Actinidia argument (acute) - the most powerful among the vines of the Far East. The Japanese call it kokuva or kikuva, the Russians call it large kishmish or large actinidia. In Primorye, it occupies large areas with a density of up to one hundred plants per hectare.
Liana grows to 25 m. Curling around trees or other supports, the actinidia of the argument reaches the top and branches abundantly, forming long, young shoots that carry beautiful, large, bright green leaves, a lush crown. The strength of lianas is so high that since ancient times they are used in East Asia instead of ropes for the construction of suspension bridges. Thin branches of vines go on various weaving, and young juicy shoots and leaves are eaten. On the forest edges and glades, creepers lie on the ground, forming dense bushes in the height of a person, and in the taiga often together with other species of actinidia and Amur grapes create impenetrable thickets.
Flowers are formed in the axils of the leaves of annual shoots, usually single (diameter 12 - 20 mm), with greenish-white petals (5 pieces in a corolla), turning downwards during the full blooming of the flower. The actinidia of the argument is very beautiful when groups of white or slightly greenish flowers with dark anthers appear on the background of shiny green foliage. The flowers exude a faint, but very delicate and pleasant aroma, reminiscent of the aroma of magnolia.
All species of actinidia are dioecious plants; each of them has only male or only female flowers. Male lianas bloom more abundantly than female ones; female flowers are slightly larger than male ones. Due to the dioecious nature of actinidia for vegetative propagation, cuttings should be taken taking into account the sex of plants. The onset of growth after winter in actinidia is late: the vines stand for a long time without leaves, while most other plants have already awakened. Arguta buds are growth and mixed (purely flower buds are absent). Shoots - growth, mixed and fruiting, the latter - shortened, small in size with many flowers and leaves. Flowers are pollinated by insects and the wind. When polluted by wind, ugly fruits often form with a small amount of seeds.
The fruits of actinidia arguta are multi-family berries of an elliptical or round shape, sometimes elongated or compressed laterally, with a short beak, the cup is falling. The berries are large (length - 22 - 27 mm, width - 16 - 22, sometimes - 27 mm). The weight of each berry is on average 5.5 g; in the best specimens it reaches 10 g.
The taste of arguta is high, its juicy tender flesh differs in the aroma of pineapple, pleasant sweet and sour taste. The berries hang on long stalks, one or two, sometimes three together. The color of the berries is green, sometimes yellow-brown.
Cultivated plantations of actinidia arguta produce high yields (50 kg or more per vine). In the taiga, where pickers ruthlessly break plants, crops occur once every three to four years and do not exceed 10 kg from the bush. Berry ripening in the warm summer begins in August and lasts a month and a half. Due to the green color, it is difficult to notice them among the foliage and remove it in a timely manner, but they also hang after leaf fall. In ripe berries - small seeds. Their germination is high - with autumn sowing up to 90 percent. When sowing seeds in the spring, it is recommended to keep them for a month and a half in the cold, otherwise seedlings will appear only next year. Argut leaf fall occurs from the beginning of the full ripening of berries to the end of October.
The actinidia of the argument has sufficient frost resistance, although growths can freeze, which reduces productivity. It is not affected by fungal diseases, moths are dangerous from pests.
Features of actinidia Argut
Another name for Argut is Acute. This vine has a powerful trunk, growing up to 25-30 meters. The stalk is stiff. The color is gray-brown. The stem encircles any support encountered in its path. The plant looks unusual, decorative. In the gazebo, which is entwined with actinidia, it is cool and fresh even on the hottest day. The summer resident, who decided to plant an exotic shrub at home, should immediately think about the support. Without objects to catch on, the liana will not be able to develop normally. She will simply lie on the ground, and curl, forming a circle.
The bush is frost-resistant. It can tolerate harsh winters when the air temperature drops to -30 ... -40 degrees.
The leaves of Argut, like Colomikta, change color, depending on the month. In spring, they have a dark emerald color. When the plant blooms, and it blooms with white flowers, the leaves also turn white. In autumn, the foliage becomes a yellowish-green color, then pale lilac. In October, the leaves fall.
The plant begins to bloom in early June. The process lasts about 13-18 days. At this time, the infield is filled with a wonderful delicate floral aroma. You can catch notes of tropical fruits, lily of the valley.
It is during flowering that you can determine the sex of the plant. Actinidia Argut as well as Colomictus and other varieties, dioecious culture. There are female and male copies. In order for the bush to bear fruit, it is necessary to plant heterosexual varieties on the site. You can plant 4-6 female plants on one male plant. Only then will pollination occur and the fruits will be tied. In male specimens, flowers are collected in inflorescences. They have many stamens, but no pestle. Female flowers are larger. Almost always grow one by one. They have stamens and pestle.
