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Actinidia callosum (Actinidia callosa)

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Actinidium -? Actinidium actinidia delicious ... Wikipedia

Actinidia -? Actinidia ... Wikipedia

Flowering plants - angiosperms (Magnoliophyta, or Angiospermae), a department of higher plants with a flower. It includes over 400 families, more than 12,000 genera and, probably, at least 235,000 species. By the number of species C. significantly surpass all the rest ... ... Great Soviet Encyclopedia

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Kronquist system - (Eng. Cronquist system) taxonomic classification system for flowering plants, developed by the American botanist Arthur Kronkvist (1919 1992) in his two scientific works “Unified classification system for flowering plants” ... ... Wikipedia

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Types of "Actinidia"

The soil
  • Loose, nutritious, medium loamy, neutral or slightly acidic, well-drained
The size
  • from 500 to 1500 cm
Flowering time
  • January to December
Possible colors
    Illumination
    • Medium // Acceptable direct rays for several hours, eastern, western orientation
    Watering
    • Medium // Heavy watering 2-3 times a week
    Difficulty of care
    • Medium // Generally unpretentious, may present specific requirements for this type of
    Air humidity
    • Medium // Moderate humidity (at least 35%, normal street humidity in the shade)
    Fertilizer frequency
    • Medium // Fertilizer only during the period of active growth (minimum during the rest period)

    Content

    • 1. Description
    • 2. Growing
    • 3. Diseases and pests
    • 4. Reproduction
    • 5. First steps after purchase
    • 6. Secrets of success
    • 7. Possible difficulties

    Actinidia is a genus of Actinidia vines (Actinidiaceae). These deciduous woody lianas can be found on forested mountain slopes. There, wrapping themselves around trunks, they can grow up to 25 m in length. Four of the nearly 40 species of Actinidia grow in our country. In the natural environment they can be seen only in the Far East, but in the culture of Actinidia is grown throughout the middle zone of Russia.

    This amazing plant was first described in the 19th century, and already at the beginning of the last century it appeared in the botanical collections, gardens and parks of many European cities. Since then, interest in liana has only increased. New varieties and hybrids appear, Actinidia is becoming increasingly popular in landscape design and even home growing.

    Actinidia is also familiar to lovers of exotic fruits. Fragrant juicy kiwi is nothing more than the fruit of Actinidia delicious. The fruits of many other species are also edible, although not as well known.

    Actinidia is a perennial plant that can bear fruit for more than 50 years. For successful growth, the vine needs support. It can be a tree, a gazebo, a pergola, a wall of a building. During the growing season, young shoots of lianas are able to grow by 1.5–2 m. In the fall, they become woody, thereby preparing for winter.

    Actinidia leaves are simple, whole. They are oval or ovoid, saturated green. In some species, foliage acquires a motley color before flowering. The edge of the leaf blade is serrated or serrated, the surface is smooth, shiny, in some species almost leathery.

    Flowering lasts a short period and falls on June-July. The flowers are mostly white, sometimes yellowish. Actinidia (some of its species) is a dioecious plant. This means that for fruiting it is necessary to plant at least two specimens - one with male flowers and the other with female flowers.

    The fruits ripen in early to mid-September. They can be large, covered with stiff hairs, like the previously mentioned kiwi, or, in most cases, smooth, greenish or yellow-green, small, from 2-5 gr. In many species, the fruits are edible. They are distinguished by a characteristic sweet or sweet and sour taste and a pleasant aroma. Surprisingly, the fruits of species such as Actinidia argument, giralda, colomicta, purple can change the flavor from year to year.

    Seeds - small, up to 100 pieces in one berry, brown.

    Growing

    The most economical and effective way to obtain a new instance of Actinidia is seed propagation. This method guarantees the appearance of healthy, well-developing fruiting plants. Before planting, the seeds are stratified. Initially, they are kept in water at room temperature for 5–7 days for swelling. Then the swollen seeds are planted in wet sand and kept at a temperature of + 15–21ºС for two months. Then the container with the seeds is moved to a cool room with an air temperature of 3-5 ° C, where they hold for another two months. After this, stratification can be considered complete. Seeds are transferred to a warm room, where they germinate after 15-20 days. The germination of Actinidia seeds is maintained for 6 months and amounts to 40-60%.

