Sooner or later, owners of domestic cats begin to think about castration / sterilization of their pets, because this does not only save the pets from more problems, but even prolong their life ...
True, a good proportion of cat-lovers often mistakenly interpret the above concepts, believing that males are usually neutered, and females are sterilized. But in fact, these processes are in no way connected with the sex of the animals, but imply various types of surgical intervention, leading ultimately to one result - cats and cats lose their ability to reproduce.
What is the difference?
So, with castration there is a complete removal of the sex glands from the body of the animal (in males - testes, and in females - ovaries), as a result of which the pet is provided with complete sexual rest throughout the rest of its life. After the operation, the animal will not have any drives and needs, as well as the ability to conduct full-fledged sexual activity.
But sterilization, in turn, is rarely used in veterinary medicine of small pets, as it consists in ligation (i.e. dressing or soldering) of spermatic cords in cats and oviducts in cats. After this intervention, animals lose their ability to reproduce, while maintaining sexual activity, as sex hormones continue to be synthesized in their sex glands. So it turns out that from the point of view of animal health and the convenience of household life, sterilization of cats and cats does not make sense at all, because all the nuances of sexual behavior remain unchanged (increased activity, screaming, aggressiveness, etc., etc.) .
Technically, the operation to sterilize domestic cats is quite possible, but it is used, as a rule, for medical reasons in the process of treating some diseases.
How to distinguish castration from sterilization?
These terms are often used incorrectly due to a misunderstanding of the essence of the procedures. As a rule, even in the lists of operations performed by veterinary clinics, one can find “cat castration” and “cat sterilization”, although they are applicable to animals of any gender. This does not mean that doctors are illiterate, they simply take into account the ignorance of the subtleties of terminology by most owners.
Castration is the complete elimination of the sex glands of both sexes. Radical surgery involves the removal of testes in males and ovaries in females. In this case, the hormones testosterone and estrogen cease to be secreted, respectively, which leads to the impossibility of reproducing offspring and adjusting the behavior of animals.
It happens that after castration a cat still wants a cat because of the residual hormones in the body. In addition, if the procedure is carried out in a mature individual with relevant experience, the pituitary gland “reminds” of the basic instinct and can provoke such behavior. Let a castrated cat want a cat, but this does not cause hormonal changes in his body, does no harm, and passes over time.
In its course, the veterinarian bandages the vas deferens in cats and fallopian tubes in cats. All sexual functions and corresponding behavior are preserved. Such a procedure is technically possible, however, it is most often performed according to medical indications during the treatment of diseases.
It is not suitable for correcting the sex drive of pets. Therefore, the fact that the cat after sterilization continues to ask the cat is completely normal. At the same time, the pet will not be able to get pregnant. Sometimes, for the prevention, the uterus of the cat is removed. This does not affect the behavior, but it helps to prevent many possible diseases and extend the life of the animal.
As for the castration procedure, you need to thoroughly prepare for it:
- firstly, the pet must be hungry (that is, do not eat write at least 10 hours before the operation),
- secondly, it is best to conduct a preliminary study of the function of the cardiovascular system (especially in animals aged or with any pathologies) in order to minimize all possible risks.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of operations?
Before deciding on a procedure, owners should consider the consequences of sterilizing cats. It can have both positive and negative sides.
The undoubted advantages of sterilization and castration are:
- lack of ability to produce offspring,
- protection against problems associated with childbirth and gestation,
- reduction of the risk of breast tumor, especially if the procedure is performed before the first estrus,
- reduction in the likelihood of contracting infectious diseases caused by uncontrolled cases, fights in the mating season.
At the same time, if castration was performed, then no diseases of the genitals can occur, since they have already been removed. So females avoid the fate of endometritis, pyometra, polycystic uterus and ovaries, tumors, malignant and benign. And even if the cat after castration wants a cat, he does not suffer from diseases associated with hormonal imbalance and metabolism. Read about the pyometer in the article “Pyometra Disease in Cats: Symptoms and Treatment”.
The disadvantages of the procedures are:
- the surgical process itself and, although small, the possibility of complications (infection, the occurrence of adhesions, fluid accumulation, etc.),
- anesthetic risk: even young and healthy individuals sometimes suffer from latent genetic pathologies of the heart and kidneys, individual intolerance or allergic reactions,
- postoperative animal care,
- the need to correct the pet’s nutrition in order to avoid obesity against a background of changes in the hormonal background. For example, a cat can be fed Royal Canin sterilized cat food.
