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Digitalis grandiflora (Digitalis grandiflora)

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Various types and varieties of digitalis are especially loved by summer residents and gardeners for their unpretentiousness - they will grow well both in bright sunshine and in bushes in the backyard, and the abundance of colors allows you to create luxurious compositions. One of the most popular varieties of this plant is a large-flowered digitalis, which is distinguished by its large flower size and attractive color.

The bright freckled digitalis flowers resemble the cap of a mischievous elf

Digitalis botanical description

A large-flowered digitalis is considered a relatively low plant - its stems rarely grow more than 120 cm in height. Her flowers are painted pale yellow, almost white, and inside are decorated with a scattering of brown "freckles." In this case, the flowers are slightly pubescent. In shape, they resemble bells, thanks to petals fused into a tube.

At the top of the flower are the stamens that are touched by insects, crawling into the flower. Pollen falls on their backs, and then along with them it moves deeper into the flower and falls on the pistil. After pollination, seed boxes of oval, cubic or irregular shape are formed in place of the flowers. Digitalis seeds are very small - several thousand pieces ripen in each box, so the flower easily propagates by self-sowing if the seeds are not collected on time.

This type of digitalis belongs to perennial plants. In the first year of life, only a basal rosette is formed from long and rather narrow leaves. A stem with a peduncle appears only in the second year. The flowering period begins around the end of April-mid-May and lasts 3-4 months with proper care.

Digitalis large-flowered in the descriptions is often found under other names. Its scientific name sounds like Digitális grandiflóra, while the people adopted more romantic and even fabulously fantastic names:

  • fairies gloves or hats (magic folk of English mythology),
  • fox glove
  • thimble grass
  • witch gloves
  • witch's finger.

There is an opinion that digitalis was actively used by witches in their work. This is probably due to the fact that the plant has not only medicinal properties, but also is very toxic in large quantities.

Digitalis cultivation and care

Digitalis loves sunny open areas where spring melt water does not stagnate, but it also feels fine in the shade - only some of its varieties under such conditions stretch their stems a little.

Recommendation! Do not plant digitalis under deciduous trees, as the burning leaves prevent its full growth.

Digitalis does not have special requirements for soil - it grows well in any soil if it is well drained and does not allow stagnation of water. However, on loose, fertile soils, getting an impressive and lasting flowering will be much easier.

Digitalis planting care is not complicated and consists in regular weed removal and loosening, which will provide oxygen access to the roots. Loosen the soil carefully and not too deep, since digitalis has a horizontally located root system and it can easily be damaged.

Water the flowerbed with Witch Gloves in moderation, as needed. Excessive watering is disastrous for them, so it is better to dry the soil slightly than to overfill. During the flowering period, it is necessary to regularly remove faded buds and inflorescences in order to preserve the beauty of the flowerbed for a longer period.

Several times during the planting season, digitalis is fed with complex mineral fertilizer. It is enough 3-4 times during the summer, because if you overdo it with food, you can get lush sockets that will not bloom.

Large-flowered digitalis hibernate in the ground, in the conditions of central Russia without requiring additional shelter. Closer to autumn, if the plant's roots are exposed, they are sprinkled with nutrient soil. If a frosty and snowless winter has stood out, it is better to cover a flower bed with flowers of spruce branches or non-woven covering material.

Breeding

Digitalis multiplies only by seeds, although there are several species of this plant that can multiply by dividing the bush.

Seeds do not require any preplant planting, but to speed up germination, you can soak them for 1-2 days in water. If you additionally treat them with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate, this will provide plants with protection against most diseases. Soak seeds in a solution no longer than 20-25 minutes.

Digitalis seeds are sown directly in open ground around late May-early June. A few days before sowing, the soil is dug up to a depth of about 30 cm. Organic fertilizers can be added - rotted compost or manure, as well as some natural mineral fertilizers, for example, wood ash or several false nitrofoski. After applying the nutrients, the ground is leveled with a rake to deepen fertilizers into the ground by 8-10 cm, and then it is slightly rammed.

It is better to loosen the soil before sowing, but you should not make holes or grooves. It is necessary to sow superficially, without seeding, only slightly sprinkling with earth or sand, since small seeds give weak sprouts that will not break through a thick layer of earth.

It is better to sow seeds in rows, observing a distance of about 70 cm between them. In order to ensure optimum moisture for crops, the beds are covered with non-woven material until the first seedlings appear. Sprouts that have appeared are watered very carefully so as not to damage them, and they also cover from the sun during the period of its greatest activity.

