The family includes more than 850 species belonging to approximately 70 genera. The largest is the shefler genus (Schefflera, Table 41). 250-300 species of which are Araliaceae in all the humid tropical regions of the Earth, especially rich in tropical Asia. More than 120 species of the genus Oreopanax (Oreopanax) are common in tropical and subtropical America. Finally, in the tropics of the Old World, approximately 100 species of the genus Poliscias (Polyscias) live. Three tropical mostly genera - and more than half of all species of the family! But the majority of the remaining genera includes only 2-5 (oligotypic) or one (monotypic) species, approximately 40% of both. And all these species are also mostly residents of the tropics.
Thus, the Araliaceae are a mainly tropical and subtropical family. They are most abundant in East and Southeast Asia, on the islands of the Pacific Ocean and in Australia, as well as in tropical America, that is, in areas related mainly to the humid tropics and subtropics.
Only a few species of Araliaceae are common in the temperate zone, and at the same time, they are confined to the oceanic territories of the continents. In Western Europe, the only representative is common ivy (Hedera helix), but only in the south of the Soviet Far East, in addition to ginseng (Panax ginseng), another 9 species are distributed in the forests. This is a tall (up to 28 m) tree of the first tier of the South Russian forests of Kalopanax seven-lobed (Kalopanax septemlobus), spiny shrubs Eleutherococcus prickly (Eleutherococcus senticosus, Table 41), acanthopanax zamanopanus sessiloplorus (tallantopanax sessiloplorus, tallflorus) or tab. 41). Finally, these are five species of the genus Aralia (Aralia). The distribution of the Aralids in the temperate zone of North America is strikingly similar to this. In its northwest to southern Alaska, there is only one species - bristled oplopanax (O. horridus), so close to the East Asian temptation that at one time they were considered one species. And in the forests of the eastern part of the mainland there are two species from the same genus paiax, as ginseng and four species of aralia.
Most of the Aralia trees and shrubs (including vines, epiphytes and semi-epiphytes), rarely shrubs, shrubs and perennial rhizomes. The highest Aralian is the tree of the tropical rain forests of New Guinea and the nearest islands to the east of it (Gastonia spectabilis) with a trunk up to 40 m high, up to 175 cm in diameter. As far as is known, this is the only aralia with board-shaped roots. Most of the trees are from Aralia low-growing, up to 10-15 m high. Some of them (representatives of different genera) belong to the special form of the so-called rosette trees. Their trunk, at least at a young age, is unbranched, large leaves are collected by a diverging bunch at the top of the trunk, forming an even spherical crown. Araliaceae of such habitus are already easily recognized from a distance among the huge variety of other tropical trees. With age, the trunk can split pseudo-forged into two branches, then each of them at the same level can give two or three new branches, but such a branched tip often remains hidden within the still spherical crown.
Many genera of Araliaceae are wholly or almost wholly represented by shrubs. A typical shrub is prickly Eleutherococcus (Table 41), the shoots branching from the base of which are covered with thin needle spikes, which are associated with its popular names in the Far East, the “devil's bush” and “untronnik”. In passing, we note that the pricklyness of trunks and branches in some cases also of petioles and leaf blades, which is characteristic of many Araliaceae and undoubtedly protects them from animals, is usually a good generic sign, in particular a diagnostic sign of such genera as anxiety (Trevesia ), brassaiopsis (Brassaiopsis), Oplopanax (Oplopanax) and several others.
Vines in the family are only tree-like, but belong to different types. The most primitive type is represented by the monotypic genus Tupidanthus (Tupidanthus). One of the most ancient Aralian capillary tupidanthus (T. ca. lyptratus), which lives in the mountain forests of India (Eastern Himalayas), China (Yunnan), Thailand, Burma and Vietnam, in the first years grows like an ordinary branching tree, but later encircles the nearby host tree, rising on it to a height of 20 m or more. Shrub vines, on the contrary, acquire the features of vines almost from the very beginning of development, an example of which is the Acanthopanax trifoliatus (Acanthopanax trifoliatus), widely distributed in tropical Asia, with its flexible, prickly shoots, clinging to the surrounding bushes.