Modern veterinarians use quality tools to minimize the possibility of complications. In some cases, laparoscopy is possible, then the sutures are minimal. To facilitate the care of the animal after its release from anesthesia, many clinics offer to leave it under observation for a day. Depending on how cats tolerate sterilization or castration, their health status can be judged. Young active animals, as a rule, do not show significant pathologies. In any case, if you plan to sterilize a cat, the pros and cons should be considered in advance.
What are the methods of surgical intervention?
How a cat behaves after sterilization depends on how it is performed. The first option is with access through the white line of the abdomen. The hair from the navel to the last pair of nipples is shaved, a skin incision is made. As a result, the veterinarian gains access to the ovaries and uterus and either removes them whole or bandages the vessels. After the procedure, stitches are applied to the abdominal wall and skin. Such an operation is the most common and requires wearing blankets to prevent licking of the wound. The seam can be from 1.5 to 5 cm.
It is possible to perform surgery through an incision on the side. This method involves little care after surgery and is often used for stray animals. Despite the fact that usually a cat sleeps a lot and is sluggish after sterilization, it is released after awakening from anesthesia. The incision on the side is less traumatic and does not require serious care for the seam. For pets, this method is rarely used, since it is difficult for a veterinarian to assess the condition of internal organs and possible complications.
Laparoscopy is the most modern and expensive method, while being the least traumatic. The operation passes through punctures not exceeding 3 mm with visual control on the screen. Laparoscopy ensures the sterility of the procedure.
How to help the animal after surgery?
The way cats behave after sterilization worries many hosts long before surgery. However, if you follow all the recommendations, all the unpleasant consequences can be minimized. It should be noted that feeding 6-12 hours before surgery is completely prohibited in order to avoid the occurrence of a gag reflex after anesthesia, while water is allowed. After returning home, the animal should be put on a towel in a warm comfortable place.
No matter how the operation was performed, it is still stress for the body of the pet. Many owners say that after sterilization the cat does not eat, does not drink, cannot concentrate, and even shows aggression.
To feed an animal, even if it tries to reach a bowl, is possible only after the disappearance of any consequences of anesthesia!
It happens that after sterilization a cat yells, this is due to fright and disorientation. It should unobtrusively calm the animal by gently stroking and holding the pet. Read more about caring for a cat after sterilization here.
The answer to the question of how many cats depart from anesthesia after sterilization depends on the health status of the pet and the correct calculation of drugs. Veterinary hospitals usually leave the animal for at least 12 hours, which helps to prevent complications. If the owners take the animal with them, the next day it is necessary to look after it. The recovery period lasts about 10 days. As prescribed by your veterinarian, you may need antibiotics that you can enter on your own or at a doctor’s appointment.
Changes in character will be noticeable only after castration. Such animals become more affectionate, domestic, attacks of aggression or excessive obsession disappear. Sterilized animals retain all sexual instincts and characteristic behavior, however, like neutered animals, they are no longer able to reproduce. If the sterilized cat asks the cat what to do, the owner decides what to do. The use of hormonal ointments can seriously damage the pet, therefore it is better to provide it with reliable partners.
What is castration and sterilization?
When sterilizing the animal, the genitals are not removed: the spermatic ducts are ligated to the cats, the fallopian tubes to the cats. At the same time, the production of sex hormones does not stop, which allows you to save the hormonal background. Castration of a cat or cat involves the removal of the sex glands: as a result of this operation, the reproductive function and the production of sex hormones cease.
Traditionally, cats are called sterilized, and cats are neutered, hence the confusion. For convenience, the same terminology is used in this article, although for the most part we are talking about the removal of the sex glands in both cats and cats.
Both of these procedures are performed using anesthesia, and in the case of cats it is also abdominal surgery, so it is important to know how to prepare for them and what to do in the postoperative period.
How does surgery affect a pet’s health?
The results of many studies suggest that the life expectancy of sterilized animals is on average longer by 1.5–2 years.
Timely sterilization and castration can significantly reduce the risk of many diseases, such as:
- Polycystic Ovary
- Immunodeficiency virus
- Reproductive Oncology
- Breast Cancer in Cats
How does the character of the pet change after sterilization?
After sterilization and castration, animals become more docile and manageable. They do not seek to escape, less often show aggression. They lose all hormonal problems and related behavior.
So, non-castrated cats that are on the street often get injured during the "sex hunt" or in "battles" with rivals. Cats can run away, get lost or get under cars. In addition, unsterilized animals are at high risk of contracting various infectious diseases.
