Description: totals about 70 species, distributed mostly in the temperate and subtropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere. In the southern regions of the European part of Russia, in the Caucasus, in the Crimea and in the Far East, 5 species naturally grow.
Grape variety 'Yangi Er'
Photo of Dmitry Vinyarsky
Creepers climbing with twisted stem antennae located oppositely simple, deep palmate-lobed leaves. The flowers are bisexual, or dioecious (then dioecious plants), small, fragrant, collected in racemose inflorescences. The fruit is a juicy edible berry. Widely used for vertical gardening on mesh supports.
The first mention of the cultivation of species of the genus Vitis in the botanical garden of St. Petersburg was found in 1824, but probably refers to plants of the closed ground. Outdoor testing of species began with V. amurensis Rupr., Brought by K.I. Maksimovich from the Amur Region and originally in 1857-1862. grown in greenhouses. Since 1858, in parallel with the covered ground, it was tested in the open, and since then it has been constantly growing in the park (1858-2005).
In the second half of the XIX century. 4 more species were tested, but all after or while growing them in greenhouses: V. vulpina L. (= V. cordifolict Michx.) (? 1824, 1858, 1892-1898, 1945-1967, before 1980 ?, 2002), V. riparia Michx. (? 1824, 1869-1898, until 1940-1962, 1973-2005), V. thunbergii Siebold et Zucc. (1865-1913, 1959-1963), V. labrusca L. (1879, 1951-1967, 1978-2002). All these species in the St. Petersburg climate are not winter hardy enough, they often freeze very much, but are restored.
Grapes grade 'Shatilova No. 6'
Photo of Dmitry Vinyarsky
The main experiments on the cultivation of species of the genus in open ground took place in the 20th century, especially in the second half, when A. G. Golovach tried to restore the existing species to the collection and try out new ones. In total, 15 species passed through Garden nurseries during this period, of which 12 first appeared in the collection: V. coignetiae Pulliat et Planch. (1912—? 1941, 1948-1972, 1980, 1989-2002), V. palmataVahl. (= V.ru-bra Michx.) (Before 1941-1980), V. dav.
According to V.I. Lipsky and K.K. Meissner (1913/1915), the St. Petersburg Botanical Gardens introduced V. amurensis and V. thunbergii, about which E. Regel wrote: “They were introduced by K.I. Maksimovich and distributed by the Botanical Garden throughout the European Gardens ”(1873: 89).
|Grapeaconitolate - Vitis aconitifolia = Ampelopsis aconitifolia|
|GrapeAmur — Vititis amurensis Rupr.|
|Arizona Grapes - Vitis arizonica Engelm.|
Southwestern North America. Grows along river banks and in canyons.
Climbing Shrub. In GBS since 1983, 1 sample (1 specimen) was grown from seeds obtained from natural habitats. At 7 years, the length of shoots is 2.1 m. Vegetation is from early May to late October. The growth rate is average. Does not bloom. Winter hardiness is low.
|Mountain grapes - Vitis monticola|
Homeland - North America.
Liana up to 10 m high. Shoots are long, thin, hairy in youth, with antennae. Leaves of various shapes are ovate, round, bud-shaped, with shallow lobes, serrated on the edge, dark green above, shiny, grayish green below, reach 10 cm in length. In youth they have a thin cobwebly pubescence. The flowers are rather inconspicuous, appear in June. To obtain fruits, you must have specimens with stamen and variegated flowers, since the plants are dioecious.
|Maple Leaf Grapes - Vitis acerifolia Raf.|
Homeland - North America. It grows in river valleys, on sandy shores.
Branched, low, slightly climbing vine. Hairy or sulfur-gray shoots with short antennae. The leaves are broad-ovate, 7-12 cm long, shallowly three-lobed, with a wide notch at the base, pubescent along the veins from below. Inflorescences 3-7 cm long, on short legs. The flowers are small yellowish. It blooms in June. The fruits are large - up to 8-12 mm, black with a touch, with a thin skin, sweetish, ripen in September. In a culture since 1830. Grown from St. Petersburg to the south.