The most specialized type of vines are ivy species. In these “cornellases”, young vegetative shoots are attached to the support by additional roots-trailers. Their reproductive shoots have a completely different character (Table 39). They are short, freely rise above the ivy mosaic cover, are devoid of trailing roots and carry leaves so different from the leaves of sterile shoots that they can be mistaken for leaves of different plants. With age, the main axis of the stems, thickening, turn into curved, crusty trunks, sometimes reaching a girth of 2 m. From the Canary Islands to the Pacific Ocean, about 15 species of ivy are common. Of these, Colchis large-leaved ivy (Hedera colchica, Table 41) should be specially mentioned, with a whole waterfall of leaves covering tree trunks in rich Colchis forests. Close species grow in China. The roots of common ivy (like a number of other araliaceae) are characterized by endomycorrhiza. At the same time, they can meet the parasitic broomrape plush (Orobanche hederae). On the other side of the equator, on the roots of a number of New Zealand aralia parasites, a peculiar flower parasite from the family of Balanophoraceae, Dactylanthus taylorii, endemic to New Zealand.
Some tropical araliaceae exhibit the ability to epiphytic and semi-epiphytic lifestyle. Semi-epiphytes include a number of species of sheflera, both Asian and South American. They settle on the trunks of tropical rainforest trees, often at high altitudes. Here and here, under the canopy of the cut, you can see a rope-like aerial root hanging down along the trunk of the host tree and rooted in the soil, and only by lifting its head, you will notice the half-epiphyte itself with its palmate leaves in the gaps between the branches.
Perennial herbaceous plants in the family are few. In the northern hemisphere, these are 7–8 species of the genus Panax, and in the southern hemisphere, the genus Stilbocarpa, which includes three evergreen species that form thickets in the harsh conditions of the extreme south of New Zealand and adjacent subantarctic islands. A few grassy and semi-shrub species are also found among the Aralia and in a few other genera.
The life form of species of the genus panax, in particular ginseng, is very peculiar. This relict plant of shady coniferous-deciduous forests of the south of the Soviet Far East, north of Korea and northeast of China is characterized by extremely slow development. Seeds in nature germinate no earlier than the second year after dispersal. The structure of the adult overhead shoot is usually achieved only in 8-10-year-old plants. In adult ginseng, on the top of a straight thin stalk, five-fingered leaves are located on long petioles with an elegant regular rosette, and from the center of this rosette, as a continuation of the stem, a peduncle rises with a simple umbrella of small nondescript flowers, later bright red drupes (Table 41).
Permanent perennial organs of ginseng are the rhizome and fleshy main root, and this is a rare case among rhizome herbs of a long, for many decades, coexistence of both. With the annual autumn fall of leaves with a stem, scars remain on the rhizome, according to the number of which you can determine the age of the plant. The largest of the found "roots", weighing up to 300-400 g, may be older than many surrounding ginseng tree species, having an age of up to 200 and possibly more than years. And how much interesting and unusual happens in such a long life! This is the annual reduction of the root and the retraction of the growing rhizome into the soil, as a result of which the root itself hides in the ground and gradually acquires an inclined and then horizontal position. This is the ability of a root with a rhizome after severe damage to fall into a "dream", lasting years and even tens of years, and much more, which in ancient times provided food for all sorts of superstitions.
The majority of the Aralia’s leaves are next. The leaves are overwhelmingly complex, sometimes very large leaves in the family, reaching three meters in length with the petiole. The most common are palmate leaves, characteristic of species of a huge genus shefler, as well as for many other genera. For different representatives, they differ significantly in size, in the number of leaflets in a leaf, in their shape and dissection. It was shown by I.V. Grushvitsky and I.T. Skvortsova (1970) that, in some species, sheflera, the palate-complex leaves of their ancestors during evolution evolved into peculiar bundle-complex leaves, the numerous leaves of which are located not at the end of the petiole as usual, but with a bunch like flowers in an umbrella.
Araliaceae with cirrus (up to three times cirrus) leaves are less. In addition to the large genus polyscias, the species of the genera Aralia and Gastonia belong here from the above.
Various types of simple leaves are also diverse in the family, from whole, sometimes very large (almost 1.5 m long) to palmate and cirrus with varying degrees of dissection of the leaf blade. Finally, complex single-leafed leaves of some araliaceae, for example, from the Madagascar polyscias species, are similar in appearance to simple whole leaves.
Common to the vast majority of Araliaceae is their relative to the umbellate presence in the base of the petiole of a wide and more or less covering the stalk of the vagina. When leaves fall, noticeable crescent-shaped scars with 5, 7, 9 and a significantly larger number of traces of conducting bundles remain on the stem.
In the life of tropical species, highly developed vaginas are of great importance: they support large and heavy leaves, and together with stipules, sometimes forming rims along the edges of the vagina, then growing together in the axillary tongue, they protect sleeping and especially apical buds with shoot primordia, replacing the absent ones ate kidney scales in tea.
