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Species: Spilogale putorius Eastern spotted skunk


Eastern Spotted Skunk - Taxobox name = Eastern Spotted Skunk status = LR / lc | status system = IUCN2.3 regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata> Wikipedia

Eastern spotted skunk - dėmėtasis skunsas statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Spilogale putorius angl. Eastern spotted skunk, spotted skunk vok. Fleckenskunk rus. ryšiai spotted skunk: platesnis terminas - dėmėtieji skunsai ... Žinduolių pavadinimų žodynas

Spotted skunk - Taxobox name = Spotted skunks image w> Wikipedia

spotted skunk - dėmėtasis skunsas statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Spilogale putorius angl. Eastern spotted skunk, spotted skunk vok. Fleckenskunk rus. ryšiai spotted skunk: platesnis terminas - dėmėtieji skunsai ... Žinduolių pavadinimų žodynas

Western spotted skunk - Taxobox name = Western Spotted Skunk regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata> Wikipedia

Spotted hyena - Temporal range: Late Pliocene - Recent Ngorongoro Park, Tanzania Conservation status ... Wikipedia

Skunk - For other uses, see Skunk (disambiguation). Skunks Striped skunk Scientific> Wikipedia

skunk - / skungk /, n., Pl. skunks, (esp. collectively) skunk, v. n 1. a small North American mammal, Mephitis mephitis, of the weasel family, having a black coat with a white, V shaped stripe on the back, and ejecting a fet> Universalium

Skunk - Skunk, n. Contr. from the Abenaki (American Indian) seganku. (Zo ol.) Any one of several species of American musteline carnivores of the genus and allied genera. They have two glands near the anus, secreting an extremely fet> The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

Skunk bird - Skunk Skunk, n. Contr. from the Abenaki (American Indian) seganku. (Zo ol.) Any one of several species of American musteline carnivores of the genus and allied genera. They have two glands near the anus, secreting an extremely ... ... The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

Skunk blackbird - Skunk Skunk, n. Contr. from the Abenaki (American Indian) seganku. (Zo ol.) Any one of several species of American musteline carnivores of the genus and allied genera. They have two glands near the anus, secreting an extremely ... ... The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

Eastern Spotted Skunk

Latin name: Spilogale putorius (Linnaeus)

"Skunk" comes from the root word of the American Indians of Massachuset - "squnck."

Eastern spotted skunk lives in North America over a vast territory from northeastern Mexico to the Canadian border of the United States, is found on the Great Plains, and in the north - up to the state of Pennsylvania.

The skunk's auricles are low-set on the sides of the head and small in size, the eyes are relatively far apart and low on the face. Skunks have five fingers on the paws of each of the legs, and the claws on the front legs are curved and twice as long as the hind legs. Females have 10 nipples. Skunks have 34 teeth in the dental formula: (3/3, C 1/1, P 3/3, m 1/2) X 2 = 34.

The body of skunks is covered in fluffy black fur. The tail is long and hairy, but no more than that of a striped skunk. Like all types of skunks, this species has a highly developed anal odor gland, which secretes a powerful, pungent liquid that effectively acts on all attackers. This gland contains a special muscle “nipple” that allows the skunk to direct the spray from the gland exactly to the target.

Color: Eastern spotted skunk weighs much less than striped skunk. It is recognized by a small white spot on the forehead and another on each ear. Six white stripes are clearly visible on the front of the body, on the back - two stripes that start on the hips, on the ears and on the head there are a couple more stripes. There is a white spot on the hips, two more at the base of the tail, the tail is black with a white tassel, and the main body color is black.

An adult animal has a body length of 450 - 600 mm, tail - 150 - 215 mm, hind foot length - 42 - 53 mm. The eastern spotted skunk is smaller than its relatives, it has a fragile physique. Skunks from the northern parts of the range are on average slightly larger in size than individuals from the southern regions of their range. Full length (includes tail): males 310 - 610 mm, females 270 - 544 mm, tail length: males 80 - 280 mm, females 85 - 210 mm.

Weight: males 276 - 885 g, females 207 - 475 g.

Life Expectancy: Life expectancy in nature is usually several years, although a captive skunk lived in captivity for almost 10 years.

Habitat: Woodland and meadows with high grass, in rocky and desert terrain, skunks usually inhabit agricultural areas that are planted with trees and shrubs. On plains with short grass is less common. The skunk and the human society are not alien, wandering around farms, sometimes climbing into empty basements and attics of buildings.

Enemies: The natural enemies of a skunk are wild cats, coyotes, foxes, dogs and owls, but most of all they die at the hands of humans. Many skunks die on highways and roads under the wheels of cars.

A large horned owl is the most dangerous enemy of young skunks. She can attack from above without warning and takes the young skunk away before his mother can use her defenses.

Skunks have an omnivorous, but still more carnivorous, diet. The skunk feeds on small mammals and birds, in some places it can be a pest, attacking poultry.