    When two or three normal leaves appear, seedlings dive into separate, deeper pots. In the spring, after the disappearance of the threat of frost, the seedlings are transplanted into the open ground, where they grow for the next two years.

    Cuttings are carried out from mid-June to August. Young shoots up to 80 cm long, formed on the growth of last year, are cut into cuttings. The bottom cut should be 5 mm. below the kidney, the top is 3 mm. higher. The length of the cuttings should be 10-15 cm., Lower leaves must be removed.

    Before planting, the lower sections of the cuttings are soaked in Kornevin, and then washed in running water. Cuttings are planted at an angle, tightly to each other at a distance of about 3-4 cm. For planting, a cold greenhouse is preliminarily prepared: they carefully dig the ground and sprinkle the landing site with sand with a layer of about 10 cm

    Cuttings planted in mid-summer by the fall acquire a developed root system. Subject to all the rules, the percentage of rooted cuttings approaches 100%.

    Actinidia can also be propagated by dividing the bush. This is usually done when transplanting a plant. The rhizome is carefully shaken off the ground and cut with secateurs so that each split has developed roots and 1–2 young healthy shoots. In the process of rooting, it is important to ensure proper abundant watering. It is watered from a watering can with very small holes so that the water does not flow in streams, but falls on the ground with tiny splashes.

    Reproduction by layering is carried out in the early to mid-summer according to the usual scheme. When the cuttings give sprouts 10-12 cm high, they are dug halfway up with the ground. This is done twice - this allows the root system to develop. Rooted cuttings are separated from the mother plant in the fall of next year and planted in a permanent place.

    First steps after purchase

    Before buying Actinidia seedling, you must carefully inspect. To do this, pinch off a small fragment of the cortex: the tissue under it should be greenish, moist. If the fabric is dry and brownish, the seedling is dead. Only live seedlings with a well-developed root system take root. The roots should be moist, not wrinkled.

    After the purchase, the seedling must be moistened with water and wrapped in cellophane. If there is no opportunity for immediate planting, the seedling is laid on the ground in a southerly direction and sprinkled on half with soil. In this form, seedlings can last up to three weeks.

    For planting, dig a hole of such a size that the roots of the plant fit freely in it. If the roots are slightly dried, you need to soak them in water for 1-2 days. It should be borne in mind that the root system of Actinidia is very sensitive, and overdrying can lead to the death of the plant.

    In the first year after planting, Actinidia needs shading from direct sunlight and regular watering. In addition, it is necessary to take care that the plant does not freeze in winter. For this purpose, young Actinidia cover with a layer of sawdust, leaves, artificial covering materials. The fruits of vines appear around the fourth year.

    Secrets of Success

    Caring for a liana is not difficult. Timely pruning, watering and spraying of young plants in dry periods is important.

    Pruning is carried out in the fall after the leaves fall. In the spring, pruning can cause the plant to dry out due to abundant “crying” during sap flow. When cutting, old, dried or frozen shoots are removed, once in seven years you can carry out a radical anti-aging pruning.

    Young plants need regular watering from a watering can with a small spray. In a drought they are sprayed in the morning and in the evening. Adult vines are more resistant and do not need such measures.

    Actinidia should be placed in partial shade - so that direct sunlight falls on the foliage for several hours a day. Young vines can suffer from direct sunlight, they must be shaded. Adult plants are more stable, they even need sunlight. However, in the shadow of Actinidia will also grow successfully, however, it will develop a little slower. You need to know that the fruits ripen faster on vines located in partial shade or shadow.

    For Actinidia, proximity to other plants is important. It is noted that the liana develops well next to the currant bushes, but near the apple trees it grows very poorly.

    The plant responds well to fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers, it develops well in potassium rich soils.

