Culex pipiens pipiens
Culexpipienspipiens - One of the most numerous types of mosquitoes that inhabit the temperate zone of Russia. The breeding places are not related to the immediate environment of a person. In cold weather it does not feed and does not breed. The development is complete. Reproduction bisexual. Winters in the phase of the fertilized female. The female lifespan in summer is 1–2 months.
Imago. The mosquito is 5-7 mm in size. It differs from other species of the Culex genus of the blood-sucking mosquito family by the presence of light scales without expansion on the abdomen of the ligation of the band (as in Culex pipiens molestus and Culex pipiens), as well as in that the tentacles of the males are much longer than the proboscis, so that the penultimate segment of the tentacle apex extends beyond the end proboscis.
Sexual dimorphism. Homosexual individuals differ in the structure of the genital organs. Moreover:
Female. The churches are not performing. Claws of legs are simple. The proboscis consists of the upper lip, paired upper and lower jaws, the hypopharynx and lower lip. In a calm state, all parts of the proboscis are embedded in the groove of the lower lip.
Male. The paired parts of the proboscis are reduced.
Egg similar to the structure of Komar's ordinary egg (Culex pipiens).
Larva the structure resembles the larva of the Common Mosquito (Culex pipiens). Stage IV larvae are very variable in size, color and pigmentation of the head and siphon. Color can range from light dirty or gray-yellow to tan with a light or tan head and siphon. The color depends on the substrate of the reservoir.
Doll, like all types of blood-sucking mosquitoes, has a comma-shaped shape and a very thickened front end. The outer cover is translucent. Through them, you can see the antennae, legs and wings of an adult mosquito. On the mid back there are breathing tubes, extended towards the end. Abdomen - of nine segments. The thoracic and abdominal sections are covered with numerous hairs and setae.
Phenology of development (in days)
Imago. The breeding places of this species are not related to the immediate environment of a person. In winter, it does not breed and does not feed. In the warm season, representatives of Culex pipiens pipiens are concentrated in fresh water bodies. Departure after wintering begins at an ambient temperature of + 4–8 ° С. Males and females maintain energy balance by feeding plants with nectar. But for ripening eggs, females need bloodsucking. The life of females is a series of repeated gonotrophic cycles: fertilization, search for prey, bloodsucking, digestion of blood, development of the ovaries, flight to a reservoir and egg laying. Such cycles can be up to 8–10. The female lifespan in summer does not exceed two months.
Mating period. This species is characterized by swarming, during which females with males are copulated, after which the females rush to search for the object of bloodsucking. Female eggs of this species are laid on water, like all mosquitoes of the Culex genus, while they are glued into a compact mass in the form of a mesh raft floating on water. Breeding places are most often permanent or long-term water bodies, natural and artificial. The number of eggs in the clutch varies. May exceed 500 pcs.
Egg. The duration of embryonic development depends on temperature conditions. At a temperature of + 23–24 ° C, it lasts 3–6 days.
Larva at + 29–30 ° С it develops within 5–7 days, at + 15–16 ° С - up to 30 days.
Doll under optimal conditions, it develops within 2–4 days, but lowering the temperature significantly delays the development of mosquitoes.
Imago. When hatching an imago, the pupal skin bursts. After drying and hardening of the cover and spreading of the wings, the mosquitoes fly apart and concentrate near the breeding sites. This species is also characterized by autogenous development (without bloodsucking) of the first generation of eggs.
Usually mosquitoes lay eggs in places where there is a change in water level or where there is stagnant water, depending on the type of insect. Mosquitoes are sometimes even divided into those who prefer flood waters and those who like stagnant.
An ordinary mosquito lays its eggs with "rafts" of 150-300 pieces. This type of insect is preferred by stagnant dirty waters. Favorite breeding sites include: gutters, ditches, rain barrels, above ground pools, clogged gutters, bird drinking bowls, and any debris that can accumulate water.
When the larvae hatch, a mosquito gradually grows up, the adults usually remain near their birthplace, but some Culex pipiens females can travel for kilometers in search of a bloody dinner, which is necessary for the development of their eggs. The full path from the egg to the imago, that is, the life cycle of the mosquito, can take up to 2 weeks, depending on the weather.
