Description:trematodes - diagenetic flukes, a class of type of flatworms, hermaphrodites. In animals, trematodoses are caused by trematodes (about 125 species) that are parasitic in various organs or organ systems. The incubation period lasts about 17 days.
Causes: eating infected snails or slugs.
Symptoms anxiety or apathy, weight loss and appetite, anemia, weakness, shakiness, dehydration, blood in the feces (sometimes), liquid feces with particles of undigested food, unpleasant smell of feces, with severe infection jaundice or hepatitis develops.
Diagnostics: analysis of feces under a microscope with 100x or 400x magnification. Trematode eggs are transparent yellow.
Treatment: without treatment, infected animals die. Prevention:
Droncite / praziquantel (0.1 ml / 500 g, two injections with an interval of 48 hours or orally 10-15 mg tablets).
Additionally, clamoxyl is administered.
Vitamin B is given as concomitant therapy, food should be easily digestible, and the hedgehog kept warm.
Prevention:compliance with personal hygiene.
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Abstract of a scientific article on veterinary sciences, author of a scientific paper is Vasilevich F.I., Davydova O.E., Pimenov N.V.
The results of helminthological and bacteriological studies of rodents (squirrels) and insectivores (hedgehogs) in an urbanized biotope are presented. The causes of outbreaks of helminthiases have been studied. The possibility of using information about helminth fauna and the intensity of invasion of small mammals by helminthiases as indicators of anthropogenic pollution is indicated. Possible measures are proposed for the control and prevention of helminthiases of small mammals living in the forest-park zone of Moscow.
The text of the scientific work on the theme "Helminth fauna and microbiocenosis of insectivores (Insectivora: Erinaceidae) and rodents (Rodentia: Sciuridae) living in conditions of anthropogenic pressure"
HELMINTOFAUNA AND MICROBIOCENOSIS OF ATTRACIDES (INSECTIVORA: ERINACEIDAE) AND RODENTS (RODENTIA: SCIURIDAE) INHABITED UNDER ANTHROPOGENIC PRESSING
HELMINTH FAUNA AND MICROBIOCENOSIS OF INSECTIVORES (INSECTIVORA: ERINACEIDAE) AND RODENTS (RODENTIA: SCIURIDAE) INHABITING IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC PRESSURE
Vasilevich F.I. *, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor, Doctor of Veterinary Sciences Vasilevich F.I., Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor,
Doctor of Veterinary Sciences Davydova OE, Candidate of Biological Sciences Davydova OE, Candidate of Biological Sciences Pimenov N.V., Professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Biological Sciences Pimenov NV, Professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Biological Sciences FSBEI of HE " Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology - MBA named after K.I.Skryabin ", Moscow, Russia Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education" Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology - MVA by KI Skryabin ",
The results of helminthological and bacteriological studies of rodents (squirrels) and insectivores (hedgehogs) in an urbanized biotope are presented. The causes of outbreaks of helminth infections have been studied. The possibility of using information about helminth fauna and the intensity of invasion of small mammals by helminthiases as indicators of anthropogenic pollution is indicated. Possible measures are proposed for the control and prevention of helminthiases of small mammals living in the forest-park zone of Moscow.
The results of helminthological and bacteriological studies of rodents (squirrels) and insectivores (hedgehogs) of the urban biotope are presented. Causes of helminthiases outbreaks were studied. The possibility of the use of information about helminth fauna and the invasion intensity of micromammals by helminths as indicators of anthropogenic pollution are pointed. The possible measures for fighting and prevention of the helminthiases of micromammals inhabiting in the urban forest area of Moscow are proposed.
Proteins, hedgehogs, parasitofauna, the intensity of invasion, helminthological studies, bacteriological studies, forest park zone, metropolis, anthropogenic pollution.
Squirrels, hedgehogs, parasite fauna, invasion intensity, helminthological studies, bacteriological studies, forest parks area, metropolis, anthropogenic pollution.
