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Doberman: breed characteristics, care and maintenance, how to feed, standards, history


Modern european doberman beautiful healthy animal with a great character. Over the past 20 years, the breed has become very popular. But every coin has a flip side: popularity does not always contribute to improving the breed.

It is encouraging, according to the author, that under the influence of a set of tough measures (health research and testing) taken by the German Doberman Club (DV.e. V.) and the International Doberman Club (IDC) (President Mr. Hans Wiblishauser), the number of animals allowed for breeding is significantly limited.

To protect the breed from the so-called breeders who, speculating on its popularity, are in a hurry to satisfy their short-term commercial interests and are practically not engaged in breeding, but in the "mass reproduction" of Dobermans (with all the ensuing consequences), a series of tests has been developed in Europe in the main areas of research :
Character test - character tests,
Health Check
Conformation test - assessments of the exterior.

Using the entire arsenal of tests, studies, established norms and rules, the European community of national Doberman clubs exercises the necessary control over breeding on the basis of strict selection.

The author considers it unacceptable when breeding Dobermans to be guided only by their own ideas about the breed. Of primary importance is the preservation of the main type, which should be controlled by European Doberman clubs, which, in turn, must be governed by IDC rules. Unfortunately, most European Doberman clubs do not have de facto power in their countries, but it is encouraging that in the homeland of the Doberman, in Germany, the German Doberman club successfully controls breeding and protection of the breed.

It must be recognized that the developed system of tests and rules is not without some drawbacks, but its advantages and benefits are undeniably more important. First of all, it preserves the genetic basis and stability of the breed, maintaining its condition at a fairly high quality level. This system monitors not only such aspects as the general pedigree level (type), the exterior excellence achieved under certain conditions, but also the working qualities, condition of the breed, and also allows you to recognize and recognize the importance of an individual “genetic set” and the health of the breed as a whole.

When breeding, you can’t get carried away with only one aspect, for example, beauty to the detriment of working qualities or vice versa. It must be firmly understood that even a perfectly beautiful Doberman is far from ideally complying with the Standard.

The goal of the true connoisseur of the breed, the breeder is to obtain a healthy, harmoniously built Doberman, with a strong, balanced character (temperament) and huge working capacity. Only the Doberman possessing all this set of advantages fully complies with the German Breed Standard, FCI and IDC.

Dogs - both having a fighting spirit, protective instincts, but light-boned, with a muzzle down, a humpbacked back, etc., and anatomically correctly built, but not able to even protect their master - do not deserve the right to be called a Doberman.

The problem is that the Standard gives an idea of ​​the ideal Doberman, and the breeder is forced to work with the pedigree material (very purely far from the ideal) that he has at his disposal. Do not believe that one or another representative of the breed is an ideal. In any, you can find flaws.

The art of breeding is to work thoughtfully and competently, with love and devotion, with the available breeding stock, find the best mating options in order to avoid the manifestation and repetition of shortcomings in the next generations and, adhering to the requirements of the Standard as much as possible, move closer and closer to the cherished ideal.

Every serious breeder wants a dog of “his breeding” to receive TWO top titles: the champion in working qualities (Leistungssieger) and the champion in exterior (for example, Bundessieger).

Before starting breeding, it is necessary to clearly define the goal and the final desired result of the work - obtaining dogs of the ideal type with enviable health, harmoniously combining an excellent exterior and good temperament. What method you will use - inbreeding, linebreeding or cross - it does not matter as long as you manage to achieve the right combination of individuals.

The male and female should complement each other in virtues, and not have the same disadvantages. It is necessary to carefully study their pedigrees, the analysis of which will either confirm your choice, or make you reconsider it.

Breed benefits

  • Versatility: can be a guard, a bloodhound, a guide for the blind, a companion.
  • With proper upbringing, the dog does not show aggression unnecessarily.
  • Doberman falls in love with his master. What the owner requires of him is sacred to him.
  • The dog is very observant. If we allow the slightest weakness, he will take advantage of it.
  • The behavior of the pet depends on the owner and his educational methods.
  • This dog has a well-developed search instinct. A four-legged friend can find anything.
  • He is smart and smart. Learning and working are dog's favorite pastimes.
  • A mobile and energetic pet will be happy to accompany you during jogging, cycling, outdoor games.
  • The breed is recognized as highly intelligent. Its representatives have a sense of dignity and a high degree of responsibility.
  • Pets are cunning, have a wonderful memory. Well amenable to training.


