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French Bulldog - description and characteristics of the breed

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The French Bulldog is a small companion dog with a good-natured character. The pet needs constant communication with family members.

Brief information

  • Breed Name: French Bulldog
  • Country of origin: France
  • Breeding time: XIX century
  • Weight: 8-14 kg
  • Height (height at the withers): 30-35 cm
  • Life span: 10-12 years old

Highlights

  • These dogs are smart, but stubborn, they quickly get bored of routine. The trainer will have to show ingenuity and patience.
  • Pets do not need high physical activity. Enough regular walks and body weight control.
  • Representatives of the breed do not tolerate heat, it is recommended to keep it in an air-conditioned room.
  • French bulldogs make little noise, rarely bark, although there are exceptions.
  • These dogs will not suit lovers of perfect purity: they drool, prone to flatulence, and molt.
  • The French Bulldog breed is suitable only for maintenance in the house - they are not physically adapted to life on the street.
  • A companion dog vitally needs a lot of communication with the person. If nobody is at home for a long time, the dog can grow up aggressive or get sick.
  • The French bulldog gets along well with the child, but it is better not to leave very young children with the pet without adult supervision - the baby may accidentally offend the dog, forcing her to defend herself.

French Bulldog - A friendly companion dog that easily gets along with other non-aggressive pets and family members. The breed is perfect for living in a city apartment, does not require complicated care. These animals belong to decorative dogs, although their ancestors were fighting dogs. Pets are very loyal and quick-witted, distinguished by good health.

History of the French Bulldog breed

French bulldogs, despite the name, were bred in England. In the XIX century, breeders decided to create a breed of companion dog, which could be easily maintained in urban conditions. Craftsmen, seamstresses, lace-makers did not miss the opportunity to acquire a mischievous pet, which pleased the owners with a light disposition and funny habits. To bring out such a dog, breeders selected the smallest English bulldogs, crossed them with terriers, pugs. That is how the modern breed appeared.

In the second half of the 19th century, the demand for manual labor fell sharply due to the rapid development of manufactories. Many English workers moved to France, taking their favorite dogs. According to another version, the bulldogs were brought here by merchants. The good-natured character, the ability to catch small rodents and unusually large erect ears instantly attracted the attention of the French public to this breed.

In Paris, the courtesans became the first owners, or rather, the owners, of the little bulldogs. Many photo cards have been preserved with naked or half-naked women posing with their pets. Very quickly, the fashion for these dogs spread in high society, as evidenced by numerous photographs. Since the 80s of the XIX century, a real boom in the popularity of the breed began. At this time, Paris was already the fashionable capital of the world, so the whole world soon learned about French bulldogs. In 1890, dogs were brought to the United States, and after 7 years they established the FBDCA (French Bulldog Club of America).

French bulldogs made their debut to the general public at an English exhibition in 1896, where they won the admiration of many dog ​​breeders. Breeders are interested in breeding these dogs. The breed's popularity grew rapidly, and in 1913 about a hundred French bulldogs arrived at the Westminster show. Initially, these dogs were called Bouledogue Francais, but at the beginning of the 20th century the name was changed to French Bulldog. The Kennel Club in 1905 recognized the breed as independent, separating it from the English Bulldogs.

In the 20s of the twentieth century, these cute pets fell into the territory of Russia, but since puppies were very expensive, only representatives of the nobility and just rich people could afford a French bulldog. One of the most famous fans of French bulldogs was Fedor Chaliapin. Over time, the popularity of these dogs decreased, but they still managed to take 21st place in the popularity rating among 167 breeds registered by the AKC.

There is a beautiful legend that the French bulldog nicknamed Gamin de Pycombe, being the pet of one of the passengers of the Titanic, managed to escape from a shipwreck and even find a new owner. However, this is only half the truth - archival records confirm the presence of a bulldog on board, but he could not survive. Since the dog was insured, its owner received impressive compensation - more than 20 thousand dollars. Another representative of the breed, which went down in history under sad circumstances, was Ortipo - a favorite of Princess Tatyana Nikolaevna (daughter of Nikolai II). The dog died with the mistress during the execution of the royal family.

Character traits

The character of the French bulldog combines calm, poise and love for the owner with alertness and fearlessness.

"French" - friendly, loyal, attention-loving dogs, poorly tolerating loneliness. They treat other pets well, if they grew up with them, and children.