However, after the operation, the risk of encountering these problems becomes significantly lower.
Myths related to castration and sterilization
Myth number 1.
We are not entitled to change what is intended by nature.
Man has long changed the natural course of life of animals that are now domestic: they do not live on the street, do not get their own food and do not feel the change of seasons. Therefore, it is important to bring “domestication” to the end: that is, adjust the habitat to the pet, and help the pet feel comfortable in a forced habitat.
At the same time, many owners tend to humanize their favorites, attributing to them the motives and desires inherent in the first place to man. But in the sexual behavior of animals, the leading role is played by instincts, not emotions.
Do not think that the cat is sad because she never had kittens, her desire to breed is physiological, and disappears with the removal of the sex glands.
Myth number 2.
We give pills, and we are fine.
Contraceptives can only be a temporary solution. All manufactured drugs are designed to stop estrus, and their prolonged use causes serious hormonal changes in the body, which can lead to the development of various diseases.
Contraceptives do not prevent pregnancy, especially with the joint maintenance of heterosexual individuals.
Myth number 3
The operation leads to weight gain.
Often, the development of obesity is associated with castration and sterilization. Indeed, against the background of a decrease in the production of sex hormones after castration and sterilization, the physical activity of the animal decreases and the feeling of hunger intensifies. However, overweight after surgery is almost always the result of excessive feeding.
If you take care in time to change the usual food for a special diet, compiled taking into account all the features and needs of neutered, sterilized animals, health problems can be easily avoided.
Myth number 4
Castrated cats develop urolithiasis
In the development of urolithiasis it is difficult to single out one reason, there are always several:
- reduced fresh water intake
- sedentary lifestyle and lack of ability to constantly mark territory
- obesity and an unbalanced diet
Castration or sterilization alone does not affect the development of urolithiasis.
If after the operation the owner does not take care of changing the usual diet to a special one, the cat or cat really risks not only gaining excess weight, but also earning urolithiasis and diseases of the cardiovascular system, digestive tract and joints.
Undesirable effects of castration and sterilization
Any operation is stress for the body, and during anesthesia, of course, there are always certain risks. However, castration and sterilization are planned operations, the risk of which is only 0.1% - 0.5%.
The better developed surgery in the clinic where the operation is performed, the more qualified the surgical team, the less risk. In any case, the risk during planned operations is much lower than the risk during urgent surgical treatment (for example, with a pyometer).
And remember, the occurrence of many health problems after sterilization can be avoided by choosing the right diet. Read about the choice of the diet of cats after surgery in the article "Basic principles of nutrition of neutered cats and sterilized cats."
If you are NOT going to breed pets
Many owners of cats and cats, thoroughbred or not, are not going to breed them.And there are a lot of such "humanists" who are not castrated and sterilized at the same time. Allegedly, the operation is cruel and inhuman. The myths about castrated cats, by the way, are very, and very subject to challenge. Many simply spare money, because the operation of "some kind of animal" is not cheap.
If you are not going to breed your pets, then it is better to invest in castration / sterilization once. Breaking into pills every time a pet asks for a partner, you can lose a lot more money and nerves. Some pets, by hook or by crook, run away to "walk", and, if you have a cat, bring posterity. And now compare what is inhuman: a one-time operation or stoke kittens that are no longer needed?
Cats from 7 months old can breed, and some can do this up to 4 times a year!
Among the many hosts there is an opinion that, let the cat experience the joy of motherhood at least once. If pregnancy and childbirth are successful, then, yes, they will. And if not? Kittens can be born dead, die after birth a few days later. This is a blow not only to the physical, but also to the mental health of the cat.
In addition, during the “spring” period, so cats and cats can be aggressive, spoil furniture (tear with their claws, mark), their health can be greatly deteriorated.
Castrated cats and sterilized cats, according to scientists, live longer and calmer.
They are not tormented by hormonal bursts, the hunting instinct is not lost, the health of the whole organism is not violated, and most importantly, they become more affectionate. When walking on the street (if you regularly walk your pet), pets do not try to run away, they have a reduced risk of catching an infection. Yes, and the cries of a poor animal will cease to infuriate you.
To maintain cats' health, there is no need to regularly have sex like humans. This process in animals is caused by instinct to continue a kind. So, by sterilizing or castrating your pet, you do not deprive him of one of the joys of life. Rather, on the contrary, improve his life, psycho-emotional and physical health.
Thus, if you bought a cat or a cat not for breeding purposes, but for yourself, then you should not skimp on the operation. Sterilization and castration is recommended until the pet reaches one year, when the pet has finally grown and formed.