Important! The first few weeks of digitalis shoots develop very slowly. This is a normal occurrence for this plant, so do not worry that something is wrong with the plantings. In a month they will gain strength and begin to grow actively.

A month and a half after the emergence of seedlings, they need to be thinned, leaving about 5 cm between the shoots, since the seeds germinate very densely and prevent each other from growing. After a month, a second thinning is carried out, leaving already 10 cm. With a second thinning, the extra sprouts can not be removed, but transplanted to another flower bed. When the plants become crowded, they are again planted, leaving at least 25-30 cm between them. If you do not observe the planting width, digitalis will grow poorly, the rosettes will be small, the stems are low, and flowering will be weak or will not happen at all.

If there are few seeds, you can sow them in seedling boxes, also without seeding, moisten with a spray bottle and cover with glass until seedlings appear. At the cotyledon stage, the sprouts dive or thin out. Then, when 3-4 true leaves appear, they conduct a second pick. In open ground, seedlings are planted closer to the end of summer, observing a distance of at least 25 cm between plants. In the first winter, it is better to cover such seedlings from frost.

Some gardeners prefer to sow digitalis seeds before winter. Thus, they undergo a natural stratification in the winter months and the strongest and most viable specimens emerge in the spring.

Use in landscape design

Digitalis is great for decorating a site according to the rules of landscape design. Tall varieties are used as background for linear flower beds or mixborders. Those that are lower, including large-flowered ones, look good on flowerbeds planted along the wall of a house or fence, and low-growing species are suitable for planting in borders, along paths or around shrubs.

The large-flowered digitalis looks good in single plantings in large flowerpots or pots. It will look very romantic and natural in one of the corners of the flowerbed garden with digitalis propagating by self-seeding.

Digitalis is well combined in group plantings with many plants:

  • shrubs and trees (honeysuckle, rhododendrons, rose hips, viburnum),
  • shade-loving and shade-tolerant flowers (geraniums, primroses, hosts, aquilegia),
  • "Universal partners" - peonies, irises, decorative onions, valerian.

In addition, large digitalis inflorescences are often used for cutting. Flowers for a long time retain freshness in a vase, pleasing the eye with its beauty.

Medicinal properties

Like other species of this genus, digitalis large-flowered has a pronounced healing effect, due to the high content of cardiac glycosides. Based on this plant, several medications have been created that are prescribed for heart failure.

For medicinal purposes, leaves are collected from one-year-old rosettes, as well as stem leaves of more adult specimens. They require quick drying at high temperatures (about 50-60 degrees), because when slowly dried in the shade, the active substances are destroyed.

Digitalis is also considered a poisonous plant. With an overdose, side effects can be observed in the form of:

  • Nausea, vomiting,
  • Diarrhea
  • Violations of the central nervous system,
  • Cardiac arrest (when used in toxic doses).

Digitalis, of course, is one of the most spectacular and beautiful plants that can be grown without any problems in any suburban area. However, do not forget that it is poisonous - it is better to protect plantings from children. Having provided the flowerbed with these flowers suitable conditions, you can admire their magnificent flowering for many years without much effort on the part of the summer resident.

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION

The rhizome is short, fibrous, many-headed. The stem is straight, up to 120 cm high, but usually up to 80 cm, unbranched, pubescent (covered with glandular hairs in the upper part, long hairs in the lower part and scattered hairy or naked in the middle part). Leaves are green. Rosette and lower stem leaves are oblong-lanceolate and with the base gradually turning into a short and wide petiole, middle stem leaves are ovate-lanceolate, sessile, upper stem leaves are oblong-lanceolate, sessile. The leaves have a pointed peak and a finely sawed edge (but it can be smooth). The underside of the leaves is pubescent, especially along the veins. Flowers drooping, horizontally deflected, collected in a rare one-sided brush 6–25 cm long. Corolla sulfur-yellow, on the inner surface with brownish veins. The fruit is an egg-shaped capsule. Seeds are small 0.8–1.2 mm long and 0.5 mm wide. It blooms in June and July.

The natural range is located in Europe (most with the exception of the northern regions), South-Western Siberia.

VARIETIES AND VARIETIES

The digitalis assortment of large-flowered is scarce. There are only a few varieties.

  • ‘Carillo’ - in 2015, this variety received the prestigious AGM award of the English Royal Garden Society,
  • ‘Dwarf Carillon’ - a variety that differs from its natural form primarily in its relative short stature. Plant height about 40 cm.