    Possible difficulties

    If brownish or yellowish spots appear on the leaves of Actinidia, the disease is most likely caused by pathogenic fungi. Damaged leaves are removed and burned, and the plant is sprayed with Bordeaux liquid (1%) or Kuprozan (0.4%). The first treatment is carried out after the kidneys appear from under the bark, and the second - after 10-12 days. Damaged by rot or mold, the fruits are torn off and destroyed.

    Young plants are a real temptation for cats. They gnaw the trunk and regale for juice, which leads to the death of the vines. As a prophylaxis, it is recommended to enclose young Actinidia with a wire mesh.

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    Lat Actinidia

    Family Actinidia (Actinidiaceae)

    Relict plants preserved in East Asia since the Tertiary period, when there was a subtropical climate in our Far East. Subsequently, due to the glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere, climatic conditions became more severe. Although glaciation did not affect some areas of the Far East, it negatively affected the climate as a whole. As a result of the cooling, a large number of the tertiary flora of the Far East disappeared, and only a few, including actinidia, adapted to the changing conditions and survived to this day. The genus has about 30 species, distributed mostly in Central and East Asia, as well as on the island of Java. Dioecious or monoecious creepers with large simple, finely sawed, less often whole, alternate leaves, fragrant, mostly white flowers, edible or decorative berry-like fruits. Easily propagated by seeds and vegetatively (summer and winter cuttings, inoculation, root offspring and aerial layering). Before the autumn sowing, the seeds are mixed with sand and sown in boxes or hotbeds that cover for the winter; during spring sowing, two-month stratification is necessary. Most actinidia are valuable fruit plants with tasty, delicate, aromatic fruits. Almost all species are used in decorative gardening for vertical gardening. The best development is achieved on well-drained rich soils, with a neutral or close to her reaction of the environment, do not tolerate stagnation of groundwater.

    Actinidia acute (Actinidia arguta)

    It grows in coniferous and mixed forests, on forest glades in the south of the Ussuri Territory, Japan, Korea, and China.
    The largest representative of the genus. In favorable conditions, reaches a height of up to 30 m, with a trunk diameter at the root neck of 10-20 cm. The trunks look like powerful ropes that encircle the nearest trees. Climbing trunks and branches to the very top, it develops a dense crown in the open, and, spreading from tree to tree, gives the stands an exotic look. The trunks are covered with a light brown bark with a bluish bloom, which on old shoots peels off longitudinal stripes. Decorative, round-ovate leaves up to 15 cm long, very dense, glabrous, dark green above, glossy, with a wedge-shaped base and a peaked point, are painted in yellow and light yellow in autumn. Male flowers are smaller, in loose semi-umbrellas, female flowers are single or three each (up to 2 cm in diameter), greenish-white, almost odorless. The duration of flowering is 7-10 days. Fruits of various shapes - multi-seeded berries (3x2 cm), dark green, fleshy, one-color or tan on one side, soft in the mature state, with a pineapple smell, edible, sweet in taste, serve as an additional decoration at the time of fruiting.

    Frost-resistant, negatively related to dry soil and air. It grows poorly in full light, suffering from burns. Growing fast. Under favorable conditions, lives up to 100 years or more. In culture, it can be used as a fruit and ornamental plant for vertical gardening. Deserves wider distribution in the middle zone of Russia, the Southern Urals and Altai. In culture since 1874.

    Actinidia callosum (Actinidia callosa)

    A large vine up to 7 m tall with many stems extending almost from the root neck. Flower branches bare, with very noticeable lentils.

    The biennial branches are grayish. Petiole reddish, 2-8 cm long, glabrous. The leaf blade at the central vein is pale green, dark green, ovate, broad ovate, obovate or elliptical, 5-12 cm long and 3.5-8.5 cm wide with a wedge-shaped, rounded or heart-shaped base, serrate on the edge, wavy, serrated and serrated or almost solid, apex sharp, pointed, blunt or rounded. Inflorescences are shields, 1-3-flower, White flowers. 5 sepals; they are oblong-ovate. 5 petals, they are obovate. Fruits are grayish-green, round or ovoid, 1.5-5 cm, glabrous, with brownish lentils, round, conspicuous.