Another nice feature of Ostroy actinidia is that tasty fruits do not crumble. Even fully ripe berries are firmly held on twigs. The fruits, depending on the variety, are quite large, 2-4 cm each. Approximate weight - 5-7 grams. Harvest can be harvested in September. Some varieties in October. The fruits are fragrant. They smell like pineapple, apples, flowers. The taste resembles a mixture of strawberries, kiwi, gooseberries. The color of the fruit, depending on the variety, is green, light pinkish, purple.
note! Actinidia Argut is considered a long-liver. With proper care, it can bear fruit and continue to grow for almost a hundred years.
Actinidia Argut: varieties
This variety of actinidia has several dozen varieties. All of them differ from each other in fruits, a little appearance, gender. Growing each of them is easy. The care is pretty simple. However, this does not mean that after planting you can forget about the plant. In order for the culture to develop well, decorate the site and bear fruit, it needs to be given enough time. Each of the varieties has its own characteristics at the place for planting, the formation of a bush, reproduction, which must be taken into account.
Among the most common varieties of actinidiaAThey are as follows:
Many gardeners involved in the cultivation of this varietal actinidia claim that its pinkish-burgundy fruits are the most delicious of all varieties. They are honey. A long fruity aftertaste remains in the mouth after the berry. Ideal for making wine.
A place for Geneva needs to be chosen so that the sun shines there during the day. At the same time, the wind should not blow into the bed. Like other varieties of culture, Geneva does not like and is afraid of drafts.
Important. The soil should be neutral, drained, fertile.
The landing pit should be 60 by 70 cm. Drainage in the form of pebbles and stones is laid out at the bottom. Then a layer of fertilized garden soil with peat, humus. It is necessary to add ash, fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. It is not allowed to use preparations containing chlorine, lime. Culture does not like them. A mound is made from ordinary garden land on a laid fertile layer. On it, the gardener places the roots of the seedling. The root neck should be deepened to the ground at a distance of 1-2 cm. The pit is filled with earth. It spills well. The basal circle is mulched with straw, grass. You can use peat.
The bush must be tied to a support. The bush is formed by removing broken, frail, old branches and shoots, which greatly thicken the crown. In all varieties of actinidia of Argut, fruiting occurs on short branches. Therefore, it is necessary to cut the branches quite short, do not forget about pinching. Creepers do not need to be replaced throughout life. Unlike actinidia Colomicta, in Argut they constantly bear fruit.
This is a self-made variety. However, despite the efforts of breeders, the crop gives the best harvest only if a male variety is still growing on the site. The first crop is harvested within one to two years after being placed in a permanent place.
Landing is similar to Geneva. The place also needs a sunny, without strong winds. It can be grown on neutral, slightly acidic soils. The earth must be loose. Do not plant in places where groundwater accumulates.
Issei is one of the smallest actinidia. It is recommended to plant it in small areas. The culture of this variety needs timely watering.
Interesting. The formation of the bush takes place in the same way as in other varieties of Argut. All frail, broken, old branches are removed. The bush is well thinned out. The branches are shortened. Pruning is carried out in the fall a few weeks before the onset of cooling. The shrub at this time should no longer have a single leaf.
Reproduction is standard. You can plant a seed, you can use cuttings, layering. The easiest way to propagate is with cuttings. They are taken from mixed shoots. Cuttings are cut from the apical part. Each stick should have 2-4 live kidneys. Harvesting cuttings takes place in June and July. The sticks land in a calm place where there is a shadow. You can identify them in the greenhouse. It is not allowed to find cuttings under the scorching sun. Suitable soil is peat mixed with sand. After a month, the cuttings should start up the roots. In a month, branches will appear. The characteristics of the variety Issei reports rapid plant growth.
The plant needs pollinators. Berries ripen in October. They are very large. The weight of one fruit is about 20-30 g. The first crop is harvested 3-5 years after planting. Feature of the variety in a short flowering period. Flowers on the actinidia Argut Jumbo can be observed only a week. Fruits have high keeping quality and transportability.
On a note. Planting, bush formation similar to other species. Planting material in the form of a seedling is transferred to a permanent place only when it is 2-3 years old. Prior to being placed in an earthen hole, roots cannot be taken out of the shelter. The roots are very tender. Any damage to the roots can disrupt the growth of the culture.