Since 1821, a hybrid of digitalis large-flowered and digitalis purpurea (Digitalis grandiflora Mill. × Digitalis purpurea L.) - digitalis ginger or strawberry (Digitalis × fulva Lindl. 1821).

LANDING AND CARE

Digitalis is large-flowered unpretentious. It can be grown on almost any soil except very moist and very dry. It prefers loose, fertile, permeable soils. Stagnant water is extremely undesirable - it can lead to the death of the plant due to rotting of the roots or lack of flowering (with stagnation of spring water). For planting, it is better to choose sunny places, but partial shade is also acceptable.

Digitalis large-flowered (Digitalis grandiflora). Inflorescence close-up.
Central Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 20.VI.2018

Needs a minimum list of agricultural activities - watering in dry weather, loosening the soil, weeding. Faded inflorescences are better removed because it stimulates the emergence of new ones.

BREEDING METHODS

Easily propagated by seeds. Seeds are sown directly into the ground, not planted (or only slightly sprinkled with earth) in late April - early May. After emergence, they are thinned out. Gives self-seeding.

Permissible reproduction by division of the rhizome, which is best done in the spring.

Digitalis large-flowered is a perennial plant, but often grows like a biennial, "falling out" in the third year.

DISEASES AND PESTS

As noted earlier, digitalis digitalis is resistant to diseases and pests. There are several types of insects and micromycetes that can parasitize on this plant, but they do not pose a great danger during cultivation.

On a digitalis large-flowered, 4 species of aphids were noted:

  • Aphis frangulae - Aphids with a wide range of fodder plants. On digitalis large-flowered, summer generation develops. It feeds on the leaves
  • Macrosiphum melampyri - Aphids with a small spectrum of fodder plants. In addition to digitalis, large-flowered eats on some species from the genus Mariannik (Melampyrum) It hits the leaves
  • Aphis armata - Aphid species specializing only in digitalis species (Digitalis) It affects inflorescences,
  • Aphis fabae - Aphids having a wide range of fodder plants. On digitalis large-flowered, summer generation of Aphis fabae is noted. It affects the leaves.

Leaf beetle larvae Apteropeda orbiculata form mines in the leaves in the form of long convoluted passages. The food spectrum of this species is quite wide.

A fly belongs to specialized digitalis parasites that form leaf mines Phytomyza digitalis, whose larvae feed only on species of the genus Digitalis (Digitalis).

Parasitic insects pose minimal danger to digitalis large-flowered. Parasitic micromycetes can have a more serious effect.

In particular, digitalis large-flowered marked Golovinomyces orontii, Peronospora digitalis and Ramularia variabilis.

  • Golovinomyces orontii causes powdery mildew - a white coating on the leaves,
  • Peronospora digitalis is the causative agent of peronosporosis (downy mildew) - brown spots on the leaves. A grayish-white fluff forms on the underside of the leaves. Peronospora digitalis - develops only on plants from the genus Digitalis. In addition to the large-flowered digitalis, this pathogen is marked on digitalis purpurea and yellow,
  • Ramularia variabilis - causes leaf spotting and drying out. A whitish fluff develops on the underside of the leaves. Parasitic on the species of childbirth Digitalis and Verbascum.

USE IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN

Looks good in informal gardens. It can be planted in a discharged shadow, but it should be noted that flowering in sunny areas will be more effective. Suitable for the background in front of low perennials, under the trees.

Digitalis large-flowered (Digitalis grandiflora). Inflorescences close-up.
Central Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 20.VI.2018 Digitalis large-flowered (Digitalis grandiflora). Flowers close-up.
Central Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 20.VI.2018

Botanical description, biological features, area and resources.

The digitalis is large-flowered - a perennial herbaceous polycarpic plant 60-120 cm high. The rhizome is short, many-headed, brownish-brown, 3-4 cm thick, at its apex fibrous remains of dead stems. Numerous subordinate roots extend from the rhizome.

In the first year of life, the plant forms a rosette of 8-12 oblong-lanceolate leaves, at the base gradually drawn into a short and wide petiole. The following year, an erect, simple, less often branched stalk develops at the base. In the upper part, the stem is covered with glandular hairs, in the middle and lower part - naked or pubescent with simple hairs mixed with glandular hairs.In two or three year old plants, a rosette of 5-8 basal leaves is formed at the base of the stem. The middle stem leaves are sessile, or alternate, narrowly or widely ovate-lanceolate, unequally pointed with sparse teeth or whole-marginal. The upper stem leaves are oblong-lanceolate, gradually decreasing in size, turning into axillary bracts. The leaves are light green, pointed, bare above, below, especially along the veins and the edge, covered with simple and glandular hairs.