    Actinidia chinese / gourmet (Actinidia chinensis / deliciosa)

    Homeland - China. Reaches 8 m of height. The bark is reddish brown. Shoots with reddish thick-pubescent pubescence. The leaves are large, up to 12 cm across, rounded, have a notched apex with a heart-shaped base. They are leathery to the touch, dark green on top, whitish-white with reddish bristly hairs along the veins, sitting on red-pubescent petioles 8 cm long. The flowers are creamy white, collected several by one, when they bloom, they turn yellowish. Flowering in June. Fruits are ovoid or almost round, 5 cm long, densely covered with hairs. Edible berries, have a pleasant aroma and sweet and sour taste, contain a lot of vitamin C.In a culture since 1900. It can grow on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus.

    Actinidia colomicta (Actinidia kolomikta)

    The most famous species in the culture. It is found in the Far East in mixed and coniferous forests along mountain slopes to an altitude of 1000-1800 m above sea level. Fruit and ornamental dioecious lianoid shrub with thin, smooth, curly or erect branches, climbing to a height of up to 7 m. Shoots are weak-toothed, shiny, dark brown. With rather large wrinkled oblong-ovate leaves, with a changing color: at the beginning of growth they are bronze, then green with a transition to dark green, before flowering (mainly in open places) the ends of most leaves become bright white, and after flowering - pink then raspberry red. In combination with light brown, shiny young shoots, adult plants of this actinidia are very decorative even in a vegetative state. An unusual aroma flows near the plantings of this species at the time of flowering, when white, single flowers on long drooping stalks up to 1.5 cm in diameter are seen against the background of foliage. Flowering duration up to 20 days. Fruits are cylindrical up to 1.8 cm long, dark green, with dark, longitudinal stripes, edible, aromatic, of a delicate taste. In the autumn, leaves turn pink, yellow, light yellow or purple-red. The species is more shade tolerant than acute actinidia, but grows somewhat more slowly. It is difficult to tolerate dry air and soil. The most winter-hardy representative of the genus in the European part of Russia. In culture since 1855.

    With seed propagation, stratification is used stepwise. Two months the seeds are kept at a temperature of 18-20 ° C, two months at 3-8 ° C and a month at 13-15 ° C. Seedlings begin fruiting for 4-5 years. It reproduces well vegetatively (such plants enter the fruiting season a year earlier). Under favorable conditions, lives 80-100 years. It is used as the previous view for vertical gardening. Needs vertical supports.

    Actinidia Giraldii (Actinidia giraldii)

    Shrub liana, rising to a height of 25 m. The leaves are large, dense, ovoid, with a weakly heart-shaped or blunt base and a pointed apex. Fruits are dark green or brownish-green, ellipsoid, 4 cm long and 2.3 cm thick.

    Actinidia colomicta (Actinidia kolomikta)

    The most famous species in the culture. It is found in the Far East in mixed and coniferous forests along mountain slopes to an altitude of 1000-1800 m above sea level. Fruit and ornamental dioecious lianoid shrub with thin, smooth, curly or erect branches, climbing to a height of up to 7 m. Shoots are weak-toothed, shiny, dark brown. With rather large wrinkled oblong-ovate leaves, with a changing color: at the beginning of growth they are bronze, then green with a transition to dark green, before flowering (mainly in open places) the ends of most leaves become bright white, and after flowering - pink then raspberry red. In combination with light brown, shiny young shoots, adult plants of this actinidia are very decorative even in a vegetative state. An unusual aroma flows near the plantings of this species at the time of flowering, when white, single flowers on long drooping stalks up to 1.5 cm in diameter are seen against the background of foliage. Flowering duration up to 20 days. Fruits are cylindrical up to 1.8 cm long, dark green, with dark, longitudinal stripes, edible, aromatic, of a delicate taste. In the autumn, leaves turn pink, yellow, light yellow or purple-red. The species is more shade tolerant than acute actinidia, but grows somewhat more slowly. It is difficult to tolerate dry air and soil. The most winter-hardy representative of the genus in the European part of Russia. In culture since 1855.