Among the negative qualities of French bulldogs, their resentment stands out - the pet may begin to depression due to a lack of attention from the owner.

Pros and cons

Like dogs of other breeds, the "French" has advantages and disadvantages.

pros:

  • compact size, due to which the dog is suitable for housing,
  • tail, broken by nature, does not need stopping,
  • if necessary, the "Frenchman" is able to protect the owner,
  • don't bark for no reason
  • minimal hair care: it does not require efforts when combing, frequent washing and does not have a specific smell,
  • with proper training, shows aggression only if absolutely necessary,
  • gets along well with children
  • does not need frequent and long walks.

Minuses:

  • susceptible to high and low temperatures: in the heat there are frequent cases of sunstroke, and in the cold season - colds,
  • The "French" are poor swimmers due to their heavy weight and large head,
  • in the folds on the face and the place where the tail is adjacent to the trunk, the development of the fungus may begin,
  • snoring and gas emission in a dream due to the structural features of the digestive tract and respiratory tract,
  • more often than dogs of other breeds, it suffers from allergies.

In addition, French bulldogs are stubborn and lazy, so they need timely training. And in connection with physiological features require special care.

Color variations

The breed standard approved the following color options:

  • brindle or motley - the most popular option, in which black and red stripes alternate,
  • white with spots of various colors except black,
  • a pure white color is acceptable, but is very rare,
  • fawn - many shades from red to coffee.

Permissible colors:

  • black-brindle - the presence of a small number of red hairs on an almost black dog,
  • speckled spotted dogs.

Colors considered a breed marriage:

Blue “French” are very popular, therefore, if you are not planning to participate in exhibitions, you can pay attention to this color.

Power Features

Feed the "Frenchman" You can use natural products or dry food, the main thing is not to mix 2 diets.

Natural nutrition should consist of raw or boiled meat of low-fat varieties, buckwheat and rice groats, boiled offal, sea fish, vegetables and fruits.

The following products are prohibited.:

  • potatoes,
  • flour products and sweets,
  • smoked meats, pickles, fatty, spicy and pickled products,
  • sausages
  • tubular, hard bones.

Having made a choice in favor of ready-made meals, one should purchase premium and super-premium feeds. With food allergies, you will need hypoallergenic nutrition from the holistic line.

It is necessary to monitor the weight of the dog and the size of the servings - the "French" are prone to overeating.

Read also how to properly feed a French bulldog puppy.

Health and underlying diseases

The greatest problem of these dogs is associated with a short and flattened muzzle, which often causes problems with breathing and heart function, especially in the heat.

Also the weak spot of the "French" - bulging eyes.

Conjunctivitis and cataracts often develop, eyeballs are not uncommon, dogs can damage their eyes while walking, stumbling into a bush.

Most frequent pedigree diseases:

  • allergic reactions
  • twist of the century
  • hair loss
  • urolithiasis disease,
  • cold,
  • obesity.

Another major problem with French bulldogs is spinal changes.

Representatives of this breed form one or more additional half-vertebrae, weakening the spine, therefore, high jumps and movements along the stairs are contraindicated.

It should be remembered that the health of a pet of this breed must be taken seriously - the dog's lifespan depends on its condition.

Dimensions and Weight

French bulldogs are far from giants.

These are small indoor dogs belonging to the decorative breeds.

Height at the withers of males is 27-35 cm, and weight - 9-14 kg. Bitches grow to 24-32 cm and weigh from 8 to 13 kg.

There are also dwarf French bulldogs. Read about them here.

Parenting and training

Difficulties in the training and education of the "French" are associated with their obstinacy and laziness.

These are smart and quick-witted dogs, whose training is simple commands, for example, "sit", "next", "fu", "place" can be entrusted even to a first grader.

It is necessary to start training and education from the first days a puppy is in the house and do it in a playful way. And the first thing you need to teach a dog is her nickname.

The owner during classes must be consistent and persistent, you can not show aggression and physically punish the pet - he will remember the insult, grow up aggressive and vengeful.

French bulldogs are able to remember about 40 teams.

In addition to the teams, the dog must also be accustomed to such accessories for walking, such as:

Comparison with other breeds

Differences from Boston Terrier:

  • growth at the withers
  • the “Frenchman” has a barrel-shaped rib cage and elbows set wide from the body, while the terrier has a straight and wide chest and high, correctly set legs,
  • the French bulldog has characteristic folds, rounded ears and almond-shaped eyes, the terrier has smoother cheeks and forehead, pointed ears and rounded eyes.