Cat sterilization - what is it
Sterilizing cats and dogs is a simplified name for spaying (ovariectomy) or removal of the uterus and ovaries (ovariogisterectomy) In veterinary medicine, cat sterilization is very common. Many owners expose their pets to this type of surgery.
According to veterinarians, the optimal solution is to simultaneously conduct an ovariectomy with a hysterectomy.
To the list pluses (relative indications) cat sterilization includes:
- the ability to avoid an unwanted cat pregnancy,
- the ability to avoid heat-related behavior,
- prevention of the development of breast tumors.
- purulent inflammation of the uterus (Pyometra),
- tumors of the uterus and ovaries.
Cat sterilization is not recommended during estrus, as at this time there is swelling and plethora of the uterus.
The operation itself
Cats are sterilized under general anesthesia. Anesthesia is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Remember that cat anesthesia is carried out with eyes open, which is why a special ointment is applied to the cornea to protect it from drying out. The owner does not need to know all the stages of the operation to sterilize the cat, however, it is desirable to learn the main stages.
Doctors perform online access on the white (mid) line of the abdomen. Using this technique, it is possible to remove the uterine tissue in all cases, therefore, the risk of further development of the uterus stump pyometers is eliminated.
Removal of the ovaries is one of the most important stages of the operation. All ovarian tissue is removed to avoid estrus in the animal. The uterus is excised completely below the division into two horns (bifurcations).
Caring for a cat after a sterilization operation - care features
The animal is removed from anesthesia with the help of special preparations and a dropper. Soon, all reflexes are restored, except for coordination of movement. It will become normal only after 24 after the termination of the anesthesia. Until this time, it is better to make a warm litter on the floor, since after amnesia the temperature of the animal drops immediately by 2-3 degrees. You can also cover the cat with a warm blanket or attach a warm heating pad to her back.
Remember that swallowing and intestinal activity do not immediately return to normal.
If the animal has a dry mouth after surgery, you can moisten it with water from time to time. Five hours later, put a bowl of water for him. Your pet should receive the first portion of food only a day after the operation. It is best to give 1/3 of the usual diet. In the first days after surgery, try to give soft feed. It is also possible that the cat's appetite will not be the best for the first few days.
Also, after surgery, the cat is prescribed an injectable antibiotic. Doctors use a prolonged drug. You will have to do two injections subcutaneously on your own. In addition, you will have to process the stitches on the cat once a day with alcohol.
Usually, sutures are removed on the 10th-12th day after surgery. Before removing them, make sure that the cat is always in blanket. I’ll change it as soon as it gets dirty. It is best to immediately buy two blankets. This way you can wash them one at a time.
Usually, immediately after surgery, the cat's appetite increases and metabolism decreases. This can cause obesity. Be sure to control your pet’s diet.
Castration of cats - what is it
Castration of a cat is a planned operation, as a result of which the testes (gonads) are surgically removed. In cats, the reproductive function stops and the production of male sex hormones stops. Castration can be effectively performed at any age, but it is best done when the cat is 9 months old (it is during this period that puberty begins). Usually by this time the cat becomes strong enough and ready for its first mating. Castration at this age will forever rid the cat of behavior that is caused by hormones (aggression, screaming, designation of its territory, etc.).
The appearance of a small kitten in every family is a joyful event. He is like a small child, and in the same way he needs affection and proper care. In the first months, the kitten is completely harmless - he eats, sleeps and plays with his toys. But literally by the age of seven or eight months his behavior rarely changes. The kitten begins the period called puberty, he enters the "teenage" age.
Soon, the animal will mature, grow stronger and turn into an adult sexually active male - a cat. Cats tend to mark their territory. They mark the territory with particularly caustic and odorous urine, in a special way standing in front of the sites that they were going to mark. At the same time, cats pursue several goals - attracting females and identifying territory as their own. At the same time, such a territory becomes attractive to cats and inaccessible to outside cats.
However, what if this territory is not a tree in the yard and not a car wheel, but a favorite sofa or chair?
Cat urine is extremely caustic and odorous. You cannot “reason” or persuade your cat to stop tagging in any way. Popularly popular method "face in a puddle"Will never work - the cat will understand it in his own way -"you cannot mark when the owner of the house», «the owner is not happy that urine is not enough causticI", "the owner does not want the tags on the sofa, he wants the tags on the wallpaper».
No jumpers and traps can help. As a maximum, you can achieve a change in the places that the cat marks, but not the process itself.