Jumbo also needs drainage. The variety does not tolerate acidic, alkaline soils. Reproduction is allowed as cuttings, and layering, seeds. If the method is selected by root layers, then an adult strong shoot is bent to the surface of the earth. It is fixed on the ground. Next, the soil mixture is placed on the stem. After a year, the new plant is separated from the mother.
The berries of the variety have a greenish-purple color. They have no aroma, but a wonderful sweet taste. The variety is planted on loose, drainage, non-acidic soils. Peat, humus, leafy humus are used for fertilizer.
Kens Red ripens in the last decade of September. Until this time, it needs to be watered, but not waterlogged. Fruits are characterized by keeping quality. Well transported. Therefore, the variety can be seen on industrial plantings.
The fruits of actinidia arguta Kokuva resemble small kiwis. But they can be eaten directly with a juicy soft peel. They do not spoil for a long time. They have a sweet taste with a spicy sour note. You can feel the lemon aftertaste. Positioned as self-fertile. But in order to get a good crop, it is necessary to plant a pollinator nearby.
For the variety, good soil drainage must be performed. He does not tolerate stagnation or souring.
For this variety, careful pruning is a must. The bush is formed so that the crown is not thickened. A variety needs air. As soon as all the fruits are picked and the leaves fall, the gardener should begin pruning. In central Russia, the procedure is carried out in October. Secateurs remove old branches, shoots with damage, healthy branches are significantly shortened.
Kokuva variety needs additional shelter before winter. Its frost resistance is only -22 degrees.
Additional Information. Kiwis are the fruits of the world famous actinidia, which grows in hot countries. The name of the species is the Chinese actinidia.
This variety can be distinguished by the color of the fruit. They have a purple color. Used with peel. The peel is thin, moderately acidic. The color of the pulp and peel is the same. The pulp is brighter, purple-scarlet. It has excellent taste characteristics. The berries are large, sweet. Grow up to 4 centimeters in length.
Note. The first crop ripens 3-4 years after planting.
Planting pit for culture should be 60 cm deep and 60 cm wide. At the bottom are placed stones, expanded clay. Soil mix for drainage. You need to cook it from peat, garden soil with sand, humus, fertilizers. After the earth is poured into the soil in the form of a knoll. Actinidia roots are placed on it. Everything is sprinkled with earth, well shed and mulched by hay.
The fruits are stolen in early October. Before winter, the plant is removed from its support and covered with peat, hay or a film.
Reproduction is allowed by layering, cuttings, seeds. Shrub formation is common.
The variety is self-fertile, high-yielding. Often grown on an industrial scale. The fruits are juicy, resembling very small elongated green apples. In the context, they can be mistaken for pitted kiwi.
Important. You can not plant in a place where the winds blow, little light and cold. Does not tolerate acidification of the soil. She must have a drainage. Landing often takes place on a hill to prevent the accumulation of groundwater.
A distinctive feature of the variety is that there are no seeds in the berries of Viti kiwi. Therefore, the variety propagates only by layering, cuttings. Cuttings planted in a greenhouse must be covered for the winter so that they do not freeze.
Particular attention to crop care should be given to timely watering.
You can plant on the site, both the male variety of Veiki, and the female. The berries have a sweet taste with sourness. The color is light green. In places where sunlight falls, reddish spots form on the fruits. The wake is ideal for decorating the site. In addition, the variety is abundant. From the bush, up to 10 kg of selected berries are collected. Landing takes place according to traditional technology. The bush is growing rapidly. Every autumn, careful pruning and pinching of twigs is necessary.
Reproduction by seeds and vegetatively is allowed. Variety seeds can be stored in the refrigerator for quite some time. Before boarding, they are cleaned in the cellar, where they are stratified. They should be removed to the cellar in December. At an air temperature of about + 3 ... + 5 degrees Celsius, the seeds will lie for 80-90 days. In March, they are placed in a container with loose, light soil and put away in heat. For example, they leave in a living room, where about +25 degrees Celsius. Do not place a container with earth in the sun. In mid-May, the container is transferred to fresh air. Better put them in a shaded place. Shoots by July-August should be strengthened. At this time, they can be planted in the greenhouse. For the winter they cover with foliage, hay.
Important! Propagation by seeds has several significant drawbacks.Firstly, the method is too long, requiring painstaking work with seed material. Secondly, the fruit of Argut, grown from seed, only 6-7 years after planting. Thirdly, plants emerging from seeds may not have the characteristics of a mother plant. Often they change sex. You can only find out which bush has grown after the first flowering.