Today it is considered indisputable that in natural biocenoses parasitism is an environmental phenomenon, one of the forms of interspecific relationships. Parasites are an important mechanism involved in maintaining the qualitative and quantitative composition of ecosystems, and the spread of helminth infections and the intensity of helminth foci is one of the factors in regulating the number of the host species 2–4. The value of parasitological data for the development of biology in
generally reached such a level that they became an integral part of the knowledge of many biological disciplines. The factual data of parasitology are the subject of research both in the fundamental areas of biology and in the applied fields of medicine, veterinary medicine, agronomy, ecology with independent service tasks. Thus, the composition of the parasitic fauna, the dynamics and intensity of helminth infections is a necessary and mandatory component of environmental monitoring of terrestrial biocenoses, which is currently being widely carried out in any natural zones, not excluding the territory of megacities, especially in connection with increasing anthropogenic pressure.
In natural ecosystems, the manifestation of the pathogenicity of the parasite acts as a result of a decrease in the host's immunity and is associated with violations of a number of functions of its organism. The latent course of invasion becomes clinically pronounced when a high number of helminths is combined with adverse environmental conditions. Parasites, on the one hand, are a natural component of natural ecosystems, and on the other, a factor of biological pollution of the environment 7.8. In the event that the natural ecosystem is subjected to intense anthropogenic pressure, experiences powerful effects of adverse factors, the natural selection principle in populations is violated, aimed at preserving weakly virulent forms of parasites and increasing the resistance of the host organism. This, in particular, is true for urban ecosystems of megacities.
Thus, numerous studies have established that in modern conditions, against the background of anthropogenic impact on natural ecosystems, both the ecological status and the dynamic balance of their parasitic systems 7-11 are changing. In turn, rodents and insectivores are a necessary and natural faunistic component of almost any natural zones, not excluding urban complexes. Possessing wide trophic-chorological connections, high reproductive potential and metabolic rate, they primarily respond to any disturbances in natural ecosystems, including changes in the qualitative and quantitative composition of helminth fauna, and the emergence of clinically pronounced helminthiases. These animals play an important role in the circulation of many types of helminths, including those of epidemiological and epizootic significance 11,12. The relevance of this kind of work is also indicated by the fact that the study of helminthiases of micromammals makes it possible to assess the state of animal health, develop scientifically-based environmental measures and measures to combat invasive and infectious diseases of small mammals in urban biocenoses.
The aim of this work was to establish the species composition of hedgehogs and squirrels helminths in the forest park zone of Moscow, playing a key role in the emergence of clinically expressed helminthiases, to analyze the causes of the formation of foci of helminthiases in the studied territory, to assess the extent and intensity of invasion, to identify the possible role of bacterial agents in the occurrence of hedgehog and protein pathologies in natural biotopes and in enclosures, leading to spontaneous death, a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of anthelmintics s preparations based praziquantel and fenbendazole.
MATERIALS AND RESEARCH METHODS
The studies were conducted on the territory of the Kuzminsky forest park of the South-Eastern Municipal District of Moscow. Under conditions of enclosure, spontaneous death of proteins with manifestations of adynamia, cachexia, dehydration and spontaneous discharge from the anus of a large number of small segments of white helminths having an almost round shape was noted. In the vicinity of nearby habitats of the hedgehog population and their feeding, corpses of these animals were also sometimes found, upon examination of which cachexia and severe anemia of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity were noticeable.
The research material was the corpses of three squirrels (2 ordinary proteins (Sciurus vulgaris) and 1 Teleut protein (Sciurus exalbidus), a species introduced from the Far Eastern region) and four European or European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). The animals were subjected to incomplete helminthological autopsy (NPHV) according to the method of K.I. Scriabin, as modified by B.V. Romashov (2003). Another instance of a hedgehog was subjected to intravital helminthoscopic studies (excretion of cestode segments with feces was observed). Anonymous samples of feces were also taken from the floor of the enclosure for protein content for helminthovoscopic studies by the flotation method according to G.A. Kotelnikov and V.M.Khrenov.