Their diet varies seasonally, depending on the suitability and availability of various types of food. In winter it feeds on rabbits and corn, in spring - field mice and insects, in summer - mainly insects with small proportions of mice, birds, bird eggs and fruits, in autumn - mainly insects, mice, birds, fruits.

An Eastern spotted skunk leads a terrestrial and nocturnal lifestyle, active all year round. He is more active and mobile than his relatives and is found in forest areas and meadows, likes to climb the rocks of canyons. They are agile climbers, and climb trees to avoid encounters with enemies, larger and more dangerous predators.

To relax, a skunk builds a kind of shelter or shelter in the hollows of trees or digs a hole in the ground or occupies a hole in another animal.

Skunks have a colorful contrasting color, which performs a warning function. Their precautionary coloration is not a bluff, and most predators and other animals know this, and when they meet, they leave the skunk alone. A slow skipping trip makes the skunk seem to stress the fact of their inedibility and danger, since most animals will not consciously attack the skunk. However, if a skunk receives unwanted attention from a predator or potential predator, but is not in immediate danger, skunks will give a clear warning before demonstrating their protective potential.

In the event of a collision with his striker, the skunk makes a handstand, bullying his tail high. This draws attention to the absolute white underside of the tail, touting its anal glands. If the warning doesn’t work, the skunk sprays caustic fluid from its anal glands into the attacker, which can accurately reach the target up to 4 meters away. The odor glands that provide this unique defense method are deeply embedded in the muscles located on both sides of the rectum. Skunk spray is a colored, yellowish, sticky liquid that contains butylmercaptan (also known as thiol), an organic compound containing sulfur that provides skunk spray with its unique and powerful flavor.

When meeting with a skunk, a person is better to make a slow, quiet retreat. Spraying the secretion of the skunk glands, getting into the eyes can cause temporary blindness and nausea. Rinsing the eyes with water will help restore vision. Tomato juice or a solution of diluted vinegar helps to remove most of the “aroma” that has got on people, pets and clothes. Clothes can also be cleaned with mild bleach or ammonia solutions.

It is interesting that skunks do not use their weapons when playing games and fighting among themselves, and do not use them while being near their den or other skunks.

Social structure: Eastern spotted skunks are often found in several individuals, but they are not as social as the striped skunk. During a winter nap, sometimes one den shares a maximum of up to 8 individuals.

The home plot covers an area of ​​about 64 hectares. The population can reach 5 animals per km2 under the most favorable conditions in agricultural areas.

Reproduction: In rare cases, a female may have two successful broods in one year. Testosterone levels and a peak in sperm production in males are highest in spring, but remain high in the presence of active females and in late summer. Courtship is very short, ending with the male grabbing the female by the back of the head, after which mating takes place. Mating continues for approximately one minute, but can occur 10-20 times.

After mating and fertilization, the egg is up to ten to eleven months in a dormant state - in a latent state.

Babies are born in a nest of grass or hay. The nest is usually located in an underground hole, under the farm building, in hollow logs, in crevices among stones or in piles of pieces of timber. At birth, skunks are blind and helpless, weigh 9 g, the body is perfectly pubescent, and you can distinguish between white and black colored spots. Eyes open on days 30-32, at the age of 36 days they can walk and play a lot, young skunks can shoot a smelling liquid already at the age of 46 days, after 42-54 days of age, breastfeeding ends and they switch to solid adult food. At the age of three months, skunks are already the size of an adult animal.

Season / breeding season: The breeding season occurs in March-April, less often the second activity is observed in July-August (second litter). But usually in July - August, females that have lost their first litter cubs enter estrus.

Puberty: the almost adult size of the young is already 3 months old, and reach sexual maturity between 10-11 months.

Pregnancy: about 50-65 days, sometimes up to four months.

Offspring: 2–9 cubs are born in a female, usually 4–5.

Medium length fur is the finest of all types of skunks.

The eastern spotted skunk is a wonderful rat-catcher, for which farmers appreciate it: where the skunk settles, there are no mice and rats.

Skunks are one of the main sources of problems for Connecticut homeowners. Skunks tear open lawns and gardens, looking for an insect and their larvae. They leave cone-shaped volcanic holes up to three to four inches in diameter and can also flip large pieces of turf. Tortoise nests are also torn apart by skunks looking for eggs. Skunk predation on tortoiseshell eggs may explain a substantial portion of egg mortality.

Skunks are one of the initial and most important sources of animal morbidity in North America, however, only an infected animal can transmit the causative agent of this infection.

An Eastern Spotted Skunk is listed in Category II of the US-FWS (more information is needed to objectively assess the status of this species).

• S. p. ambarvalis - peninsular florida

• S. p. putorius is the southeastern United States from Alabama, Mississippi, and northern Florida, north to western western Georgia, South Carolina, through the Appalachian Mountains and central to southern Pennsylvania.