  • The pet is wayward. This feature manifests itself from an early age. Puppy discipline needs to be taught as early as possible.
  • For busy people, a drawback may be the need for constant communication. However, this is fixable, because the dogs behave more calmly in pairs.
  • With improper upbringing, a tendency to aggression may manifest.
  • Suitable only for strong and strong-willed people, phlegmatic Doberman may not be perceived as a leader.
  • More painful than other breeds reacts to a change of host.
  • Perceives new family members cautiously. There may be problems with the appearance of the child.
  • He likes to sleep, is not averse to choosing a sofa or a master bed for this. If you think that such behavior is unacceptable for a fourth family member, do not allow him to do this and severely punish disobedience.

Doberman: dog character, behavior

There are many rumors and legends about dogs of this breed. Most of them are unfounded. In fact, the Doberman is moderately aggressive and does not like to bite, as is often shown in films. Biting dogs do occur, but this is due to improper selection or to errors in education.

Initially, the Doberman is a balanced creature. If he falls into skilled hands, he reveals all his best qualities.

And vice versa, the pet will circle the finger of a not-so-smart owner. In such cases, the dog becomes a leader in the family, may show unmotivated aggression.

This breed is not for everyone. It can create inconvenience. A bored Doberman, especially a young one, can ruin the property in the house, arrange howling concerts and other rooms. And all with one goal - to attract attention. But find him an occupation, and see how wise and strong a defender your Doberman will become. The characteristics of the breed confirms this.

House behavior

Many owners say that he is able to guess thoughts. And the pet really knows how to hit. Particularly unique ability to distinguish between good and evil on an intuitive level, as well as the speed of reaction to what is happening and limitless devotion. Playing Doberman and children are a familiar sight for breed owners.

If there is no mutual understanding in the house, the animal will grow hot-tempered and unbalanced.

He is sensitive to the microclimate in the house, quickly responds to quarrels between family members and the mood of the owner. He really does not like it if they do not pay attention to him. After all, a handsome handsome man is a social and intellectual being.

Street behavior

During the walk, the four-legged friend always keeps the owner in sight. He is ready to come to his aid at the slightest danger. Uneducated dogs or individuals with an unstable psyche can be aggressive towards moving objects. This is not the norm.

Aggression itself is not a defect. This is a normal quality that a dog needs. It becomes a problem only when excessive.

The responsible breeder excludes such individuals from breeding. And an experienced owner corrects education.

Attitude to strangers, protection of the owner and home

Doberman is a dog for defense, not for attack. If from an early age to engage in socialization of the puppy, accustom him to the presence of strangers and animals nearby, the pet will calmly respond to them in adulthood.

But a quick-tempered character can manifest itself when meeting with fellow tribesmen: the dog sometimes gets involved in fights, in which, as a rule, it wins. He will not wag his tail at the sight of his acquaintances. Usually the pet is indifferent and cold with everyone except the members of the host family.

Care and maintenance

Unlike upbringing, daily care of a pet does not cause difficulties even for lazy owners. Both in the apartment and in the country house, a stately Doberman will feel great. Care and maintenance in the aviary is allowed if it is possible to make it insulated. And communicate with him as often as possible.

Without a warm shelter, the dog will simply freeze, and without communication it will become dull and inadequate.

Hair care

The pet needs minimal care - wipe it daily with a towel to remove fallen hair. Many owners during molting care for wool using a vacuum cleaner. It is fast and convenient. But you need to accustom the baby to the procedure as early as possible, otherwise an adult dog will be afraid of the loud howling of technology.

Claw care

After walking, the feet are wiped with a damp cloth. Claws in the summer are usually not pruned. If your four-legged pupil walks a lot on asphalt or other hard surface, he will grind them himself better than any tools.

In winter, when dogs walk less, and even in soft snow, you need to monitor the claws and, if necessary, trim the keratinized tissue with special tweezers. Usually this is done no more than 1-2 times a month. Claws should be trimmed carefully so as not to catch the “living” part of the claw, which is abundant in nerve endings and blood vessels.

