed and prey. Having experimented, we came to the conclusion that Cats see blue and green.
Yellow color is a spectrally changed green, therefore cats distinguish shades of yellow on a green background. But separately the yellow color of the pets is seen as white. Violet is part of the blue spectrum. Therefore, purple objects appear blue to them.
Shades of colors distinguished by a cat
Owners often wonder if cats distinguish colors. Previously, there was an opinion that cats see the world, practicing only a black and white image, but this is not so. Of course, they perceive the environment not in such bright colors as people, but still they have some shades. They perceive the world as if in a haze, their colors are more faded. The cat perfectly sees gray, blue and green, but does not distinguish between red, yellow and orange. He does not see the difference between blue, blue and purple, white and yellow.
The reason for the nocturnal glow of the eyes is specific formations (tapetum), which serve as a light reflector that is sent to the retina - this is the cause of the glow in the dark of cat's eyes.
Do cats see the paranormal world
Many mustachioed lovers claim that their favorites see a paranormal world, something not accessible to the human eye. This is expressed in the abnormal behavior of cats. As a result, pets seem to be watching objects unknown to us. Suddenly they jump off and start to rush about, knocking everything in its path. At this time, their pupils expand, the hair rises on end.
Zoologists explain these facts in a blurry picture rising in the minds of pets. All changes occurring around they perceive with their ears. The slightest rustle with a still picture leads to such inappropriate behavior.
However, everyone knows perfectly well that there is a world that people cannot perceive, ultrasound that animals, light waves, invisible to the human eye, perfectly perceive. Due to its natural indicators, a cat can perceive the world much wider than humans.
How far can a cat see
Cats can notice an object at a distance of 800 meters, and they clearly see the world from a meter to 60, but near they they see quite poorly. Sometimes a pet goes completely without noticing objects that are directly under his nose. This is due to the fact that cats are naturally nearsighted, and vibrissa helps them cope with close distances.
How a cat sees in the dark
A wide pupil, a large lens, photosensitive sticks and a light curtain give cats the opportunity to distinguish objects at dusk 6-8 times better than humans. But this does not mean that they can see in complete darkness, and at dusk to distinguish colors.
Excellent night vision is not without flaws. In dusk, cats see everything in different versions of gray, sometimes with a beige hue. The richness of flowers is useless; they successfully hunt seeing prey in gray tones.
Vision of a person at night - from above, cat's vision - from below
Assumptions that the cat family has infrared or ultraviolet vision have not been confirmed. But how so? After all, cats in pitch darkness are well oriented and do not stumble on surrounding objects. The reason for everything is perfect hearing and mustache, or rather, vibrissae, as they are rightly called.
This is a special sensory organ that scans the surrounding space. They help cats move around not only in the dark. They successfully compensate for poor vision under their nose with the work of vibrissae.
What cats see in the mirror and on the TV
Sometimes the owners are laughing to watch the cats funny attack the mirror. As a result, a frightened animal arches its back in an arc, muffs a mustache, and presses its ears. So what do they see in the mirror? The antennae in the mirror see their reflection, only they do not understand that they see themselves. They are frightened by the fact that their auditory and tactile receptors do not transmit any information about the presence of another animal. In cats, the picture from the information received simply does not add up in the head.
If we talk about TV, most zoologists claim that cats notice only flicker on the screen. They are fascinated by moving objects on the screen. However, everyone knows that cats love to watch programs about animals, they, not looking up from the screen, monitor the flight of birds, the hunting of cats. And they do not come off the screen even when the sound is turned off. As soon as they switched the channel, the animal, having lost interest, leaves the room. At the moment, scientists cannot give an accurate explanation of this fact.
How a cat sees a person and the world
Each owner thought about how a person sees the world and his pet. Nothing really is ordinary. Cats see the world the same way people do in low light. Some colors are muffled, others look gray, the picture is a little dull. Closer than 60 centimeters and farther than 6 meters the silhouettes are blurred.
