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Nepali Kalao

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Names: Sulawes hornbill, Sulawes kalao.

Area: Indonesia (Sulawesi Island, Lembekh, Bud, Muna and the Togean Islands).

Description: Sulawesky kalao has a large long beak sharply bent down. At the base of the beak there are large outgrowths of various shapes. The edges of the beak with irregular notches, the tip of the beak is sharp. Calao is a stocky bird. The toes are spliced: the second and third fingers are spliced ​​half the length of the main phalanx, the third and fourth fingers are 2/3 of the phalanx.
The neck is very strong. The lower part of the throat is without feathers, turquoise in color with a black wide stripe (in females this stripe is narrower). The head is small, the tail is long, wings are wide, rounded, legs are short.
The female Sulawesky kalao resembles a male, but it is smaller in size and has less developed outgrowths at the base of the beak.
Young birds are colored as adults, but they do not have growths above the beak. The growth begins to grow at the age of 10-13 months.
Males molt during the rainy season. In females, molting occurs during hatchery.

Color: base color black, tail white. The head and neck are creamy in color. In adult males, the nape is brown, in females it is black. The beak is yellow with orange stripes on the beaks. The growth of the male is red, the female is yellow. The skin around the eyes is pale blue, the eyelids are dark blue, the eyelashes are dark, thick. The iris of the eye is orange-red in the male, and brown in the females. The legs and claws of the Sulawes kalao are black.

The size: wingspan 7-80 cm.

Weight: males weigh up to 2.5 kg.

Vote: very sonorous, similar to powerful barking, heard at a distance of up to two kilometers.

Habitat: tropical lowlands and dense evergreen forests up to 1000 m above sea level Keeps near large fruit trees.

Enemies: Sulawes palm civet hunts for chickens (Macrogalidia muschenbrcoekii).

Food: Up to 85% of the total diet of Sulawesky kalao consists of figs, which is available throughout the year. The rest are insects and various soft fruits.
He practically doesn’t drink water, because gets it from food.

Behavior: Most of the time, Sulawesian kalao spend on trees. Leads a sedentary lifestyle.
Moves on the earth awkwardly, jumping.
The flight is not long. During the flight, with their very rounded wings, rhino birds make a characteristic loud noise, similar to the sound of a train.

Social structure: Kalao is not a territorial bird. They live in pairs, but large concentrations of birds (up to 120 individuals) are often found.

Breeding: The sockets can be very close together. Often up to 10 pairs nest per 1 km 2. Typically, kalao nests in natural hollows, but if there are not enough, it can make hollows with its paws and beak.
Sitting down inside the nesting chamber, the female closes the entrance with dirt, earth and droppings. Only a tiny hole remains for the male to serve the female. When incubating eggs, the female spends all the time in the nest. A female and chickens are fed several times a day by a male. When the female with the chicks prepares to get out of the nest, she punches a solid putty with her beak, and it falls out.

Season / breeding season: starts at the end of the rainy season - in June-July.

Incubation: 32-35 days.

Progeny: In clutch 2-6 (usually 2-3) white eggs. When the chicks grow up, the female begins to fly out of the nest and helps the male in their feeding. On average, parents feed their chickens for about 100 days. Then the youth begins to feed on their own.
In hot weather, the chicks inflate their subcutaneous air sac over the shoulders, behind the head and under the chest, which makes them resemble a feathered balloon. It is assumed that in this way they cool themselves in a stuffy and dark hollow. Another opinion is that it is difficult to pull such a pouted chick out of the hollow, which saves him from civet, the main enemies of the kalao.

Benefit / harm to humans: Sulawesian kalao help spread seeds from plants and trees by eating fruit and isolating seeds in the litter.Population / conservation status: species listed in the International Red Book as a species with the least concern. The total area of ​​the range is rather sick - 100,000-100000000 km. The population size is not known.
Two subspecies recognized Aceros cassidix: Aceros cassidix cassidix - Togean Islands, Sulawesi, Lembekh, Aceros cassidix brevirostris - about. Muna and Bud.
In the south of. Sulawesi Sulaweski kalao in 1993 declared the state bird.

Credit: Portal Zooclub
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