The variety is named for its vibrant pineapple flavor. The description of berries contains information about a rich taste resembling a sweet gooseberry and kiwi. The fruits are two-tone. From the side where the sun does not fall - light green. On the sunny side - red-pinkish.
The soil in the garden where actinidia will grow, is selected neutral, loose, with enough peat, sand. Drainage, which fall asleep at the bottom of the landing pit, should not consist of crushed stone. This product contains lime, and it affects the acidity of the soil, significantly reducing it.
It is worth paying attention to the formation of the crown of the vine. The pineapple bush needs to be pruned more carefully than many others. If you allow the thickening of the crown, you can lose the crop. Pruning is recommended in late fall. Pineapple liana can be very stretched, so it must be planted in a distance from other varieties. It is better if she will have neighbors who are at a distance of 2 meters.
Pros and cons of the variety
Advantages of species:
- Frost resistance. Almost all of these varieties are frost-resistant. Argut Geneva endures without additional winter shelter when the temperature drops to -30 ... -35 degrees. Similar characteristics have Jumbo, Pineapple, Wiki,
- High yield gives veiki, viti kiwi. 10 kg of berries are removed from the bush. The usual varieties give 5-7 kg,
- Excellent taste of fruits. Varieties of Argut differ in a rich sweet taste with a pleasant acidity. The sweetest variety is considered to be Geneva. According to reviews, its fruits have a honey taste, melt in the mouth. Berries of the varieties Kokuva and Purple Garden have very pleasant taste characteristics. They can be consumed directly with soft skin,
- Very beautiful view of the bush. Varieties Kolomikty Ostroy are distinguished by a powerful crown, a strong stalk. Leaves change color, and berries can be seen in a variety of shades. For example, in Purple Garden, they are burgundy pink, and in Pineapple they are light green-red,
- Keeping and transportability. Varieties Kens Red, Jumbo at a temperature of 0 ... + 3 degrees can be stored for several months,
- Berries do not fall. Unlike the varieties of actinidia Colomicta, the varieties of Argut can boast a long stay on the branches even after ripening.
The disadvantages of the varieties of the species:
- Extra required shelter before winter. Kokuva variety needs it. Its frost resistance is only -22 degrees,
- Is required timely watering. In this case, waterlogging of the soil should not be allowed. This is especially true for the varieties Issei, Viti kiwi,
- All varieties require special arrangement of a landing pit. In its lower part there should be a drainage. It is made from stones. Do not use materials containing lime, such as building rubble,
- Before landing you need prepare the ground. Varieties of Argut will not grow in acidic or alkaline soils. They need fertile neutral lands.
Actinidia Argut is a decorative and useful inhabitant of the garden. It is distinguished by a massive crown, which can entwine any barrier decorating buildings. If you know the main points in growing, propagating, then an experienced gardener or a beginner can plant any of the varieties.
Description of acute actinidia
Actinidia plant belongs to the genus of woody vines. This is a dioecious plant that grows rapidly. The leaves of actinidia have a uniform green color, but spotted representatives of this genus are also found. The fruits of the plant resemble the kiwi fruit, but they are slightly smaller in volume and more like grapes. Despite the similarities with kiwi, the fruits of actinidia do not need to be peeled during eating.
Acute actinidia is grown in Japan, Korea, China, and southern Finland. The plant begins to bear fruit in three years. On average, adult actinidia brings about 35 kilograms of crop. Often on sale are the fruits of the self-pollinated acute actinidia "Issai". The plant does not like cold, therefore it grows in warm regions. In a severe microclimate, the plant does not survive.
Actinidia stems grow up to ten meters long. During flowering, they are densely covered with white flowers.
The fruits of acute actinidia are enriched with minerals, vitamins and trace elements. The ripened fruit contains organic matter, fiber, keratin and water. Due to such a useful and rich composition, the fruits of actinidia are especially beneficial for health. They also contain vitamin C, the amount of which is gradually increasing as the berries ripen.
Eat fresh fruits, process, dry, freeze and even preserve. Jam, stewed fruit, jelly, marmalade and much more are made from actinidia.
In addition, the plant is used for medicinal purposes. Acute actinidia helps to cure diseases of the digestive system, anemia, whooping cough, rheumatism, lung diseases, fills the body with vitamins.
Despite all the healing properties of actinidia, the use of a large number of decoctions and tinctures can lead to disturbances in the functioning of the stomach. Also, people with thrombophlebitis and varicose veins, it is forbidden to be treated with infusions of actinidia.