Differences from pug dog:

  • the pug has a flattened top of the skull, and the "Frenchman" is convex,
  • the pug’s soft and thin ears are wrapped in characteristic “roses” covering the auricle, and the sharp, high-set ears of the “Frenchman” look like a triangle,
  • the pug has a straight and straight line of the back, and the back of the French bulldog has developed muscles and is slightly inclined,
  • the pug’s legs are long, parallel, while the “Frenchman ”’s legs are short and slightly twisted.

  • the "Englishman" has longer legs and rounded ears,
  • The "English" are bigger and heavier,
  • the “Frenchman” has an uneven and low set tail, while the English Bulldog has a straight and elastic tail.

Also read about which dog breeds look like a French bulldog.

Animal breeding

The body structure of males makes the natural fertilization of the bitch problematic, so breeders often resort to artificial insemination for a greater guarantee.

Due to the disproportionately large head of puppies and narrow hips, French females are rarely able to give birth on their own, more often they need a cesarean section.

It will not be superfluous to conduct an ultrasound to determine the number of puppies and their location. It is especially important to know this if labor attempts stop, and dead puppies remain in the uterus.

Pregnancy lasts about 63 days, sometimes childbirth begins sooner or later.

How to choose a French bulldog?

You should buy a puppy in a specialized nursery, asking the breeders in advance about his parents, their nutrition and health status.

A healthy puppy of a French bulldog moves in a coordinated and free manner, he is cheerful, active and contact, he has:

  • shiny coat
  • soft stomach
  • clean skin
  • no discharge from the eyes,
  • the nose is pigmented in black (for spotted dogs, the absence of pigment on the lobe is permissible for up to 3-5 months),
  • clean ears, odorless and excreted,
  • straight teeth.

The first vaccination is done in 2 months, after a month it is repeated with the same composition. The third vaccination is carried out after a tooth change.

Attitude to children

One of the most popular breeds is the French Bulldog. These, at first glance, clumsy dogs can be found on city streets and in the countryside.

In any case, the owners lead their pets on a leash, as the dogs are not at all clumsy, on the contrary, they are too nimble, they need constant monitoring. The terrible look is deceiving, the French Bulldog is very kind and sociable. A distinctive feature of the breed is the ears, reminiscent of the shape of the ears of a bat.

Maintenance and care

French bulldogs are ideal animals for housing. These dogs are small in size, they do not emit an unpleasant odor, molt almost imperceptibly and do not require regular walking.

When a dog appears in the house, it is necessary to allocate a place for it. This takes into account the fact that the pet cannot sleep near heating appliances, in a draft, in a cold or hot place. It should not be too far from the master’s room, since it cannot stand loneliness. On the territory allotted for the dog, establish a couch or lay a mattress. Choose a sleeping place spacious, clean and not too soft. It is also determined where the dog will eat, there are dishes for water and food.

Frequent walks and great physical exertion are not needed by the French Bulldog. Due to the specific structure of the nose, it is difficult for him to breathe. This does not mean that the dog sleeps for days on a couch, the bulldog likes to play with different toys, tries to attract household members to the game. He is also very curious, during a walk it is better not to let him off the leash if the territory does not have a fence. The pet, feeling freedom and seeing, for example, a cat or another dog, can run away.

With regard to hygiene procedures, special attention should be paid to skin folds located on the face. They need to be cleaned daily gently with a patch of soft tissue, and then lubricated with cream or petroleum jelly. This procedure will cleanse the skin of dust and dirt, protect wrinkles and wrinkles from drying out and prevent the appearance of cracks.

There are a number of hygiene procedures, the implementation of which is mandatory:

  1. Once every 14-16 days, clean your ears. They are rarely contaminated due to their special structure. When cleaning, make sure there are no inflammations or excessive secretions that indicate the presence of infections.
  2. Due to the slight bulge of the eyes, it is necessary to wipe the eyes with a napkin daily so that they are clean and shiny.
  3. Cut nails once every 15-20 days. This procedure requires the owner of skills and accuracy. Better if a specialist does it.
  4. Bathing is carried out 2 times a year or in cases of severe pollution. During water procedures, the water temperature should be 38 degrees. Shampoo is used mild. After bathing, wipe the dog dry with a natural towel. Make sure that the dog does not freeze and catch a cold when it gets into the draft or cold with wet hair. Frequent bathing can cause itching or cause dandruff.