In GBS since 1982, 1 sample was grown from seeds obtained from the culture. At 3 years, the shoot length is 1.8 m, at 6 years, 4.8 m. Vegetation from late April to mid-October. Growing fast. Does not bloom. Winter hardiness is low.
|Kuanier grapes, or Japanese - Vitis cognetiae Planch|
The range of the East Asian continental-island type: Russia (Sakhalin - south and Moneron, Kuril Islands - Kunashir, Shikotan, Yuri, Zeleny, Iturup), Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku), Korea Peninsula. Sakhalin-smoking-Japanese endemic. In the flora of the reserves is not indicated. Grows in shrubbery in the coastal strip. Photophilous mesophyte.
In SakhKNII since 1963, it has grown well on an alpine hill. Does not bear fruit. In GBS since 1960 (from Sakhalin), in the shade it grows depressed.
Very effective, frost-resistant, powerful liana with large, heart-shaped rounded leaves (up to 30 cm across), with 3-5 weakly expressed lobes, dark green above, grayish or reddish-pubescent below, with rarely finely serrated margin. Flower brushes are short. Fruits up to 0.8 cm, black with a bluish bloom, edible only after freezing. It grows very quickly, during the season giving an increase of up to 4.5 m, it is hardy. It is used in all types of vertical gardening, especially for decorating tall buildings. Its large lobed leaves turn bright crimson in autumn.
In GBS since 1965, 3 samples (4 specimens) from the gardens of Stockholm and Nozhen-on-Ver-Nison (France). At 8 years, the shoot length is 2.5 m. It grows from 17.V ± 5 to 17.X ± 9 for 153 days. Does not bloom. Winter hardiness is low. Rooted cuttings of 100% when processed with a 0.01% solution of IMC. In the middle lane is undecorative.
Grape wine from fruits is used as a firming agent. Antenna juice is used for dysentery and hemoptysis, infusion of antennae for gout, from leaves for diarrhea, vomiting, hemoptysis. Infusion of dry leaves - when frostbite (externally). Syrups, jams are prepared from ripe fruits. The antennae, young stems and petioles are eaten like vegetables. Ropes can be made from bark (Ishiyama, 1936).
It is known in culture (Wolf, 1915, Bailey, 1947, Shulgin, 1955, Dictionary of Gardening, 1956, Wyman, 1971). Cultivated since 1875 (Render, 1949). It grows in St. Petersburg, the Baltic states, Ukraine, the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, Tashkent (Woody plants GBS, 1975).
Photo by Kravchenko Kirill
|Grapelabrusca - Vitis labrusca L.|
Well known in landscaping at. Amur can be successfully replaced by no less decorative and frost-resistant c. Labrusca from North America.
It is the ancestor of most of the American cultivated grape varieties - Isabella (Isabella) variety or a hybrid of V. forest and V. cultivated, widely distributed along the Black Sea coast (Krasnodar Territory, Abkhazia), in Lenkoran, found in Ukraine. Due to its unpretentiousness, relative frost resistance (tolerates temperature drops to –20 ° С), intensive growth and beautiful foliage, it is of interest for vertical gardening in the southern regions of Russia. In a culture in Kaliningrad, Kiev, Kharkov, it bears fruit, in St. Petersburg and Estonia it is slightly damaged by frost, but grows easily, and grows poorly in arid regions. A number of other varieties of V. labrusca grows well in the northern regions of viticulture, including winter-hardy hybrids bred by I.V. Michurin with V. Amursky. Labrusca is often used as a decorative, powerful liana with dense beautiful foliage.