Beautiful teeth - a visiting card of a handsome watchman. Revision of the mouth should be carried out daily. Small plaque on the teeth is removed with a cotton swab with dog tooth powder or toothpaste. Shards of stuck bones or chips are removed with tweezers.

Periodically, the teeth are brushed with a special dog toothbrush and treated with a spray against plaque. Note that the spray does not remove the already formed tartar. You can remove it in a veterinary clinic.

Ear care

In our country, Dobermans with cropped ears are more common. Erect ears are better ventilated, but dust, dirt, water easily gets into them. Usually inspection of the ears is carried out every 2-3 weeks. During the procedure, the auricle is cleaned with gauze, a bandage or cotton swabs.

Do not flush your ears with hydrogen peroxide. For hygienic cleaning use ear drops for dogs. They are sold in veterinary pharmacies. During the procedure, the ear stick is introduced only to the depth of the vertical channel, that is, within sight. Otherwise, you risk damaging the eardrum.

Every morning you need to clean the corners of the eyes of the pet from the accumulated during sleep secretions with a piece of bandage. Vata is not suitable for these purposes. Her villi can irritate the mucous membrane.

If the discharge becomes abundant, or becomes greenish, dust may have gotten into your eyes. In this case, instill the eyes with baby eye drops. But if there is no improvement, consult a doctor. A seemingly innocuous conjunctivitis can be a symptom of such a dangerous disease as the plague.

Intimate hygiene

Once a week, you need to examine the genitals of pets of both sexes. When purulent or mucous secretions appear in the male, the preputial bag of the male is washed with a chlorhexidine solution with bigluconate. The drug can be bought at a regular pharmacy. It is available as a spray.

Easy-to-use spray is used to treat the genitals of animals after bathing in open waters. But if bitches appear in estrus between estruses, consult a doctor. They can be symptoms of dangerous diseases.

Vaccination of animals does not give an absolute guarantee that the animal will not become ill. But it significantly reduces this risk. Dobermans vaccinated against:

  • plague
  • adenoviral hepatitis,
  • parvovirus infection
  • parainfluenza
  • leptospirosis,
  • rabies.

Complex vaccines are usually used. Only fully healthy dogs can be vaccinated. Before the introduction of serum in dogs, deworming is performed (at least 10 days in advance).

The first vaccination is given to puppies twice: at 1.5–2.5 months and at 2-3 months. Then, 3 weeks after the first vaccination, re-vaccination is carried out. Adult Dobermans are vaccinated once a year.

Docking ears and tails: what you need to know about it

In our country, stopping is not prohibited. But many countries have abandoned this operation. Dogs with cropped ears and tails cannot take part in exhibitions in these countries. However, many are accustomed to seeing the Doberman short-tailed, with ears on the top of the head.

At local shows you can see dogs with hanging and high protruding ears, with or without tails. Today, uncropped ears are considered equivalent to cropped ears. But in the homeland of the breed, in Germany the Dobermans ears are no longer cut. In this case, the choice is left to the owners and the breeder. Only you decide what your Doberman will be. Ear stopping is a cosmetic procedure. We have it carried out in veterinary clinics.

Dobermans combine surgery with ear placement. The procedure is recommended to be carried out at 3 months of age, usually this is done after the 2nd vaccination. The operation takes place under general anesthesia.

In cropped form, the length of the ear should be at least 3/5 of its initial length. For this, special patterns and clamps are used to fix them. After cutting off part of the auricle, a cotton-gauze pillow is placed on the back of the head. The ears are flattened into it. Strengthen everything with a bandage from a bandage. After 3-4 hours, the bandage is removed.

Then build a special "crown". The dog wears it until the ears heal. The construction is made of wire. His goal is to put ears. Fixation of the auricles occurs with a band-aid and bandage.

What to feed

The shape of a pet’s ears is not the only dilemma facing pedigree dog owners. They also have to choose what to feed the Doberman with. It can be dry food or natural feeding. You can contact your breeder for help. Look at his dogs. If you are comfortable with their appearance, you can feed them with the same feed. However, the choice is yours.

One thing you definitely shouldn’t do is mix dry food with natural. Such a diet can harm the digestive system.