In addition, from the parenchymal organs of dead animals (liver, kidneys, spleen) and red bone marrow (tubular bone), inoculations were made on nutrient media (MPA, MPB, Levin agar, bismuth-sulfite agar, Kitta-Tarozzi and Saburo mediums and others bacteriological studies of the selected cultures (microscopy of Gram stained smears, culture on Giss medium (“motley row”), agglutination and bioassay reaction on white mice weighing 16-18 g.
Helminthological autopsy revealed helminths in all animals (Fig. 1-4). In hedgehogs, nematodes were found in the stomach and anterior part of the small intestine, and cestodes were found in all parts of the small intestine. In proteins, numerous cestodes were also located in the small intestine. The intensity of hedgehog invasion by cestodes averaged 700 specimens, with nematodes - 25 specimens. In proteins, the exact number of cestodes could not be calculated, because they were fragmented, but the intensity of the invasion was also extremely high. During helminthovoscopy of fecal protein samples, in all cases, eggs of the cestodes of the suborder Anoplocephalata of a characteristic shape with a pear-shaped apparatus surrounding the oncosphere were found.
The determination of the species (generic) affiliation of the detected helminths was carried out using literary sources, reference books and determinants 15-23. The cestodes of dead hedgehogs belonged to the order Hymenolepidata, fam. Dilepididae, genus Dilepis. They have characteristic morphological features: a scolex with a pronounced proboscis, a long neck, in a mature segment, the uterus breaks up into separate capsules containing cestode type eggs. Cestodes Dilepididae are a common component of the helminth fauna of insectivorous mammals in all natural zones 20,21. One of the hedgehogs observed spontaneous release of large segments of cestodes of the suborder Hymenolepidata of another species with feces. The clinical condition of this animal (young female hedgehog) was satisfactory. The systematic affiliation of these cestodes is defined up to this. Hymenolepididae. Presumably, they belong to the genus Hymenolepis: the segments are elongated, narrow, red-hot, the genital openings are one-sided, do not alternate, the genital apparatus is single, the eggs inside the joint have a thin transparent outer shell and form shapeless dense clusters (Fig. 4, 6, 7). The segments were distinguished by groups comprising fragments of the strobila (Fig. 4). Some types of cestodes of this family are characterized by variable morphology, holarctic distribution, and the absence of strict specificity for the final hosts, i.e. poly-xenosity. A.A. Makarikov et al. Found that the main sign of species diagnosis for hymenolepidids is the shape and size of cirrus and the nature of its armament.
Cestodes Catenotaenia dendritica (suborder Anoplocephalata, family Catenotaeniidae), identified in squirrels, have a branched uterus in the mature segment, the scolex is unarmed, with powerful suction cups. These cestodes are also typical representatives of the helminth fauna of squirrel rodents 16,24,25 (Fig. 8,9,10).
Figure 1 - Cestodes of the genus Dilepis Figure 2 - Nematodes Physaloptera clausa
from the stomach of a hedgehog (original)
Figure 3 - Fragmented Figure 4 - Sites strobilized by cestode-hymenolepid
cestodes from proteins (original) with spontaneous isolation in a female hedgehog
Figure 5 - The head end of the cestode of the genus Figure 6 - The lateral edge of the strobila
Ivr¡v (original) (4x10) craspedot type cestodes of the genus Nutvpo1vr1z
with cirrus (4x15) (original)
Figure 7 - Eggs inside the mature segment of the cestode of the genus Hymenolepis, spontaneously isolated by a hedgehog (10x10) (original)
Figure 8 - Skoleks C.dendritica (4x10) Figure 9 - Mature segment of cestode
(original) C.dendritica (4x10) (original)
Figure 10 - Hermaphroditic segment of C. dendritica (4x10) (original)
Males found in hedgehogs of the nematodes of the genus Physaloptera have a preanal vesicle at the posterior end of the body, which is fused rounded tail wings, continuing along the body freely (Fig. 11) and stalked preanal and postanal papillae (Fig. 12). In females, the tail is pointed (Fig. 13). In the distal part of the uterus, eggs with a developing larva are characteristic of Physalopterid. They were also found in the feces of cadaver material from hedgehogs.