So here main signsthat torment every owner and always cause a lot of negative emotions if the cat is not neutered:
- The cat begins to put its marks in all places of the house, usually in the corners and around the perimeter. These tags exude a terribly unpleasant odor that is difficult to remove even with chemicals. The problem of “tagging” arises with absolutely every cat, this is its natural and completely normal behavior. Indeed, in nature he needs to have his own territory, which he instinctively marks at home.
- The cat begins to scream strongly at night, preventing the owners from falling asleep normally. This is another normal problem - so the cat “calls” the cat, which he needs during this period. The sexual attraction of the cat, which is not satisfied, leads to the torment and cries of the animal.
- The animal during puberty is in a state of severe stress, which can cause unjustified aggression towards people. He rushes to his feet, jumps on the owners bed at night, rushes around the house, scratches and bites.
The solution to all these problems can be castration of a cat.
This is a removal procedure in cats aged seven months or older of testicles, or testes.
Castration is the easiest and most effective way to get rid of the pungent odor in the apartment, eliminate the aggression of the animal and even extend the life of the cat. It can be carried out in several ways, including non-surgical and surgical.
Castration Cat - Pros and Cons
«What are the risks of castration?"- this is the question most animal lovers are interested in. We hasten to reassure you, there is no risk, since this is one of the simplest operations, which can be compared with tooth extraction. Such an operation is not associated with any vital organs of the animal and takes place without any complications.
Castration of a cat is the best way to maintain your comfort, unless, of course, you plan to use the animal as a producer. After the operation, cats stop marking the territory. However, it is important to remember: if before that the animal already had mating, then there is no 100% guarantee that it will cease to deal with the designation of the territory. Also, after the operation, the cat will no longer mark your clothes or shoes (unless, of course, it harbors malice). Also, the animal will be less aggressive and will not scream.
- Castrated cats live longer than their counterparts who escaped surgery.
- They also remain cheerful and playful until their old age.
- Castration will save your cat from a whole bunch of cat diseases (for example, prostatitis, perianal gland adenomas, prostate tumors and a number of other infections). 70% of uncastrated cats suffer from such diseases. Castrated almost always remain completely healthy.
Castration at home
Pros: You don’t have to go anywhere with a cat. You will not spend time on extra trips to the clinic and back. The cat will remain in familiar conditions, there will be no risk of infection with any infection.
Cons: Surgery involves certain risks. Any operation is best carried out in conditions specially adapted for this. Hospital equipment at times reduces these risks. It is important to note that castration of a cat is not abdominal surgery. That is why sterility conditions are not required. An operation involves much less deep and shorter anesthesia than any other surgical procedure. Largely due to this, this procedure can be carried out at home.
Pros: for a safe operation, all the necessary conditions are created, the doctor is well-versed in the situation and fully controls the situation, minimizing the likelihood of postoperative complications. Also, the cost of the procedure in clinical settings is much lower.
Cons: You will spend time traveling with a cat to the clinic and back.
Castration of cats at home - what you need to know
Why is it better? Why is this service so popular today?
Highly qualified veterinarians, having agreed with you a convenient time to visit, will come to your home with all the necessary tools and drugs. The operation itself is quite simple and does not take much time. The whole procedure will take no more than 40-60 minutes. Before surgery, you will receive comprehensive advice from a veterinarian.
Castration of cats at home is no different from that in the clinic - the operation is extremely simple, takes a little time, and there is no risk of overcooling the animal on the street in the cold season. In addition, transporting a cat to a veterinary clinic is stress in itself, and stress can adversely affect any animal organism. If dogs are accustomed to walking on the street, then traveling with a cat to a veterinary clinic for castration and the return trip will certainly cause stress to one degree or another.
In the case of a castration of a cat at home, stress is completely eliminated - the pet recovers faster on its territory.
Many cat owners believe that castration surgery, even at home, is inhumane and cruel. This is not true. It is much more humane to castrate a cat once in a life than to make him suffer all his life. A non-neutered animal does not receive the desired communication with cats and lives in constant stress conditions - the owner scolds, there are no cats, "life has failed." How humane it is is up to you to decide. However, any veterinarian will advise you to perform this simple operation.
The non-surgical (drug) castration method is considered ineffective and Not recommended veterinarians. By giving your cat powerful drugs containing the hormone progestogen, you draw to cause irreversible processes in the body of the animal and even the growth of tumors. That is why it is recommended to castrate a cat at home surgically.
Exist two options such an operation:
- The first option is “closed” castration. It involves ligation of the seminiferous tubules and cutting off part of them (from three to five millimeters).