The flowers are horizontally deflected, drooping, collected in a one-sided brush 6–25 cm long. Pedicels emerge from the bosoms of the bracts exceeding them, short-glandular pubescent, almost equal to the calyx, and longer in fruit. The lobe segments are lanceolate, sharp, glandular-hairy, 4-7 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, with fruits up to 9 mm long. The corolla is gray-yellow, on the inner surface with brownish veins, the outside is scattered iron-pubescent, 3-4 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide, not bell-shaped, narrowed at the base and somewhat curved downward. The upper lip of the corolla is whole, indistinct or clear-bilobed, the depth of the notch is 2-5 mm. The middle lobe of the lower lip is longer and wider than the lateral ones, triangular, more or less pointed, 5-7 mm long. Lateral lobes triangular, island, 2-3 mm long. 4 stamens, two-anthers. Pestle with a long column and with a two-bladed stigma. The fruit is an ovoid, two-nosed capsule 8-14 mm long, 5-8 mm wide, densely covered with glandular hairs, revealing along the septum with two wings. Seeds are numerous, small, irregularly conical, with a well-defined cellular structure. Seed length 0.9-1.2 mm, width 0.5-0.6 mm. The mass of 1000 seeds is 0.13-0.17 g.
It blooms in June - July, the fruits ripen in August - September.

Within the species, a subspecies and varieties are distinguished, differing in the structure of the corolla, and the omission of stems and leaves.

Diploid chromosome set 48, 56.

In medicine, rosette and stem leaves of wild-growing digitalis large-flowered are used along with the leaves of digitalis purpurea cultivated in Russia.

The digitalis large-flowered is not demanding on soils; it grows on slightly acidic soils (pH 5.6-6.5) scattered, and sometimes forms small thickets. The most common in the Urals at an altitude of 100-200 m at sea level, where it grows in all types of thinned forests: spruce, fir, linden, oak, mixed, broad and small-leaved, among bushes, meadows, old clearings and burnt areas. In the middle and central parts of the Urals, it is most abundant in thinned limestones on the southern and southwestern slopes, forming plant communities together with steppe species of herbaceous plants, as well as in pine forests growing on stony soils. On the territory of the Kungursko-Krasnoufimskoy forest-steppe occurs in birch forests, on dry meadows. In the middle Urals, it is distributed mainly on the fringes of mixed forests, in the southern Ural, it grows on richer soils: powerful and medium-thick podzolized heavy loamy black soils, as well as on dark gray carbonate light loamy soils, underdeveloped clay soils and outcrops of hardwood, well lit and shaded habitats.

It is found in the North Caucasus in oak light forests, birch forests, at the edges of beech and other broad-leaved forests, at an altitude of 700-1200 m above sea level.

It is never found on wetlands. Photophilous, mesophyte. Meeting in elevated places, where the soil has a low humidity, acquires xerophytic signs.

The digitalis large-flowered has a Eurasian type of range. It is found in Russia in the Kaliningrad, Pskov, Kirov, Tver, Moscow, Tula, Smolensk, Bryansk, Oryol, Kursk, Penza, Perm, Saratov, Samara, Nizhny Novgorod, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk regions, Bashkortostan. Isolated from the main part of the range, it grows in the North Caucasus, in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, on the Volga Upland, in the foothills of Altai and in the middle course of the Tobol River. Apparently, these are the remains of the once continuous range of the species belonging to the Tertiary, Pliocene relics.

Outside Russia, it grows in Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, the Baltic states and almost all European countries.

In Russia, digitalis digitalis overgrown, suitable for harvesting raw materials, are mainly found in Perm, Orenburg, Chelyabinsk regions and Bashkortostan. In Bashkortostan, digitalis grows on more than 7 thousand hectares, its largest thickets are found in Blagoveshchensky, Burzyansky and Duvansky districts, slightly smaller - in Belokataysky, Beloretsky, Nurimanovsky and Uchalinsky areas.