    With seed propagation, stratification is used stepwise. Two months the seeds are kept at a temperature of 18-20 ° C, two months at 3-8 ° C and a month at 13-15 ° C. Seedlings begin fruiting for 4-5 years. It reproduces well vegetatively (such plants enter the fruiting season a year earlier). Under favorable conditions, lives 80-100 years. It is used as the previous view for vertical gardening. Needs vertical supports.

    Actinidia Giraldii (Actinidia giraldii)

    It grows in nature in the south of Primorsky Krai, in China and Korea.

    The species is close to acute actinidia, from which it differs by thinner leaves covered with sparse, bristly hairs. Shrub liana, rising to a height of 25 m. The leaves are thin, 18 x 10 cm, ovate, with a wedge-shaped, rounded or slightly heart-shaped base and an elongated peak, sharp-toothed along the edge, bottom with hairs in the corners of the veins. The flowers are white up to 2 cm in diameter, collected in corymbose inflorescences of 3-7 or single. The calyx falls off after flowering. In the flowering state, it can be recognized by a very elongated ovary, but best of all they differ at the time of fruiting. Fruits are dark or brownish-green, ellipsoid (4 x 2.3 cm), with larger seeds, crumble before the leaves fall. This is the largest-fruited actinidia of our flora, however, its fruits are less fragrant and with a rougher skin than acute actinidia. Prefers rich, sufficiently moist and drained soils. Propagated by seeds and cuttings. It grows quickly and, given its decorative qualities, is of interest for vertical gardening.

    Actinidia polygamous (Actinidia polygama)

    It grows in the southernmost tip of Primorye, on Sakhalin, in Japan, Korea, and Northeast China.
    It differs in a number of signs from the previously given species. Outwardly, it looks more like actinidia of colomict, but only smaller than it (up to 5 m), weaves and branches less, but its leaves also change color during the growing season. The flowers are white, single, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, fragrant, large. In terms of seasonal development, it is closer to acute actinidia. The fruits are more similar in shape to the fruits of actinidia colomicta, differing from them with a pointed and slightly bent tip and a light orange color, inedible, since the flesh has a specific pungent taste, for which the locals call them “pepper”. Only after freezing does the burning taste of the fruit disappear. Less hardy, but more decorative. Its bright fruits (up to 4 cm long), like lanterns on a background of dark greenery, make this species desirable in single plantings and in individual sections of amateurs.
    It grows relatively quickly, tolerates shading, blooms with white fragrant flowers. In culture since the 60s of the XIX century. It is used for vertical gardening of various objects.

    Actinidia purpurea

    The most heat-loving and least winter-hardy of cultivating in the middle band of actinidia. Deciduous, woody vine about 8-10 m long. Young growing shoots twist well, pink. Petioles 3-5 cm long. The leaves are oblong-elliptic, 8-10 cm long, green, smooth or pubescent along the main vein. Dioecious flowers, female - single and double, male 3 in inflorescence. Anthers are black. The fruits are quite large, they have a bright purple color, sweet taste, oval, 2.5 cm long, weighing 5.5 g, dark purple, sweet, with a weak marmalade aroma, ripen in the second half of September.

    Actinidia bristled (Actinidia strigosa)

    Climbing shrub up to 8 m tall. Stems and branches are reddish-brown, furrowed with prominent lentils. Branches densely ferruginous. Leaves 10-15 cm long and 5-8 cm wide, ovate or oblong-ovate, obtuse or rounded at the base, pointed at the apex, finely serrated with hairs, like serrated. Petioles 1-3.5 cm long, hairy. Flowers 2-4 in axillary curls, sometimes solitary. Peduncles up to 1 cm long, pubescent. Sepals about 0.6 cm long, elliptical or ovoid, acute at apex. Petals up to 1.5 cm long. The stamens are numerous. Berries 2-2.5 cm long, 1.5-2 cm in diameter, ovoid, mucous, edible.

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