Figure 11 - Male nematodes of the genus Physaloptvra. The preanal vesicle is visible (original)
Figure 12 - The tail end of the male R.s1aiva (4x10) (original)
Figure 13 - The tail end of the female nematode R.s1aiva (4x10) (original)
Figure 14 - Egg of a nematode of the genus Physaloptвra (8x10) (original)
Figure 15 - The head end of the nematode P.clausa from the stomach of a hedgehog (4x10) (original)
Figure 16 - Bifurcation of the tail end of the male P.clausa (4x10) (original)
These signs are typical for nematodes from the suborder Spirurata, fam. Physalopteridae 15.18. For hedgehogs, a common and frequently encountered species is Physaloptera clausa 15,26,27 discovered by us (Fig. 15).
According to the literature, under natural conditions, hedgehogs (sem. Hedgehogs - Erinaceidae) and protein (sem. Squirrel - Sciuridae) have helminths of various taxonomic groups. So, in a hedgehog there are at least 6 species of helminths specific to it 26.27. The species composition of helminths is associated with the trophic-chorological characteristics of the hedgehog (living in forest stations and feeding on small vertebrate and invertebrate animals, which are intermediate, complementary and paratenic hosts of biohelminths). Helminths of squirrel rodents are also represented by no less than 5 oligo- and polygostal species, with the main role being played by mainly plant food and close contact with forest litter.
Thus, in all cases, hedgehogs and squirrels revealed representatives of helminth fauna typical for them. However, as already indicated, usually in nature there is no such intense invasion leading to death, but a peculiar balance of parasitic-host relationships and invasions are generally asymptomatic.
The study also obtained interesting data on changes in the morphology of helminths, possibly bearing the character of gross mutations: for example, we revealed structural anomalies - bifurcation of the tail end of the male nematode Physaloptera clausa (Fig. 16), bifurcation of the proboscis of the cile codode Dilepis. Perhaps these anomalies are a consequence of the impact of the prevailing adverse environmental conditions of the metropolis. However, these data are preliminary in nature and need further study, verification and confirmation.
The next stage of the work was to clarify the possible role of agents of a bacterial nature in the etiology of the disease.In a bacteriological study, from the liver and kidneys of 2 samples from protein and 3 samples from hedgehogs, cultures of the Enterobacteriaceae family with characteristic morphological, tinctorial and cultural properties were identified, identified on the basis of biochemical properties and agglutination reaction as Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacillus with rounded ends, optional anaerobic forming uniform opacities on meat and peptone broth (MPB), S-form colonies on meat and peptone agar (MPA), raspberry colonies with a metallic sheen on End agar oh, weak growth of green colonies on bismuth-sulfite agar, ferments glucose, sorbitol, inositol, lactose, forms indole) and Proteus vulgaris (polymorphic gram-negative bacilli with peritrichous flagella, facultative anaerobic, forming on the IPA a creeping growth in the form of a bluish veil and uniform with a white precipitate in BCH, ferment glucose, maltose, sucrose, D-xylose, form indole).
For biosamples, white mice were infected subcutaneously with cultures of isolated enterobacteria at a dose of 500 million microns. class (two mice per culture). Within 3 days after infection, the disease and the death of mice were not noted. From the red bone marrow and spleen from the corpses of these animals there was no culture growth. Given the lack of growth and pathogenicity in the bioassay, we can state that the infectious factor in the studied disease of hedgehogs and protein is excluded.