The collection is carried out in dry sunny weather after the dew has dried. From one plant you can prepare 1-5 g of dry raw materials (14-25 leaves). It is recommended to use highly pubescent leaves with the highest content of cardiac glycosides. Leaves are cut with a knife, trying not to damage the stems and inflorescences. Cut leaves are folded without compaction into baskets or bags and quickly dried, spreading out in a thin layer on paper or burlap. It is best to use dryers where, at a coolant temperature of 50-60 ° C, the leaves dry quickly, without losing their color and glycoside content.

For rational harvesting, it is necessary to cultivate the thickets by removing competing plants, and when collecting leaves, leave at least 1/4 of the total number of leaves available on the plant.

Cultivation.

The culture of digitalis large-flowered has advantages over other types of digitalis due to its high winter hardiness and the possibility of many years of use. However, digitalis large-flowered has not been studied enough. Currently, work is underway on the introduction of large-digitalis digitalis in the Perm region, in the conditions of its natural range, as well as in some botanical gardens of Russia.

Within its range, large-flowered digitalis prefers loamy chernozems, dark gray and slightly acidic and neutral drained sod-podzolic and podzolic well-cultivated soils. Fields designated for large-flowered digitalis must be clean of rhizome and root shoot weeds. Therefore, the best predecessors for its crops will be clean, green manure and busy fumes, as well as winter cereals, traveling through steam fields and a layer of perennial grasses. Good precursors for digitalis sowing will be legumes, annual grass for hay and green fodder, early potatoes and vegetables, allowing you to carry out the main tillage as semi-steamed or early winter.

Large-flowered digitalis seeds have no rest period. They begin to germinate at a temperature of 10ºС, the optimum germination temperature is 20-30ºС. High germination of seeds, up to 90-95%, persists for 10 years.

Digitalis is cultivated as a wide-row crop by sowing seeds directly in the field with rows of 45 and 60 cm. Sowed with vegetable seeders equipped with limiters for the depth of seed placement - flanges and rolls that roll the row. The seeding rate of 2-3 kg / ha. It is impossible to ensure uniform sowing of seeds with such a small norm without a filler. Therefore, a small fraction of granular phosphorus fertilizers (row fertilizer), dry wood sawdust, millet husk, etc. are used as filler.

The best method and time of sowing is winter surface sowing with dry seeds, carried out in October with the onset of steady morning frosts. Good results are also provided by early spring sowing with dry seeds with a seed placement depth of not more than 1 cm, carried out immediately at the beginning of spring field work. Shoots appear from the surface and from a depth of 1 cm after 1.5-2 weeks after sowing. Shallow seedlings slowly develop, weakly compete with weeds, and die massively during the formation of soil crust and from overheating of the soil surface in dry, hot weather.

As a perennial slowly growing and developing plant that does not withstand the overheating of the soil surface and the formation of soil crust during rooting, the digitalis digitalis should be well suited for joint and combined crops with annual crops: winter and spring wheat, fenugreek, etc.

Crop care should begin before emergence from cultivation - the “blind ball", carried out on the trail of the sowing unit left from the sowing. In order not to sprinkle the sowed rows with soil during the “blind ball”, protective shields are installed on the cultivator or protective zones of at least 12-15 cm are used. The second cultivation of the row-spacing is carried out when designating the rows when the rows are clearly visible from the tractor cab. Immediately after the second cultivation of the row-spacing, they begin to manually loosen the protective zones and weed the weeds in rows. During the first growing season, up to 5 row-spacing cultivations and at least one manual cultivation of protective zones with weeding in rows are carried out.

In the second year and in all subsequent years, early in spring, when the soil ripens, the crops are harrowed with a couple of double tooth harrows across the rows or at an angle to the rows, i.e., one or from the third year of digitalis life - two diagonals of the field. The continuous harrowing of passing crops is timed to the period of emergence of seedlings - the “string” of weeds. 2-3 days after harrowing, row-spacings are cultivated with simultaneous application of fertilizing with full mineral fertilizer in a dose (NPK)45-60/ ha.

In clean crops, harvesting rosette leaves begin in the year of sowing, cutting the sheet with sickles or forage harvesters with simultaneous grinding and loading of crushed raw materials into transport. At the same time, before mowing the leaf, the sowing should be carefully cleared of weeds so that the raw material meets the requirements of scientific and technical standards in terms of the content of organic impurities. The harvested whole or crushed sheet is immediately sent for drying and dried in various types of dryers at a coolant temperature of 55-60 ° C. In the second and subsequent years, mainly stem leaves are harvested in several steps, cutting and breaking off the most developed leaves.

The quality of raw materials and its application.