This is a high rising on a support and capable of forming dense thickets, as well as a powerful liana spreading on the ground with a lignified stem, which in nature can reach 20 cm in diameter. It blooms in July. The shoots are cylindrical, attached to the support by well-developed antennae. Young shoots are densely pubescent. The leaves sit on long petioles, ovate or rounded up to 17 cm, whole, and sometimes lobed, have a wide notch at the base, serrated, dense along the edge, wrinkled, dull, dark green above. Young leaves below with a white or grayish flaky pubescence, which over time becomes reddish. Dioecious plant. Dioecious flowers. Pistillate flowers are collected in dense dense inflorescences up to 5-8 cm long, stamen flowers form more loose inflorescences. Fruits are collected in small clusters containing up to 20 berries of black-purple, reddish-brown, pink or yellow-green color. Berries up to 2 cm in diameter, have a spherical or ellipsoidal shape, are covered with a waxy coating, the flesh is sweetish. Ripen in September.
It grows well on light, loose sandy and sandy loamy fertile soils with moderate moisture, prefers slightly shaded places. Needs support. Winter hardiness is high, suitable for areas of the chernozem strip and areas located to the south.
Seeds need stratification at 0 - 3 ° С for 4 - 7 months. After stratification, it is recommended to soak the seeds for 12 hours in solutions of gibberellic acid and petroleum growth material. In culture since 1656.
|Scapular Grapes - Vitis palmata Vahl|
Central areas of North America. Grows along river banks.
The liana is elegant, fast-growing, 12-15 m high. In GBS since 1983, 1 sample was grown from seeds obtained from the culture. At 5 years of age, the length of the lash is 4.5-5.0 m. Vegetation is from late April to mid-October. Growth is fast. It blooms in July, 7-10 days. The fruits ripen from 7 years old, annually. Winter hardiness is high (cover with leaves). Seed viability of 65%, germination rate of 10%.
In a culture in St. Petersburg, on the VOCs of the Lipetsk Region blooms and bears fruit, in Almaty is quite drought-resistant.
|Forest Grapes - Vitis silvestris Gmel|
Distributed in Moldova, Crimea, the Caucasus, Central Asia, as well as in Central and Southern Europe, Northern Iran. Available in the reserves of the Caucasus, Crimea, Central Asia. Grows in valleys and gorges in deciduous forests. Shade-tolerant mesophyte.
Deciduous vine up to 20 m long, in the absence of support creeping along the ground. The bark on old trunks exfoliates with ribbons, annual shoots are sometimes slightly ribbed, biennial
smooth. The leaves are round-ovate up to 9 cm, almost whole or shallow 3-5-lobed, with a wide notch at the base. The flowers are yellow-green, fragrant, small, in paniculate inflorescences. Fruits - black, spherical berries with a bluish bloom.
In GBS since 1952, 2 samples (5 copies) were grown from seeds obtained from the natural conditions of Kopet-Dag and GBS reproduction. Liana, 18 years old, 3.0 m long. Does not bloom. Winter hardiness is low. When processing a 0.05% solution of IMC, 33% of cuttings are rooted. In the middle lane is undecorative. Not recommended for landscaping.
It is characterized by drought and cold resistance, is not affected by pests and diseases. It is used in decorative gardening for vertical gardening in the southern regions of Russia. It is more cold and drought tolerant than V. cultivated, resistant to phylloxera and fungal diseases, easily interbreeds with cultivated grape varieties. Berries are used in marinades, seasonings for dishes and in winemaking. In a culture in Zhitomir, Penza, Turkmenistan.
|Fox grapes - Vitis vulpina L.|
Grows in shady places along the river valleys of North America.
Powerful high-climbing vine with well-developed, bifid tendrils, with the help of which it rises to a great height. Leaves broadly ovate up to 15 cm, shiny, whole, less often weakly three-lobed, with a narrow notch at the base. Very fragrant, small flowers are collected in multi-flowered panicles. The berries are spherical up to 1 cm in diameter, black, with a slight bluish bloom and thick skin, in cylindrical clusters up to 25 cm long. For better germination, seeds require stratification. Depth of embedment is 1.5 cm.