Cats are born hunters. This is caused by the perception of the world. Fixed objects do not attract the attention of a cat, while moving objects will always cause a reaction. Therefore, the pet will not notice a large, calmly lying host, and a small bird flying outside the window will instantly cause lively interest.
Man for a cat is a gray giant. The size is what it really is. And the features of skin and hair colors color people in various shades of gray. Colors only appear with clothing.
Video about how cats see:
Color Based Accessories Tips
In large cities, cats sit at home, not having the opportunity to frolic in the fresh air. The owners want to diversify the life of their pets, pamper them and make them move.So that they do not become fat and lazy. Pet shops with a huge selection of toys come to the rescue here.
In order not to buy in vain bright and useless, the owner must remember the peculiarities of the cats vision. This knowledge will help you choose accessories for your favorites. Cats distinguish objects of green, blue, yellow with green and gray colors well. Therefore, with excitement they will run after such toys. And, most likely, it is indifferent to react to beautiful and fashionable reds. Also, the cat will relate to the beds and feeders. His favorites will be green and blue, he can simply ignore the rest.
What colors do cats distinguish?
Until recently, it was believed that mustachioed pets see everything in black and white. His supporters assured that the animals could not distinguish colors, since they were active at dusk and at night. However, recent studies by scientists have proven that cats distinguish between the colors of the world. Their eyes cannot recognize only some colors - green, brown, red, orange. At the same time, animals perceive blue, blue, violet, yellow, gray shades well.
Such a perception of the environment is associated with the predominance of rods on the retina of photoreceptors, capable of deciphering the emerald and violet tones of the spectrum. The cones sensitive to red color in animals are practically nonexistent.
In the light and in the dark
Cats clearly distinguish moving objects in any light. Static are less interesting to them, since they are not the purpose of hunting. In the presence of minimal light (distant lights, lights in the windows), animals distinguish between moving objects 16 times better than humans. In this case, their pupils become bottomless, the tapetum on the retina reflects light twice. In the afternoon they narrow, cats squint, prefer dark places or go to bed.
During daylight hours, animals see our world in the color spectrum available to them. At night, the surrounding space appears to them in gray tones, while the eyes of animals distinguish up to 26 shades of this color. Good moonlight and other light sources help them see. People see cats from a distance of 0.75-6 meters. At a further distance, they recognize the owner only by smell and voice.
The riddle of the mirror
Sometimes pet owners can observe the following picture: the cat rushes to the mirror, hisses, bends, preparing to attack. It happens, and vice versa - the kitten carefully considers its reflection. The animal does not understand that it sees itself. It is surprised that the one behind the glass does not smell. His brain does not receive information from the organs of smell and touch, and the integrity of the perception of the picture of the world is absent. The result is cognitive dissonance - a conflict of reality and an established view, backed up by life experience.
What does the cat see on the TV and on the monitor?
The opinion of scientists regarding what and how cats see on television and on a computer monitor is unanimous. This is a monotonous flicker that sometimes introduces animals into a stupor. However, it is known that many mustachioed pets enjoy watching TV shows with their owners. They are interested in watching other representatives of the fauna that are shown on the screen.
Animals leave the room at the end of such transfers. Science cannot yet explain this fact. Perhaps pets are attracted by the sounds of nature. However, some experts believe that cats are attracted by the rapid change of static images. Their eyes are capable of catching up to 50 flickers per second.
Why do cats eyes glow?
The inner surface of the eyes of baleen pets reflects light. It instantly returns a stream of light entering the retina. In a completely dark room of lights in the eyes of an animal, a person will not see. You need at least a distant light source (for example, the moon, streetlights) so that the tapetum on the retina reflects it. In the pitch darkness of cats do not see anything.
The eyes of pets do not glow in the dark, but only reflect the rays falling on them. Human vision also has a similar feature, which is expressed in the red-eye effect in the photo.