Inflorescences of the Aralievs are very diverse both in size and in structure. In most cases, these are highly branched inflorescences, which, with all the differences, are still commonly denoted by one collective term - panicle. The elementary part of them in most genera is the umbrella, less often the head, brush or ear. At various representatives of the Aralievs, one can trace virtually all stages of simplification from large complexly branched inflorescences to the most reduced, consisting of only one simple umbrella, like ginseng (Table 41). Panicled inflorescences of Araliaceae can be very large.
In Aralia polycarpics, depending on the rate of development of the inflorescence, it blooms in some cases as terminal (with rapid development), in others as lateral in position. In the latter case, which is not uncommon in the Aralian case, the flower bud that awakens at the top of the shoot is overturned by one (with sympodial branching of the trunk) or two (by branching with false branches) vegetative branches, and by the time of flowering, the inflorescence seems to be lateral or it is pinched in a fork in the trunk. And the reproductive shoots of such primitive Araliaceae as tupidanthus, magnificent gastonia and some sheflers, the development of inflorescence of which stretches for several years, have a very unusual appearance. By the length of the shoot they can simultaneously see inflorescences at all stages of formation from the terminal flower bud, below - unfolding inflorescences in buds, even a niche - a fully unfolded inflorescence and up to an inflorescence with ripe fruits.
As large and noticeable from afar are the Aralia inflorescences, so small and inconspicuous, as a rule, are their flowers. If, for example, we consider them with the most famous representatives - ivy and ginseng, then the Aralian flower can be characterized as free-lobed, regular, bisexual, five-membered, with small cloves of the cup, with five petals not broad and wide at the base, with five stamens alternating with them, finally with the lower five- (in ivy) or double-nest (in ginseng) ovary, crowned with five or two columns, respectively, at the base of which, covering the ovary, there is a nectar-bearing disk. Such a flower is really the most characteristic of the Araliaceae and in its plan is very close to the umbrella flower. However, within the considered family, significant differences from this plan are observed. So, for the most primitive Araliaceae, united in a tribe of plerandra (Plerandreae), as well as some species of sheflera and other genera, polymer flowers are characteristic. So, in the flowers of the magnificent gastronomy mentioned above, 6–12 petals, 25–66 stamens, and a 6–12-nested ovary.
It is difficult to establish the number of petals in a tupidanthus cap, as they, like in a number of other plerandra, grow together in a woody caliper, or a cap that completely disappears at the time of flowering. But the stamens are from 90 to 160, and the nests of the ovary even up to 200.
An interesting exception is also the flowers with the upper ovary, characteristic of holifruit tetraplasandra (Tetraplasandra gymnocarpa, Fig. 157). This short tree of the Hawaiian rainforest, as shown by detailed studies by American experts R. Ayd and C. Tseng (1969), the upper ovary came from the lower ovary of the ancestors, as if in the order of “reverse evolution”.
A number of representatives of the Araliaceae - monoecious, polygamous and dioecious - have unisexual flowers, in other cases only functionally unisexual. Striking examples of sex separation have been described by Philipson (1970) in wild pseudopanax (Psendopanax ferox) and Hades and Tseng (1971) in Merita Sinclair (Meryta sinclairii). These dioecious plants have female inflorescences of one type of structure, and male inflorescences of another type.
Araliaceae are entomophilous plants. Their flowers are available for visiting by a wide variety of insects, which are attracted by noticeable from afar inflorescences, and the aroma spread by the flowers, and the presence of nectar secreted by the glandular disk. Thickets and plantings of common ivy, a beautiful honey plant, giving late autumn white and very dense, so-called “stone” honey, during flowering are literally buzzing from many bees, but many other insects are also visitors to the flowers. During a long-term study of flowering in prickly eleutherococcus E. A. Elumeev, he observed a visit to the flowers of this plant by 27 species of insects, including 16 species from Hymenoptera, 7 from Diptera, two from Lepidoptera, and one species from Reticulate and Coleoptera.
Adaptation to cross-pollination in most Araliaceae is protandria. There are indications of pollination in some species of sheflera by birds.