It is frost-resistant, withstands temperature drops to -28 ° C. Avoid soils containing lime. It is used as a decorative plant for vertical gardening and as a stock for cultivars in order to increase their immunity. In culture, Lithuania freezes, but blossoms and bears fruit, partially freezes in St. Petersburg and Estonia. Often grown in Ukraine.
|Ordinary grape - Vitis vinifera L.|
It is widespread in culture since ancient times and has a huge number of cultivars. The homeland of this species is not known exactly.
Liana up to 20 m, with 3-5-lobed, heart-shaped leaves up to 15 cm across, with large inflorescences of fragrant, nondescript flowers. Fruits - berries, black with a bluish bloom. Grapes are ordinary photophilous. In the conditions of the Moscow region it can freeze, even when covered, so it is better to use it for landscaping the southern regions of Russia. Prefers fertile soil. Requires support, designed for vertical gardening.
Seeds need stratification at 0 - 10 ° С (optimum 5 ° С) for 3 - 7 months. Better germinate with a weekly warming at 30 ° C for 3 hours 2 times a day. In Black Muscat varieties, stratification can be replaced by washing in water for 12 days (72% s. Sprouted). O6 treatment with gibberellic acid (100 - 2000 mg / l) of seeds of the varieties 'Black Muscat', 'Bangalore' and 'Tokai' reduces and replaces cold stratification. For pre-scarified seeds, gibberellic acid is used at a lower concentration. Depth of embedment is 1.5 - 2 cm.
It has two decorative forms: purple (f. purpurea) - with light red when blooming, later purple leaves, split leaf (f. apiifolia) - with very spectacular, dissected leaves. The main species and its forms are used for vertical gardening in areas of varietal grape culture.
'Purpurea'. In early summer, the leaves of this deciduous creeper are bright purple and fluffy, then darken, become saturated wine-violet. In the fall they turn into dark purple. They are medium in size and rounded in shape with three or five roughly serrated petals. Violet-black fruits appear in early or mid-autumn, but almost never ripen in the suburbs. Interesting in its decorativeness. This plant looks spectacular when grown with shrubs that have silver foliage.
Photos of EDSR.
|Coastal Grapes, or fragrant - Vitis riparia Michx.|
The eastern and southeastern regions of North America. Grows in moist bushes of bushes, along river banks.
Photo Skorodumova Tatyana
It differs from other species in powerful growth (rises to a height of 25 m), broad-egg-shaped, mainly 3-lobed, bright green leaves, large-serrated along the edge. Flowers in large inflorescences up to 18 cm long. Fruits are purple-black, with a thick bluish bloom, inedible, up to 0.8 cm in diameter. Seeds at room temperature can be stored for up to 1 year without loss of viability. Seeds need stratification at 1 - 10 ° C (optimum 5 ° C) for 4 months. It is better to germinate stratified seeds after preliminary warming up for a week at 30 ° C for 3 hours 2 times a day. Depth of embedment is up to 1.2 - 1.5 cm.
In GBS since 1951, 3 samples (11 copies) were grown from seeds obtained from the culture. At 17 years old, a height of 5.4 m. Vegetation from the first decade of May to the end of October. The growth rate is average. It blooms from late June to the end of the first decade of July, about 2 weeks. The fruits ripen annually in September. Winter hardiness is low. Seed viability of 80%, germination rate of 10%. Rooted summer cuttings.
It is undemanding to the soil, drought tolerant, has a form with edible, early ripening fruits - (f. Rgaesokh).
One of the best decorative grapes with beautiful bright green leaves, fragrant flowers, the halls of which resemble the smell of Reseda, for which he received his second name. Several hybrid varieties are available. In culture since 1656. Used for vertical gardening.