- The "open method" is carried out by removing the testis and altering its own ligament.
Both types of operations are the simplest in veterinary medicine, so cat owners have nothing to fear. Many owners do not carry out the castration procedure out of compassion for the animals, because they will have to experience pain and serious condition after general anesthesia. However, veterinarians claim that this procedure always passes for him imperceptibly and painlessly. The cat departs from general anesthesia in less than a day, again turning into your nimble pet. At the same time, no serious changes are noticed in the behavior of cats.
Pity for the animal - the only argument that speaks to the owners is not in favor of castration. But it is worth thinking about how the animal is tormented by its own instincts and sexual needs, which in the natural environment should be satisfied from eight times a year or more. One single simple operation immediately solves the problem and relieves the animal of torment for life, the cat becomes calmer and develops harmoniously.
How much does a cat castration cost?
Moscow clinics will castrate a cat for 1,500 rubles. In Kaliningrad, such a service will cost 800 rubles. The cost includes the following: examination of the cat at the reception, anesthesia, the operation itself, various medical preparations and materials, maintenance and care of the cat after the operation (the animal will have to spend 24 hours in the hospital).
Caring for the cat after surgery
After castration, no special care is required.Only the rehabilitation period is important. The animal will need to recover from the action of anesthesia. Just surround your favorite fluffy lump with attention and love. If the cat has not yet recovered sufficiently, then do not let it climb to high places (chairs or cabinets) so that the animal does not fall.
Another thing that you should pay attention to after the castration operation of the cat. It is necessary to monitor the proper nutrition of the pet. If this is not done, then obesity and urolithiasis can occur.
- To prevent the latter, exclude fish from the cat's diet.
- Also make sure that substances such as magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus are minimized in cat food.
- To prevent obesity, do not overfeed the cat.
- After surgery, cats increase the efficiency of deposition of adipose tissue, which is why it is vital to reduce the daily portion of the animal.
- Make sure your pet consumes sufficient fluids.
- You can also purchase special food for neutered cats.
Your pet needs your care, so do not spare money and time.
- The operation to castrate a cat is very simple.
- Thanks to castration, a cat will avoid a number of extremely unpleasant feline diseases.
- After castration, the cat will keep a cheerful and playful mood.
- Castration of animals at home has a psychological and physiological justification for cats that live in a city apartment and are not able to follow their natural instincts.
When you go to the clinic, or the doctor comes to you, a special card is put on your cat. That is why the next time getting help at the clinic will be much easier for you. You can make your pet a passport (for taking the cat abroad). Also, the cat can receive vaccination and the opportunity to undergo examination (medical examination).
If you decide to have a kitten, do not forget the following
It's no secret that many people simply don’t dwell in their little fluffy lumps. They give us joy every day. When the kitten begins to live in the house, everyone is just happy. However, only six months pass and serious problems begin. Until recently, a kitten was a small and cute creature, and now it has ceased to be an adult cat, which makes noise at night and constantly runs away from home in search of cats. You won’t go against nature! In this case, it is about instincts. It is they who make the animal mark its territory.
Experienced housewives know how hard it is to remove the cat smell in an apartment or to get rid of shoes. It is important to note that a city apartment is not a natural habitat for cats. Mother nature provided for these animals a completely different thing. Nature requires cats to mate with cats about eight times a year. The production of hormones is constantly ongoing, which have a powerful effect on the behavior of the animal. He marks and defends his territory, makes noise and screams at night - this is absolutely normal for him. The bottom line is that in a natural environment, cats have no barriers to follow their instincts. When a cat begins to behave like this in your home, your life can become truly uncomfortable. That is why it is important to take all necessary measures in advance - to take care of castration of a cat or sterilization of a cat.
In cats, the entire castration process is more complicated, since the operation in this case is abdominal, that is, the uterus and ovaries are removed through a deep incision in the groin or abdomen. Surgical manipulations last 30-40 minutes, after which the wound is sutured, and the animal wears a special blanket or collar that prevents the seam from licking and combing.
It should be noted that females can be neutered not only in a standard way, but also endoscopically - when several small incisions are made on the abdominal wall through which endoscopic instruments and a camera with a illuminator are inserted. The surgeon controls all his actions through a display that displays the image of the operation. But such an operation, of course, will cost more.
Postoperative Recovery depends on the individual characteristics of the organism of one or another animal, which may take a different time. Typically, after anesthesia, cats and cats depart after 2-4 hours, and fully recover after about one day.