The description of the variety of acute pineapple actinidia should start with its varieties:
- Argument actinidia pineapple. Pretty tall plant with white large flowers and dark green leaves. This species not only beautifully blooms, but also differs in generous fruiting. The plant is frost-resistant, can withstand up to 25 degrees of frost. The fruits do not crumble, because they have a strong ovary. Transportability of fruits is high, and this is one of the main advantages.
- Colomict actinidia pineapple. A tall bush, can grow up to eight meters, the leaves are oval, slightly narrowed. The fruits of acute pineapple actinidia are tasty and quite sweet. The main advantages of this variety are rapid growth and frost resistance. Unlike the actinidia argument, colomict fruits often show off and quickly deteriorate.
Colomict pineapple actinidia is able to change the color of leaves, thanks to such abilities it is often used as an ornamental plant.
Autopsy Actinidia Issai
The acute actinidia of Issai blooms in large white and fragrant inflorescences. Fruits of green color, sweet, pleasant to taste, contain many vitamins. The frost plant is not afraid. The stems of actinidia grow up to eight meters, and to support them, it is necessary to establish a support. Do not plant a plant near tall trees. Digging the soil is not necessary, it is better to loosen it a little.
In order for the liana to grow rapidly, the soil must be moist and must have drainage. Actaiidia Issai has the ability to self-pollinate, and can also pollinate other varieties: acute actinidia Veiki and Pineapple.
Liana seedlings are resistant to diseases and pests, have increased viability.
Landing and requirements
Planting actinidia is the first step in growing a plant. It requires certain knowledge and skills. Since the plant is quite large, planting an acute actinidia vine, it is necessary to adhere to a certain distance between the bushes and carefully consider the neighborhood with other plants. Before planting actinidia, prepare seedlings, process them and remove weak roots. Also, preparatory work must be carried out with soil. The earth must be mixed with peat and humus, adding mineral fertilizers. It is worth digging holes for planting in advance, pouring drainage and the resulting mixture into them. At the end of the preparatory work, when the earth settles in the pits, actinidia should be planted:
- hold the roots in a clay solution before planting,
- we put ordinary soil into the pit and put seedlings,
- we fall asleep the rest of the soil and lightly tamp the soil,
- Further, water each seedling abundantly.
Planted seedlings must be mulched and covered until they take root.
When cultivating acute actinidia, it is important to follow all the rules of care. In order for the plant to grow well, it must be regularly and moderately watered, harvested weeds, fed, and pruned. Since lianas are moisture-loving plants, the soil needs to be moistened twice a day, especially in the hot season. If this is not done, all the foliage will fall, and the new leaves simply will not have time to bloom. Growing actinidia, it is also necessary:
- constantly fertilize (fertilizing with mineral fertilizers stimulates the growth of new branches and increases productivity),
- trim actinidia (due to the strong and rapid growth, yield decreases),
- loosen the soil (the earth around the seedlings must be constantly loose), weeds must also be removed.
Following all the rules, you can grow a full-fledged, prolific plant.
Propagation by layering
Reproduction by arc layering is a simple method, you just have to wait until new leaflets begin to bloom. To get a new plant, you must do the following:
- carefully examine the actinidia and choose the highest shoots,
- we tilt the shoots to the ground and fasten with special chips,
- the fixed top is covered with soil, watered and sprinkled with sawdust,
- the resulting hump is regularly watered and weeded,
- after the appearance of the first sprouts, watering and weeding must be continued,
- when a new plant is fully formed, we separate it and transplant it to another place.
To grow actinidia from seeds, first you need to get them. Seeds are taken from ripened fruits, thoroughly washed and dried. Before planting the seeds, they must be placed in water and wait until they swell. Then put them in a stocking and place in wet sand. When the first sprouts appear, we plant them in a container with earth.
Cuttings are the fastest way to propagate acute actinidia. Young branches need to be cut and placed in water. Cut the resulting cuttings in half and remove the lower leaves. Next, the cuttings must be planted in a greenhouse, using mixed soil with fertilizers and sand.
Before the onset of frost, it is better to cover the cuttings with leaves until spring and then plant them in open ground.
The process of growing actinidia acute is not complicated, but has certain requirements and features.
Our proposed description of the variety of acute actinidia will help not to get confused when choosing seedlings that are available today and are not prohibitively expensive.
Subject to all the recommendations, tips, fruit actinidia will delight you with delicious and healing berries, and decorative varieties - lush, green and variegated foliage.