As measures to combat clinically manifest helminthiases, the enclosed protein was dewormed by the drug remaining on the enclosure (7 animals) based on fenbendazole (at a dose of 20 mg / kg) and praziquantel (10 mg / kg), individually orally, for 4 consecutive days. For these purposes, a complex anthelmintic in the form of a suspension was used, recommended as a therapeutic agent for helminthiases of rodents. The clinical condition of animals that received the drug, visually improved, increased motor activity, improved appetite. During control helminthovoscopic studies 14 days after treatment, helminth eggs were not detected in feces samples. In the case of forced deworming of the hedgehog, invasive
hymenolepidides, the same complex anthelmintic was also originally used, however, spontaneous excretion of cestode segments continued. At the same time, parasitization of cestodes did not affect the clinical condition of the infected female hedgehog, placed in aviary conditions: appetite and activity were normal, in the fall there was a departure to full hibernation with normal fatness. In the future, she was used a single drug praziquantel at a dose of 20 mg / kg, twice.
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Small mammals from the orders of rodents and insectivores in cities live in forest park areas, in protected natural areas. These animals are often objects of enclosure, are easily tamed, do not feel fear of humans, coming in contact with them, visit bait grounds, and their numbers in limited areas can become excessively high. Such a violation of the ecological balance leads to the emergence among their populations of outbreaks of diseases of an infectious and invasive nature. The marked high intensity of invasion means the formation of stationary foci of helminthiases, which was observed in the studied forest park zone. The formation of such foci occurred as a result of a sharp increase in the contamination of the medium by the invasive beginning, its accumulation in the soil, litter, and, accordingly, in the intermediate (or paratenic) hosts of helminths living here, by eating which infection of rodents and insectivorous-definitive hosts occurs. In our conditions, this is observed in places of habitual feeding, often visited for a long time by animals, as well as in forest enclosures for their maintenance. Violation of the peculiar equilibrium of parasitic-host relationships led to an increase in the intensity of invasion, accompanied by severe clinical manifestations of helminthiases.
It should be borne in mind that for all identified helminths, insectivores or rodents are definitive hosts, in the populations of which the main circulation of parasites occurs. Against the background of the accumulation of invasive elements in the external environment, other mammalian species, as well as humans, can be included in parasitic systems. In particular, in certain environmental conditions, for example, at the junctions of natural and anthropogenic ecosystems, rodents can serve as “reserves” for polygostal species of helminths, and such foci should be classified as permanently acting regulatory factors in contrast to, for example, infections. In our case, it is theoretically possible to infect dogs walking in the forest park with physialopter nematodes and hymenolepid cestodes, and for humans, representatives of cystodes of the genus Hymenolepis may be a potential danger.
For preventive purposes, deworming is recommended to be carried out quarterly. Coverage of enclosures should be periodically disinfected, shelter houses should be disinfected with a mandatory change of litter. New animals should be planted in enclosures after compulsory quarantine with prophylactic deworming, as well as observing the norms of keeping animals depending on the area of the enclosure, avoiding crowding. You can also suggest a periodic change in the places of feeding animals, digging the soil at the places of feeding to reduce contamination by the invasive principle.
In this studied case, there is an anthropogenic impact on the natural biotopes of rodents and insectivores, leading to a disruption in the natural balance of parasitic host relationships, which resulted in a sharp increase
the intensity of invasion of pathogenic helminths in small mammals living in a metropolis, and the clinical manifestation of helminthiasis.
In hedgehogs, 2 genera of cestodes belonging to the suborder Hymenolepidata -families Dilepididae and Hymenolepididae were revealed, in squirrels-cestodes of the suborder Anoplocephalata, fam. Catenotaeniidae. In hedgehogs, nematodes of the suborder Spirurata, fam. Physalopteridae species Physaloptera clausa. Detected helminths are typical for squirrels or hedgehogs in natural natural biotopes.
A significant role in the development of the pathology of bacterial agents was not identified due to the negative result of the bioassay and the lack of growth from the bone marrow.
It should be borne in mind that, for example, the gastric nematodes Physaloptera clausa found in hedgehogs are polygostal and also parasitize in small carnivores 15,16; therefore, they can also be a source of infection in domestic cats and dogs, and cestodes from the hymenolepidid family can also be infected 11. 12.
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