The fruit of the Aralievs is a drupe, many-, five-, or two-shoot, rarely even single-shoot. As a rule, drupes are juicy, and the distributors of these fruits with their bright (red, orange, yellow, blue, shiny black, sometimes mottled) exocarpy, with fleshy mesocarpy and hard endocarp (bone) are fruit-eating birds. One cannot fail to mention, however, the fruits of a few Araliaceae, which exhibit features of surprising similarity with the well-known dry fruits (ovules) of the umbellate. The features of this community (dry pericarp, the decay of mature fruits into two mericarpies, the presence in the center of the fetus of a column - carpophore, etc.) are more or less characteristic of species of the small genus myodocarpus (Myodocarpus) from New Caledonia and the aforementioned types of stilbocarp species.
In each bone of the aralia fetus, as a rule, only one seed develops.Its powerful endosperm, smooth in some genera, ruminated in others, is a rich storehouse of reserve nutrients - proteins and fats. On the contrary, the Aralian embryo is very small.
There are no species of broad economic importance among the Araliaceae. However, some representatives established themselves as spectacular ornamental plants, while others as sources of valuable medicines. In addition to common ivy, cultivated in dozens of garden forms not only in Europe, but also far beyond its borders, not only in open ground, but also as a houseplant, there are a number of other popular decorative species. Widely known, in particular, is Fatsia japonica, sometimes incorrectly called aralia, as well as a hybrid between it and common ivy - Fatshedera lizei. In tropical countries, along with others, ornamental species from the genus polyscias are frequent in culture, in particular polyscias shrub (Polyscias fruticosa), whose leaves have long been used in folk medicine and as an aromatic seasoning for food.
No less diverse is the use of the South China shrub tetrapanax paper-bearing (Tetrapanax papyriterus), which has long been widely cultivated in China. The highly developed white and spongy core of its stems provides material for the manufacture of artificial paper flowers, but is also used in medicine mainly as a lactogenic agent that enhances the function of the mammary glands.
It is necessary, finally, once again to return to ginseng. Preparations from its roots containing triterpene glycosides of a rare type in nature, as shown by studies of Soviet pharmacologists and doctors, have a tonic and stimulating effect. Ginseng was also the first plant adaptogen - a source of drugs that increase the body's overall resistance to various adverse effects. The extreme rarity of ginseng in nature, due to the centuries-old search for this "treasure plant", long ago, about 600 years ago, prompted its introduction into culture in Korea, much later also in Japan and China. In our country, wild ginseng is taken under protection. Ginseng is cultivated at the special state farm "Ginseng" in the south of Primorsky Krai, and experiments are being conducted on its cultivation in other parts of the country. In recent years, the USSR substantiated the possibility of industrial cultivation of medicinal raw materials of ginseng in fully artificial conditions, by the method of culture of isolated tissues. Finally, the search for ginseng substitutes among the other Far Eastern Aralievs turned out to be very successful, preparations in the scientific medicine were obtained from the underground organs of the zamani, Aralia and especially valuable from the roots of prickly Eleutherococcus, as it is believed, fully replacing ginseng.
Aralia Plant Family
The leaves of the Aralievs are for the most part complex, sometimes so large that, together with the petiole, they reach three meters in length. The leaves are alternate, the stalk almost completely covers the stem. Most often, leaves are palmate, like sheflera, or palmately dissected, like fatsia or ivy. Araliaceae with cirrus leaves are found. Nondescript bisexual flowers are collected in umbrellas, brushes, ears, heads, which, in turn, are collected in large inflorescences, which have a very impressive appearance. The fruits of Araliaceae, berries, are poisonous.
Large representatives of the family, such as the radiant sheflera, are “rosette” trees, which in nature sometimes reach a height of 40 m. Over time, their trunk is exposed in the lower part, and in the upper leaves on long stalks form a crown, which at home is formed by pruning. Araliaceae such as dizigoteka and eleutherococcus are typical shrubs with a highly branched crown. Araliae vines, such as ivy and fatshedera, do not curl around a support, but hold on to its aerial roots.
Aralia soil prefer mixed, consisting of turf land, sand and peat. Light like soft, diffused. The air needs to be moist, so those who decide to grow araliae will need a spray gun. All plants of this family are thermophilic and categorically do not tolerate drafts or temperature extremes. Winter temperature should not be lower than 15 ° С. Watering is necessary moderate, you can not allow either the drying up of an earthen coma, or stagnation of water in the roots. Fertilizing is carried out with mineral fertilizers in the spring and summer. Most Araliaceae do not need a rest period.