Photo right Dmitry Vinyarsky
|Grapemulti-leaved - Vitis heterophylla = Ampelopsis heterophylla|
|The grapes are rocky - Vitis rupestris Scheele|
Eastern and southeastern areas of North America.Grows on hills, on mountain slopes, on sandy shores.
Weak climbing vine up to 2 m high with red-violet shoots. A few antennae are poorly developed and easily fall off or are completely absent. The leaves are round, sometimes trilobate, young pubescent, folded in half along the main vein. Ripe leaves on both sides are bare, thin, smooth, shiny.
Dioecious plant. It blooms from late June to mid-July. The fruits ripen in September. The berries are spherical, with a diameter of 6-14 mm, black-purple or violet, with a thin skin, of a pleasant taste. We do not have varieties; the natural form is cultivated.
In GBS since 1963, 1 sample (8 copies) was grown from seeds obtained from the culture. At 8 years, the shoot length is 4.5 m. Vegetation from the first half of May to the second half of October. Does not bloom. Winter hardiness is high (winters under snow).
It grows well in the sun or in partial shade. Fertile, light, unknown soil is preferred. Drought-resistant, does not tolerate stagnation of water. Relatively winter-hardy. It is better to remove young plants from the support for the winter so that they are covered with snow. When wintering under snow, it practically does not freeze, in snowless winters it can slightly freeze. On moist soils it is easily affected by root mold. Tolerates prolonged droughts. Easy to grow together with vaccinations. Well cuts. Seeds need stratification. Depth of embedment 1 - 1.2 cm.
Single and group plantings on lawns, separately and in combination with other shrubs. Large leaves contrast beautifully with conifers. It can be demonstrated as a rare plant. The berries are small, but they are used as normal grapes for food.
Location: photophilous, require fertile soils.
Landing: in the fall or spring, two to three years are planted. The size of the planting pit is 50 x 50 x 60 cm. The distance between plants is 1 m. Before planting, seedlings should be dipped in a mash made up of 10 l of water, 0.4 kg of clay, 0.2 kg of 12% chlorophos and 0.2 kg vitriol. The soil mixture consists of humus, peat and sand, taken in a ratio of 3: 1: 2. The soil reaction is neutral or slightly acidic. Mandatory drainage of broken brick and sand with a layer of 15-20 cm.
Photo Utkina Maria
Care:Top dressing. In June, they give 40 g of urea, 80 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium chloride, diluted in 10 l of water. Organics are added under weakened plants or foliar top dressing is done: 15 g of urea or ammonium nitrate are dissolved in 10 l of water. Watering. All types of grapes like moisture. Having deep roots penetrating the soil at 4 - 5 m, they tolerate drought for a long time. However, it is better to water once a month for 8 - 10 liters for each plant. If it rains regularly, then watering is not required. Loosening and mulching. It is advisable immediately after planting to close the trunk trunks with peat or earth with a layer of 5-7 cm. Loosening is carried out when weeds are weeded. Pruning. From June to August, vines actively grow, they are tied to a support and form a crown. Lateral branches are cut into two or three buds, strong lashes - by 1/3 lengths. Preparing for the winter. For the winter, it is recommended to remove the vines from the support and insulate with fir spruce branches, peat, leaves. You can sprinkle to the roots of dry loose earth with a layer of up to 10 cm.
Diseases and pests: the great disadvantage of Amur grapes and its varieties is instability against the root form of phylloxera, incomplete resistance to its leaf form, and significant mildew affliction. At the same time, it is resistant against oidium. Other species are less susceptible to disease and pests.
Reproduction: seeds, cuttings and layering. Seeds are sown in autumn or spring after 2-4 months of stratification. Bloom for 5-6 years. But it’s even easier to propagate grapes with winter cuttings. Two years later, rooted cuttings are planted in open ground.