The quality of the raw material of digitalis large-flowered leaf is regulated by the Global Fund, XI ed. Art. 14 "digitalis digitalis leaves", including the following numerical indicators.

Whole raw materials. The biological activity of 1 g of raw materials should be 50-66 ICE or 10.3 - 12 KED, humidity - not more than 13%, total ash - not more than 18%, darkened or yellowed leaves - not more than 1%, other parts of the plant (( pieces of stems, flowers and fruits) - not more than 1%, crushed leaves passing through a sieve with holes with a diameter of 2 mm - not more than 2%, organic impurities - not more than 0.5%, mineral impurities - not more than 0.5% .

Ground raw materials. All the main indicators for crushed raw materials are the same as for whole. They added indicators of the degree of grinding: particles not passing through a sieve with holes with a diameter of 7 mm, not more than 5%, and particles passing through a sieve with holes with a size of 0.5 mm, not more than 10%.

In the leaves of digitalis large-flowered, 23 cardiac glycosides were found, amounting to a total of 0.6% of the mass of its air-dry raw materials. The main ones are acetyldigitoxin, digitoxin, digoxin, gitoside, digitoxygenin, gitoksigenin, deacetylanatoside A, gluverodoxin, glucoevatromonoside, digitalinumumum, neo-digitalinumumum, stanzonosides, stanzonosides, lanzaponides, stanzonozide traces of alkaloids. Flutonoid luteolin was isolated from flowers, purpureaglycosides A and B, digitalinumumverum, digitoxin, gotoxin, and strospesid were isolated from seeds. Stems, leaves and flowers contain macroelements: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and microelements: manganese, chromium, molybdenum, copper. Rhizomes and roots, along with macro- and microelements, contain phenolic compounds, tannins and possibly alkaloids.

Digitalis large-flowered drugs have a cardiotonic effect, increasing the strength and speed of heart contractions without significant changes in myocardial energy and oxygen consumption. The therapeutic effect occurs on intact or hypertrophic myocardial fibers in a state of vicar hyperfunction and reversible dystrophy. With an increase in cardiac output, central venous pressure decreases, blood stasis in the lungs and liver decreases, diuresis increases, and peripheral edema disappears. Due to improved blood circulation, as well as a specific stimulating effect directly on the renal tissue, metabolic processes are normalized.

Digitalis infusion, within therapeutic doses, has an immunostimulating effect. Digitalis infusion is prescribed for the prevention and treatment of insufficiency (decompensation) of various origins: mitral defects, coronary cardiosclerosis, hypertension, myocardial dystrophy.

Digitalis is usually prescribed for a long time. Duration of use is determined by the period of restoration of blood circulation and normalization of heart rate, normalization of diuresis, the disappearance of edema, improved sleep and overall well-being.
Digitalis has a cumulative effect, is slowly (over 8-12 hours) excreted from the body. In toxic doses, it weakens the contractile function of the heart, worsens its blood circulation, reduces coronary blood flow, angina attacks occur or become more frequent. An early manifestation of digitalis intoxication is loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. Galenic drugs taken in general doses have a direct irritating effect on the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. A specific digitalis intoxication syndrome after taking large doses is color hallucinations: all objects appear yellow or green. Factors contributing to digitalis intoxication should be considered: excess of therapeutic doses, myocarditis, hypokalemia, diuretic therapy, hypercalcemia, renal or hepatic insufficiency. Depending on the severity of side effects, it is necessary to reduce or temporarily completely stop taking digitalis preparations. Atropine, caffeine, potassium chloride, unitiol, and, if necessary, antiarrhythmic drugs are used to reduce toxic manifestations.

An infusion of crushed leaves up to a size of not more than 5 mm digitalis large-flowered is prepared in a ratio of 1: 400. The crushed leaves in an enamel bowl are poured with water at room temperature, insisted for 15 minutes, boiled in a water bath with frequent stirring, cooled at room temperature for 45 minutes, filtered, the residue is squeezed into the infusion and boiled water is added to the filtrate to its original volume.

Adults are prescribed 1 tablespoon 3 times a day. For children, the infusion is prepared from 0.1-0.4 g of leaves per 100 ml of water, apply 1 teaspoon 3 times a day. Infusion can be prescribed in enemas.

Store in a cool place, no more than 2 days. Shake before use. For the preparation of infusions, leaves with biological activity of 50-66 ICE or 10.3-12.6 KED are used. For raw materials with higher biological activity, recalculation is done. Raw materials with less activity are not used.

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