Araliacs suffer from anthracnosis, which can be cured by isolating the diseased specimen from other plants, lowering air humidity and treating the “patient” with the sulfur-containing preparation “Cumulus”. Araliae are affected by spider web or multi-claw ticks, which can be eliminated at an early stage by treating the plant with soapy water or mineral oil, and with severe infection, Akarin, Fitoverm or Lightning are used. Sometimes aralia is overwhelmed by Dracaena thrips, which will have to be fought with insecticides, such as Actellik, Iskra, Aktara and others.
We will devote more than one article to decorative representatives of the Aralievs, but we will introduce you to some of the healing plants of this family now. In China, the spongy core of stems of tetrapanax paper-bearing is widely used as a lactogenic agent that enhances the formation of milk for breastfeeding, as well as for the manufacture of paper flowers. Preparations from ginseng roots have a stimulating and tonic effect, increasing the body's resistance to any disease. Scientists have discovered the same properties in such representatives of the Aralia family as zamaniha and eleutherococcus, which in many respects replaces ginseng, so rare today in nature.
Concerning ornamental plants of the aralian family, although they require careful and specific care, they will not be indebted to you and will delight you with their unusual beauty.
Betulaceae Gray Family - Birch
Betula davuricaPall. - Daurian birch - Der. - V. Siberia, D. Vostok, V. Mongolia, NE China, Korea - 1 copy, BS,
B. pendulaRoth - B. dangling - Der. - Europe, West Siberia - 2 copies, facade, courtyard, B.p. ‘Purpurea’ - Der. - 1 copy, BS, B.p. ‘Rouel Frost Purpurea’ - Der. - 1 copy, BS, B.p. ‘Schnevedrringer Aurea’ - Der. - 1 copy, BS,
CarpinuscordataBlume - The hornbeam is heart-shaped, or seaside - Der. - V. Asia, D. Vostok - 1 copy, BS,
Corylus avellanaL. ‘Atropurpurea’ - Common Hazel “purple” - Bush. - 1 copy, BS,
C. mandshuricaMaxim. - L. Manchu - Bush. - D East, V. Asia - 1 copy, BS,
Ostrya carpinifoliaScop. - Hmelegrab ordinary - Der. - South of Europe, M. Asia - 1 copy, BS.
The Bignoniaceae Juss family. —Bignoniaceae
Campsisradicans(L.)Seem.exBureau Bignoniacampsis - Campsis rooting - Liana - S. America - 1 copy, courtyard.
CatalpabignonioidesWalter. - Catalpa bignoniform - Bush. - SE S. America - 1 copy, BS.
Family Caprifoliaceae Juss. - Honeysuckle
Diervilla rivularisGatt. - Dierville brook - Bush. - SE S. America - 2 copies, BS,
KolkwitziaamabilisGraebn. - Lovely colquitia - Bush. - C. China - 1 copy, BS,
L.edulisTurcz. - J. edible - Bush. - V. Siberia, D. East, Korea, Japan - 1 copy, BS,
L. maackii(Rupr.)Maxim. - J. Maak - Bush. - D. Vostok, Primorye, Korea, Japan - 1 copy, BS,
L.olgaeRegeletSchmalh. - J. Olga - Bush. - Wed Asia, Tien Shan, Pamir-Altai - 1 copy, BS,
L.periclymenumL. - J. Curly - Lian. - Z. Europe, S. America - 2 copies, BS,
L. tataricaL. - J. Tatar - Bush. - V. Europe, Siberia, Wed Asia - 1 copy, BS,
SambucusnigraL. - Elderberry black - Bush. - South And Z. Europe, Kakaz, S. Africa, Bl. East - 4 copies, courtyard, S. n. ‘Aurea’ - Bush. - 2 copies, BS,
S. racemosaL. - B. racemose, or red - Bush. - Z. Europe - 1 copy, BS,
Symphoricarpos albus(L.) Blake - White snowman - Bush. - S. America - 1 copy, BS,
ViburnumlantanaL. - Viburnum is the pride - Bush. - Z. Europe, south of Ukraine, the Caucasus, south of Z. Siberia, Cf. Asia - 1 copy, BS,
V.lentagoL. - Canadian pride - Bush. - NE S. America - 1 copy, BS,
V. opulusL. - Viburnum vulgaris - Bush. - Eurasia - 1 copy, BS, V.o. f. rosea L. - f. sterile (snow globe) - Bush. - 1 copy, facade, V.o. f. rotundum L. - f. round - bush. - 4 copies, BS,
W. praecox(Lemoine)Bailey - V. Rannaya - Bush. - D. Vostok, V. Asia - 1 copy, BS.