Maple leaf plane tree - description and cultivation
Among a large number of beautiful trees, special attention deserves Maple Leaf Platan (Platan acerifolia) . This is an unusually large and magnificent tree, which can grow to impressive sizes and reach even more than 30 meters in height. I alsois the only representative of a small family of plane treestolerates low temperatures relatively well and can be grown in the temperate zone. Spreading, beautiful branches grow low from the ground, an unusually extensive, spacious crown (often reaching more than 20 m in diameter), a thick, massive trunk (2-3 m in diameter) and large leaves give the plane tree an old, romantic character. Therefore, it is hardly worth wondering that it has become a source of inspiration for many creators and is found in films and songs.
Maple leaf plane - a tree, quite special, which is difficult to confuse with another species. A distinctive feature of these trees is interesting bark, which has a tendency to peel pieces of different sizes, and the formation on the trunk and branches of smooth, irregular cream-colored spots. Thanks to these bright spots, old trees acquire an interesting, colorful look. An additional distinctive feature of the maple-leaved plane trees is their large, green, palmate-lobed leaves, reminiscent of the appearance of maple trees, from which they got their name.
Large leaves of plane trees look especially beautiful in the fall, when they change color and become bright yellow or tan. At this time, an additional decoration of the tree is the original, spherical fruit, small (3 cm in diameter), resembling bristling balls on long stalks, hanging on the branches for a long time after falling leaves. However, to appear, the trees must first bloom.
Plane trees are monoecious and wind-pollinated dioecious trees (on one specimen both male and female flowers develop. The flowering period falls on the end of April and May, but the flowers can hardly be called attractive because they are greenish-yellow (male) or reddish (female), small and nondescript, and their pollen has properties sensitization (increased sensitivity of the body to the effects of stimuli, with their repeated action). In addition to flowers, young shoots and leaves, covered with bunches of small hairs, also have irritating properties.
Maple leaf plane trees have several interesting varieties, among which deserve special attention: "Suttneri"with variegated, white or creamy spotted leaves, "Tremonia" having a cone crown is also interesting, a small grafted variety Alphen’s Globe (suitable for growing in small gardens and in containers), its crown does not exceed, as a rule, a diameter of 6 m., and with systematic pruning it can be even less.
Requirements and growing
When planning the cultivation of maple leaf plane trees, should take into account not only their impressive size, but also the relatively high environmental requirements. So that the trees can grow and grow well, expect sunny, warm and sheltered from the wind places and fertile, moist, sandy-clay soil. Since they do not tolerate overdrying and infertile soil, they feel best near water bodies (e.g. rivers, lakes), where moisture is abundant and the soil is fertile, containing a large amount of decaying plant residues.
When planting plane-leafed plane trees, it is also necessary to remember that although they can grow in our latitudes, however, young specimens often freeze in harsh winters, so during the first years after planting they need very careful shelter (e.g. straw mats or dense cloth). Freezing problems can be avoided if you get an adult, at least a 10-15 year old specimen, which at this age already copes quite well with frost. Buying an adult tree, you don’t have to worry whether it will take root in a new place, because even in adulthood plane trees tolerate transplanting very well.
Maple leaf plane It is quite resistant to urban pollution, tolerates summer heat and low humidity very well, and responds very well to pruning, so you can rejuvenate and mold without any problems.
The plane trees produce numerous seeds, thanks to which they can be propagated, however, the species obtained from sowing do not always preserve the characteristics of the parental specimens, therefore, the propagation by lignified cuttings obtained in spring (rooted in a room with high humidity) is a much better method.
Due to their rather large size, maple-leafed plane trees are suitable mainly for planting in parks and alleys, as well as large gardens where they look great as free-standing trees (tapeworms), and their vast and sprawling crown makes it possible to organize a cozy recreation area. When planting plane trees, however, it is necessary to avoid the close proximity of other decorative trees, especially of small sizes, as they can be drowned out by sprawling branches and strongly branched roots of the plane tree.
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