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Phylloxera-resistant rootstocks - Vitis riparia grapes


Grapes coastal (Vitis riparia) - a powerful high-climbing vine. The antennae are intermittent. Large leaves are broad-ovate (8-18 cm), usually three-lobed.

This grape stands out for its bright green color of shiny leaves and very fragrant flowers.

Thanks to the aroma of flowers, the Germans call it "grape-rezeda". Soft flowers are collected in inflorescences 8-18 cm long.

Small spherical berries are purple-black, with a thick bluish waxy coating, with colored juice, have a grassy taste.

Grows along the rivers of North America from Nova Scotia to Manitoba, Kansas, Colorado and Texas.

A distinctive feature of coastal grapes is significant frost and heat resistance.

It tolerates a decrease in temperature to -30 ° C and an increase in temperature to +40 ° C.

In addition, the grape is resistant to phylloxera, grows well together when vaccinated, easily cuttings. If you use it as a stock, you must remember that grapes on it earlier and more abundantly bear fruit when grown on good nutrient soil.

In hybridization and selection in order to obtain new grape varieties, this species is indispensable for promoting viticulture to the north and east. I.V. Michurin, by pollinating grapes along the coastal pollen with Amur grapes, obtained an excellent frost-resistant variety Buyur.

From the coastal grapes come the varieties Northern White, Northern Black, Taiga Emerald (Minnesota Seedling), etc. This species has been introduced into the culture since 1656.

In the CIS, in the conditions of Leningrad, Moscow, the Baltic states, it freezes but is well restored, in Belarus and Ukraine, in the Caucasus and Central Asia it is winter-hardy, bears fruit, in the Primorsky Territory it freezes slightly, but bears fruit.

It is necessary to test in the north and east of the European part of the CIS and in several regions of Siberia and the Far East.

Material Content

Vitis riparia (V. riparia Michaux)

Wild riparia is widespread in North America, where it is found in shady forests and river valleys from Canada to North Texas and Colorado.
The phyloxero-resistant species, despite the presence of nodosites on thin roots, and sometimes tuberosites on the surface of thick roots. Greater frost resistance of V. riparia was used by I. V Michurin, who received the Severny White variety from sowing seeds of this species.

Some of V. riparia’s variations are very productive, mature, but have small clusters of small black berries. Oberlin, crossing this species with the French variety Gamay, received an early variety - direct producer No. 595.
V. riparia develops numerous, but thin yellow roots, not reaching great depths. The most suitable soils for this type of soil are rich, loose and fresh.
The ripened shoots of V. riparia root very easily. In the first years of life, the aboveground parts of the bushes develop faster than the underground.
An unvaccinated bush grows strongly, forming long shoots and a large number of leaves. However, when vaccinated, its stem thickens more slowly than the stem of the scion, as a result of which there is a difference in the diameters of the stems under the vaccine and above it. B. riparia is poorly tolerated in lime soil.
Variations of the species V. riparia, depending on the pubescence of the shoots, are divided into four groups: with bare, pubescent, bristly along the entire length and semi-bristly (bristly hairs only at the nodes) shoots. (
As a result of crossing this species with other species, many hybrids were obtained, used as stocks or direct producers.
In the practice of viticulture, variations have found application Riparia gloire de montpellier and Riparia Grand glabre.
The first of them is a plant with a male flower, the second gives fruit. Only Riparia Gluard de Montpellier was brought into our country.

Culture characteristic

Coastal grapes - a powerful vine up to 25 m long with a stalk equipped with intermittent antennae. The leaves are bright green, shiny, broad-ovate, three-lobed, serrated along the edge, up to 18 cm long. The flowers are faded, small, collected in large inflorescences reaching 10-20 cm in length. The fruits are spherical, fragrant, purple-black, with a bluish bloom , with a diameter of up to 1 cm, have a grassy taste, are not used in food.

Coastal grapes bloom in June - July for two weeks, the fruits ripen in September. It is characterized by frost and drought resistance. Carries frosts up to - 30C. Undemanding to soil conditions. Ideal for vertical landscaping. It has a shape with edible fruits and several hybrid forms. Thanks to the crossing of coastal grapes with Amur grapes, a frost-resistant variety of Buytur was obtained. The following varieties were also obtained from the variety of grapes under consideration: Taiga emerald, Northern black, Northern white, etc.

Coastal grapes boasts resistance to phylloxera, is easily cut and grafted. Seed germination is low, usually up to 10%. Seeds need preliminary stratification, which lasts about 4-5 months. After stratification, the seeds need warming up for 5-7 days for 3-4 hours a day at a temperature of 28-30C.

In many ways, the health of coastal grapes depends on the correct planting. The optimal distance between plants is 1.5-2 m, between varieties with edible fruits - 2.5 m. When growing vigorous varieties for vertical gardening of arbors and other small architectural buildings, a distance of 2.5-3 m is observed. You can grow a culture in several tiers, in this case the distance should be about 0.7-1 m.

Planting of grape seedlings is carried out in pre-prepared pits, the width of which varies from 40 to 50 cm, and the depth is 10-20 cm more than the root system. At the bottom of the pit, a mound is formed from a mixture composed of earth mixed with compost or humus. A heel of seedling is set on top of the arranged hillock, the remaining roots are evenly distributed. The voids of the pit are filled with the remaining soil mixture and trampled, then watered, they sprinkle loose soil, establish a peg and form a low mound

The most common and dangerous disease of coastal grapes, as well as other species, is mildew. It affects shoots, leaves, buds, flowers and fruits. Foliage affected by mildew is bent, and oily spots with a diameter of about 2-3 cm are formed on its surface. Subsequently, the foliage is covered with a spider web coating of gray color, which later becomes brown. As a result of untimely processing, the leaves dry out and fall off. A similar situation occurs with other parts of the plant. As a rule, mildew culture is affected in May-June due to high humidity and high temperatures.

Oidium is also a danger to grapes. It affects leaves, buds and other aerial parts of the plant. It is easy to detect it - first a white coating appears on the plant, then black dots, and then spots. Leaves and flowers affected by oidium turn brown and fall off. With severe damage, an unpleasant specific odor appears. The disease is the result of hot and dry weather, or sudden changes in temperature.

Anthracnose harms the culture no less than the two previous diseases. It also affects the aerial parts of plants. Through holes form on the leaves, and spots on the berries with a dark purple border. Shoots as a result of the action of the disease are deformed, deep wounds appear on them. With untimely processing, grapes die.

Coastal / fragrant grapes (Vitis riparia).

Coastal / fragrant grapes (Vitis riparia).

Coastal / fragrant grapes (Vitis riparia).

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Coastal / fragrant grapes (Vitis riparia). It differs from other species in powerful growth (rises to a height of 25 m), broad-egg-shaped, mainly 3-lobed, bright green leaves, coarse to the edge. It has a form with edible, early ripening fruits (f. Rgaesokh). One of the best decorative grapes with beautiful bright green leaves, fragrant flowers, the halls of which resemble the smell of Reseda, for which he received his second name. Several hybrid varieties are available. In culture since 1656.

Flowers: in large inflorescences up to 18 cm long.

Fruit: purplish-black, with a thick bluish bloom, inedible, up to 0.8 cm in diameter.

The soil: low soil requirements, drought tolerant.

Frost resistance: withstands frosts down to -30 ° С.

Use in landscape design: for vertical gardening.