The other world through the eyes of a mustachioed pet
Since the taming of cats in the Neolithic era (10–20 centuries ago), people have watched their habits. For centuries, there were beliefs about brownies, witches, black magic, ghosts and souls of the dead wandering around the house, and cat behavior strengthened faith in parallel worlds and animal contacts with them. Much has now been studied and explained by experts:
- the pet stretches its tail and arches its back in an arc - it used to be that this behavior indicates the appearance of a ghost, but now it is known that the cat expresses its fright in a similar way,
- the animal suddenly runs out of the room with a hiss - probably the smell of an aggressive cat, rodent or dog came from the street,
- the pet snorts cautiously - perhaps he does not like the smell that it smells.
The assumption that, thanks to its vision, the cat catches that which is not able to distinguish a person, is quite reasonable and justified. However, it remains a mystery whether cats can actually see what people do not notice. For example, the presence of evil spirits. In any case, the owners of animals should carefully monitor their behavior, be patient, affectionate and caring.
How a cat sees a person
The mustachioed pet sees the owner as it is, only in a slightly different color. When a person is in a place remote from him, the pet perceives only the shape of the figure. Nearby, he poorly distinguishes the outlines of the face of the owner, focusing only on smell.
As we can see, our favorites are rather mysterious creatures, which we are sometimes not able to understand. They still do not allow us to fully reveal all their secrets, and sometimes one gets the feeling that they live in their own world, closed to people.
How cats see our world
Cats feel great in our world and see it somewhat, especially because of the structure of their eyes. The reaction to life around is expressed in a look. Fright is noticeable by the expansion of the pupils to a round shape, anger narrows the pupils to the state of a narrow strip. Any event of the outside world is reflected in the behavior of the animal. Even a mirror can be attacked by a cat, as it sees in it not itself, but the same animal. It is interesting to observe how the pussy, excited by its own reflection, calms down and loses all interest in it - except for the visual signal, the mirror does not show others.
Cats have an interesting attitude to television - there is still a debate about what they still distinguish: a running picture or a simple flickering frame, but definitely cats like programs about animals. Even the absence of sound does not interrupt the purrs' observations of a bird hovering on the screen, which the cat will try to knock down with his paw.
A cat sees a person in a different color. Because of myopia, the pet better distinguishes the shape of the owner in the distance of the room than nearby.
How cats see in the dark
As was said, in the cat's eye there is a certain organ tapetum located in the retina. All the light absorbed by the cat's eye seems to a person a glow in the night. What happens to sighted cats in the dark? The pupil becomes bottomless - so it absorbs a maximum of light, which is reflected from the mirror organ of the tapetum and returns to the nerve endings.
In the photographs, cat's eyes glowing in the dim light are always visible. Cats are night hunters, so evolution has tried so that at night they see much more clearly. Something like this people see in twilight. If the ancestors of modern cats could not in the dark focus their eyes on prey in the process of night hunting, then perhaps the genus of a cat would not survive to this day. So, once the necessary improvement of the organs of vision through the efforts of nature gave the home pussy the opportunity to navigate perfectly in the dark and became an important condition for the further evolution of the genus.
Do cats see the other world?
From the day that the first cat was tamed, people have been observing pets living with them in the same territory. For many centuries, people believed in the existence of brownies, in all kinds of spirits and in the souls of the dead coming to the house.
Fluffy darlings by their behavior only confirmed the person’s faith in the existence of otherworldly forces, although feline behavior has quite prosaic reasons. Here is the cat’s characteristic behavior, which can inspire thoughts that she sees a ghost:
arching the back with an arch and a curved tail — but doesn’t the animal have the right to express its own fear in this way?
a guarded snort is heard - probably the cat smelled a new not quite pleasant smell,
the animal stares into an empty place and stares intently for a long time - or maybe the animal heard ultrasound or was thinking about an imminent dinner?
the cat hisses and runs away from the room - the animal could smell a rodent or someone else's cat running by,
It can be assumed that cats vision allows them to perceive what the human eye cannot see. But whether they can actually feel the presence of a dead soul nearby, or is it just such a feature of the animal’s behavior, remains a mystery. In any case, the owner should be careful about the cat and its perception of the human world.