Caring for the short hair of bulldogs does not take much time and energy from the owner. It is enough to comb the dog 2-3 times in 7-9 days. Such a massage is not only useful, but also pleasant for the pet. During the procedure, a special glove and a massage brush are used. Hand movements go from the head along the growth of the coat.

French Bulldog Feeding

Diet and diet are selected for each pet individually. The ideal portion is that the dog eats the whole and even licks the bowl. The number of feedings depends on the age of the animal. For example, a puppy should eat 6 times a day until two months of age. As you grow older, you need to feed your pet less often. Starting from one year, the dog is fed 2 times a day.

It is forbidden to overfeed a puppy. His limbs are too weak, the crowded intestines are very heavy for them. In addition, overeating can cause vomiting and lead to rickets. The following feeding rules should be followed:

  • From the first feedings, teach your puppy all the healthy foods.
  • If the dog refuses food, asking for a change in diet, do not follow her lead. Hungry, she will eat what is offered by the owner. This is provided that refusal of food is not caused by health problems.
  • With systematic overeating, the dog becomes inactive and apathetic. As a result, obesity occurs. Do not overfeed!
  • Do not throw food on the floor.
  • Nutrition should be balanced with the right amount of vitamins, minerals and proteins. An improperly designed diet will lead to problems with the stomach and to vitamin deficiency.
  • If there is a need to change the type of feed, this should be done gradually.

With proper maintenance, French bulldogs live 10-12 years. By nature, this type of dog is awarded good health, but there are features that the owner should pay attention to. The fact is that due to the special structure of the muzzle of bulldogs, shortness of breath, as a result, there is an additional burden on the heart. In order not to harm the pet, it is necessary to exclude walks in hot weather, a long stay in direct sunlight and high physical exertion.

It is also worth knowing about the diseases characteristic of this breed:

  • Food allergy - affects the digestive system. The main symptoms of allergies are bloating, diarrhea, vomiting. The dog becomes lethargic.
  • Hypotrichosis - characterized by loss of hair.
  • Entropion - Inversion of the Centuryrequires surgical intervention.
  • Interdigital dermatitis - the claw and paw pads become inflamed.
  • Dermatitis of the skin fold on the face - appears due to the accumulation of moisture inside the crease.
  • Difficult birth - due to the large head, puppies in most cases cannot independently get out into the light. As a result, a cesarean section is required.
  • Urolithiasis disease - A genetic predisposition caused by urate can occur in a pet as early as one year old.

An attentive dog owner should ensure timely vaccination. It is also necessary to show the dog several times a year to the veterinarian for preventive examinations, this will help to detect the disease in time and prevent its development. It is strictly forbidden to self-medicate!

Representatives of the French Bulldog breed are suitable for those people who can spend enough time with their pets. The fact is that such dogs can not stand loneliness. Spending a day in an empty apartment can lead to stress.

The character of the French is calm, peaceful. The dog is always ready for games, entertainment and even travel. He easily transfers, if only to be near the owner. The bulldog is happy to play with children, and the smallest ones are also nursing, protecting and patronizing. Despite the peaceful, kind disposition in certain situations, he is able to turn into the defender of his master. After all, representatives of the breed do not know fear.

Now these are decorative dogs, I can’t even believe that once their destination was catching rats in the shops of merchants. Now the French bulldog is basking in the love of the owners. Other dogs are more hostile than friendly. Hates cats, if they decide to settle a Frenchman and a cat together, there will always be fights between them.

The attitude to strangers is wary, but only until the owner begins to communicate with guests in a friendly manner. After that, the dog behaves with strangers as if he had known them all his life.

Training and education

French bulldogs are endowed with intelligence and quick wit, this could contribute to an easy process of education and training. But stubbornness and, one might say, laziness do not allow the possibility of light training. Even if the dog knows the command, the owner has to monotonously repeat it a dozen times. The pet understands everything, but is in no hurry to obey.

Dog handlers assess the difficulty of raising this type of dog at a level below average. But you can find an approach to the bulldog. It is necessary to have patience, for each executed command to encourage the dog with a treat or affection. In no case should you beat the animal or shout at it.

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