Description of Eastern Spotted Skunk

The body length of the eastern spotted skunk ranges from 45 to 60 centimeters, while the tail length is 15-21 centimeters. Skunks living in the northern parts of the range are somewhat larger in comparison with their southern counterparts. The body weight of males ranges from 276 to 885 grams, and in females - from 207 to 475 grams.

Eastern Spotted Skunk (Spilogale pitorius).

The ears of the eastern spotted skunks are small, they are low on the sides of the head. The eyes are located at a considerable distance from each other. Each paw ends with five fingers. Females have 10 nipples.

The fur is black. The tail is fluffy and long, about the same size as that of a striped skunk. The anal gland is actively developed, which secretes a foul-smelling caustic fluid. This secret is an effective weapon against predators. In the gland there is a special muscular valve, thanks to which the skunk directs the stream directly at the enemy.

There is one white spot on the forehead, and there is also a white spot on the ears. There are 6 white stripes on the front of the body, and only two on the back of the body. There is a white spot on the hips. A couple more spots are located at the base of the tail. The tail is black with a white tip. The main body color is black.

Eastern Spotted Skunks Habitat

These animals live in wooded areas and in meadows with tall grass. They can also settle in desert and rocky terrain. Eastern spotted skunks can enter agricultural areas.

The main enemies of skunks are people.

Skunks are less common on low grass plains. These animals are not afraid of the society of people, therefore they often roam near farms, sometimes they climb into attics and basements.

Eastern Spotted Skunks Lifestyle and Diet

Eastern spotted skunks often live on several individuals, but they are less social in comparison with striped skunks. In winter, during hibernation, up to 8 individuals can be in one den.

Skunk animals have good sense of smell and hearing, but poor eyesight.

These skunks lead a terrestrial lifestyle, being active at night. Eastern spotted skunks love to climb mountains and rocks, they are excellent climbers. If a skunk meets an enemy, he climbs a tree.

Skunks are resting in shelters that they make in empty trees, they can also dig holes in the ground and occupy the homes of other animals.

Skunk, especially spotted, are secondary fur animals.

The color of the eastern spotted skunks is variegated, it is a warning tool and an excellent method of protection from predators. The skunk's gait is slow waddle, which also indicates its inedibility. When a skunk encounters an enemy, he makes a stand on his forepaws, raises his tail high and demonstrates anal glands. If the enemy does not retreat, the skunk shoots a stream of caustic liquid at him.

Skunk can reach the target at a distance of 4 meters.

When a secret gets into the eyes, temporary blindness occurs. Smelly fluid also causes nausea. To restore vision, it is necessary to rinse your eyes with water.

Eastern spotted skunks are omnivorous, but a carnivorous diet is preferred. Skunks feed on small mammals and birds. The diet changes in different seasons: in winter they eat rabbits and corn, in spring they switch to insects and field mice, in the summer to insects, birds, eggs, mice and fruits.

In the United States, striped skunks are often kept as pets.

The enemies of the eastern spotted skunks are foxes, coyotes, wild cats, owls and dogs. The most dangerous enemy of young individuals is a large horned owl. But the most significant number of skunks die at the hands of man. Many skunks die on the roads.

The life span of eastern spotted skunks in nature is several years, and in captivity they can live up to 10 years.

Breeding Eastern Spotted Skunks

The breeding season is observed from March to April, in more rare cases, a second activity may occur in July-August. The level of testosterone in males increases as much as possible in the spring, but if there are active females, then in the late summer males also pay attention to them.

Skunks inhabit diverse landscapes.

The courtship period is short. After mating, a fertilized egg is at rest for about 11 months, pregnancy lasts 50-65 days, and sometimes up to 4 months.

For childbirth, the female creates an underground lair, and a hole can also be made among stones. The female insulates the house for future babies with hay and grass.

The smallest in the family are spotted skunks (Spilogale).

In one female, from 2 to 9 cubs can be born, most often - 4-5 babies. Kids are helpless and blind, their weight does not exceed 9 grams.

Puberty in eastern spotted skunks occurs in 10-11 months.

On the bodies of newborns there is wool. Opening of the eyes occurs on the 30th day. At 46 days of age, the cubs are already able to release an odor secret. At 3 months, young people are already growing to the size of adults.

The benefits and harms of eastern spotted skunks

Among all the skunks, these representatives have the best fur. Eastern spotted skunks are excellent rat-catchers, so farmers highly value them. These skunks can tear flower beds and lawns in search of insects, after their presence cone-shaped holes remain. Skunks can be carriers of rabies.

Skunks can spray a stream of secret at a distance of 1-6 m.

Subspecies of Eastern Spotted Skunks

There are 3 subspecies of eastern spotted skunks:

  • S. from. Interrupta live on the Canadian border in North Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado, eastern Wyoming, Texas, Oklahoma, northeast Mexico,
  • Spilogale putorius ambarvalis live in peninsular Florida,
  • S. s. Putorius live in the southeastern United States: in northern Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, South Carolina, Georgia, Pennsylvania and the Appalachian Mountains.

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