Common mosquito - this is the most common urban mosquito. In English, this species is also called "home" because it often lives in houses. In Russia, Culex pipiens is the most common mosquito in the temperate zone.
Where do mosquitoes live in winter? Most often, bloodsuckers hide from the cold in human buildings. They hide in basements, cellars and outbuildings. Some species can winter in caves. Learn more about the life cycle of mosquitoes of the species Culex pipiens.
Females of the species Culex pipiens hibernate in safe places, usually in caves, cellars, basements or outbuildings.
Common Mosquito - the main carrier of St. Louis encephalitis.
In some regions, this mosquito is the main carrier of West Nile fever.
It was believed that mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens species feed only on bird blood, but some of them already drink the blood of humans and other mammals on an ongoing basis.
An ordinary mosquito can transmit a heartworm to dogs and transmit bird malaria.
The peak prevalence of this type of mosquito occurs around the middle of summer. A large number of contaminated waters can also lead to an invasion, including sewer sumps, pools for settling water for watering plants and ponds where there is no movement of water. In such places, Culex pipiens reproduce very quickly.
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Squeak mosquito (Culex pipiens) or common mosquito belongs to the diptera squad, a family of mosquitoes. The body of the imago is long and slender, size 5-7 mm. The small head is covered with brown scales. On the sides are complex eyes. Antennae consist of 15 segments, the organ is used to recognize odors. The mouth organs of the piercing-sucking type, characteristic of insect parasites. The lower lip was transformed into a proboscis. Females have piercing needles - bristles inside. The absence of the upper jaw in the male does not allow to gnaw through the skin. In a calm state, a long proboscis bends into the groove of the lower lip.
Interesting fact. The word "mosquito" has Slavic roots, it means swarming insects.
Body coloration is yellow, brown, or gray. The chest is wider than the abdomen, consisting of 10 segments. The limbs are thin and long, with 2 claws on the foot. Insects have only two front wings, hind wings are reduced. The transparent wings along the veins are covered with scales. Abdomen in brown scales, on the underside of the band of light yellow scales. Long hairs on the proboscis of a male Piskun mosquito.
Interesting fact. A characteristic mosquito squeak is emitted by wings that move at a speed of 1000 flaps per second.
Insects are divided into two subspecies:
- C. p. pallens - a mosquito with a brown body color and white stripes on the limbs and proboscis. Distributed in Japan and North America.
- C. p. pipiens - a subspecies has two forms:
- Culexpipienspipiensformapipiens - dipterous insects of this form easily adapt to various development conditions of larvae. Their offspring grows in any reservoirs, does not require clean water. The number of larvae depends on the nature of the place of development - in a pool of 100-800 pieces per square meter. m, and in the gutter 5400-27500 pieces / sq. m
- Culexpipienspipiensformamolestus - urban or basement mosquito squeak. The form has several behavioral and physiological differences. The imago does not require swarming for mating. One of the important features of molestus is autogeny, the ability to lay eggs once without feeding blood. Young females manage to lay 100 eggs immediately after exiting the pupa. This ability allows you to quickly increase the number of insect colonies.
City mosquito is characterized by aggressive behavior. His bites are more painful, more often accompanied by infections and allergic reactions. For the extermination of adult parasites in the cellars, treatment is carried out using contact insecticides with a prolonged residual effect. Strengthening efficiency allows spraying vegetation in a radius of 300 m around the building. In places where larvae hatch, larvicides are used.
Common mosquito is found on all continents. In northern latitudes, it is distributed almost to the Arctic Circle. The insect is found in Europe, Asia, America. In the mainland and islands, the mosquito spread with the first travelers. The larvae were in barrels of water spilling out after reaching the new shore. Blood-sucking insects appear wherever a person lives. In the modern world, they move on trains, trucks, and other vehicles.
Larva spindle-shaped, consists of three departments: head, chest and abdomen. The head is large, wide, movably connected to the chest. The larva feeds on plankton. The movement of water caused by a fan of hairs along the edges of the upper lip brings small organisms of the oral cavity. On the head are large eyes and long antennae with setae. The thoracic region is swollen; long, branched hairs grow on it. The abdomen consists of 10 segments. The last abdominal segments merged to form a respiratory siphon. At its end there are stigmas through which the larva breathes atmospheric air. On the siphon is a comb of 12-15 teeth. The larva of a squeak mosquito swims with a fin on the 9th segment of the abdomen.
The habitats of the Piskun mosquito are coastal areas of water bodies, forests, forest-steppes, and urban areas. Imagoes settle near water, in cellars and attics. In hot tropical regions, mosquitoes are active year-round. On a territory with a temperate climate during the cold period, insects fall into diapause. Only the female hibernates. Having settled in heated basements, mosquitoes can be active and breed all year round.
Males and females feed on plant nectar and various syrups. They are often seen on sugar and sweet foods. Insects have weak wings; they cannot fly in windy weather. In a temperate climate, mosquitoes are active from May to October, but appear earlier in warm weather. How long a squeak mosquito lives depends on several factors:
- amount of food
- climatic conditions
- natural enemies.
Favorable conditions (low temperature, enough food) can extend the female’s life, and the male’s eyelid is limited to 18-19 days. Females of the summer generation live 1-2 months, spring - up to 4 months. Moderate temperatures contribute to longevity:
- 25 ° - 42-43 days,
- 20 ° - 55-58 days,
- 10-15 ° - up to 120 days.
Negative conditions for the existence of diptera insects is drought, a temperature below 8 °, at which they lose activity and stop feeding. In autumn, the last copulation of insects occurs. Males die, and females search for winter refuge. They are clogged in the cracks, under the bark, deep into the litter. City mosquitoes climb into human dwellings. If they find a suitable raw basement or water tank in a heated building, the playback cycle will not be interrupted for the winter.
Young adults after exiting the chrysalis drink plant juice. Females do without blood until the time comes for reproduction and laying of eggs. In the evening in warm weather you can see a swarm of mosquitoes. It is observed near ponds, in a meadow, at the crowns of trees or bushes, on paths. The accumulation of insects moving in an upright position facilitates the meeting of heterosexual individuals. Males identify partners by sound and mate.
After fertilization, the female searches for a victim, she can drink blood from a bird, animal, person. Blood serves as a source of useful nutrients necessary for the development of strong offspring. In search of a power source, she overcomes 5-12 km. The next step is to find a place suitable for masonry. It can be a body of water with standing water or a container.
The female lays from 20 to 200 oblong eggs glued in the form of a boat or raft. They do not drown, float freely on the surface of the reservoir. The first time the masonry is white, then it darkens. Buoyancy provides a special egg shape. One end is wide and dull. Masonry is performed every 2-3 days. In warm weather (23-25 °), the embryo develops in 3-5 days. Larvae are kept near the surface. In the early days of life, they are especially vulnerable and become the prey of numerous water predators.
Most of the larval stage goes upside down. In this position, it hangs at the surface, filtering water by the mouth appendages and swallowing algae, ciliates and rotifers. After leaving the egg, the larva has a body length of 1-2 mm; before pupation, it reaches 6-7 mm. She goes through 3 molts and 4 ages. At a weekly age, pupation occurs. The pupa is movable, in shape resembling a comma. The abdomen is narrow, the head and chest are fused. After 2-10 days, an adult mosquito appears from the pupa.
Mosquito bite: treatment and protection
Female Piskun mosquitoes use antennae equipped with 72 receptors to search for victims. They capture the smell of lactic acid in sweat and carbon dioxide in breathing. Attracts insects and heat radiated by the body. Mosquitoes pierce the skin with a special stylet, the small size of the organ allows you to eat from capillaries located close to the surface. During the bite, the female injects saliva containing anticoagulants. This liquid causes an allergic reaction in a person - severe itching, swelling, redness. After a bite, the female flies away to digest blood.
Attention. The squeak mosquito is active at night. After 8 hours, the female is able to bite a person up to 10 times.
Diseases are transmitted with saliva:
- Japanese encephalitis
- West Nile virus.
When a mosquito bites, first aid is required, perform the following procedures:
- the wound is washed with soap,
- apply ice or a compress from soda solution to relieve swelling,
- an allergic reaction is removed with antihistamines.
Attention. Do not allow combing the wound, this will lead to the appearance of a blister and suppuration.
As protection against an ordinary mosquito, installation of mosquito nets on windows and doors is recommended. Insects are scared away by fumigators with liquid or repellent plates. In a trip to nature, the use of a special spray is effective. At home, it is recommended to install traps, the inclusion of ultrasonic repellers.