Puppy ration

The puppy you just bought must be fed according to the owner’s instructions.He experiences stress, changing his place of residence. During this period, a change in diet can lead to an upset stomach.

Using dry food, follow the recommendations on the packaging. When choosing a "natural" emphasis is placed on meat. From 2.5 weeks it is given in brackish form, from 3 months of age - cut into pieces of 1.25 cm. Beef and raw veal are suitable for babies. At 3 months they give lamb.

The daily norm of meat for puppies, depending on age:

  • 1 month - 50 g
  • 2 months - 100 g
  • 3 months - 300 g,
  • 4 months - 400 g
  • 5 months - 500 g.

Scar, heart, lungs and chicken stomachs are taken from offal. Porridge, vegetables, cheese, crackers can only be an addition to a meat dish. Puppies give cottage cheese, dairy products. Of the cereals, buckwheat, rice, oatmeal, and millet are preferred. During the period of setting the ears, the puppies are given the calcium necessary for the formation of cartilage.

Adult dog diet

Feeding an adult Doberman with natural food is a difficult and expensive task. Dogs are advised to eat daily:

  • meat products or fish - 600-800 g,
  • porridge - 500-800 g,
  • vegetables - 200 g
  • cottage cheese - up to 300 g,
  • fermented milk products - up to 200 g.

This minimum is necessary for animals. The food should be thick. Soups Dobermans are not suitable. With significant physical exertion, during active training, the portion of meat is increased to 1200-1400 g. This also applies to pregnant and lactating bitches.

Such products do not fit Dobermans:

  • smoked, salted, fatty meat,
  • pork and chicken bones,
  • sausage, sausages, shop stews, dumplings,
  • food from the host table,
  • pasta (they are poorly digested, cause fermentation in the stomach),
  • fresh pastries, large quantities of bread (but crackers can sometimes be eaten),
  • peas, corn, raw dough,
  • semolina (it provokes obesity and causes "reverse motility" in some dogs),
  • potatoes in any form.

Adult dogs are recommended to be fed 2 times a day. Animals do not need a varied menu. They calmly eat the same thing all their lives.

Training and education

Doberman puppy resembles pliable plasticine. Thanks to his natural ingenuity and athletic build, he is easily trained, can master any service.

In urban conditions, the puppy must learn the following commands:

The puppy should know what he can do in the house and what cannot. For misconduct punished. Kids have a short memory. Punishment should immediately follow the misconduct. Adult dogs remember much longer. They can be punished after some time. But between punishment and misconduct there should be no feeding and walking.

If possible, you need to engage with the Doberman at the dog training site. There, experts will tell you important points and point out mistakes in education.

Clever Dobermans learn faster than other breeds in basic teams. Training should be done by the owner. To gain credibility, you need to achieve the execution of teams. Otherwise, the cunning Doberman will begin to come up with tricks.

Health, addiction to diseases

The breed is characterized by fairly good health. However, she also has weaknesses. Over 5% of Dobermans have heart problems. Dogs suffer from a dilated form of cardiomyopathy. This is a congenital disease. It manifests itself in both puppies and adult dogs. Most often, in 7–8 year old males.

In the early stages, the symptoms are practically absent. Then shortness of breath, weakness, fainting. At this stage, the animal can no longer be helped. Therefore, an annual examination by a veterinarian is recommended for a disease.

Like other large breeds, Dobermans can suffer:

  • diseases of the musculoskeletal system (dysplasia of the hip and elbow joints, inflammation of the intervertebral discs),
  • bloating (largely depends on the diet and regimen of the animal),
  • eye diseases (cataract, retinal atrophy, eyelid inversion),
  • skin diseases (seborrhea, allergic dermatitis, others),
  • oncological diseases and diabetes mellitus (develops with age).

The list was impressive, but the whole bouquet is rarely manifested subject to competent selection and conscientious breeding.

History of the origin of Dobermans

Doberman breed was bred in Germany at the end of the 19th century by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann (in whose honor the dog is named). Moreover, the breed was originally called the Thuringian Pinscher, and only after the death of Dobermann himself in 1894, this name was replaced by a Doberman Pinscher. Some time later, the prefix "pincher" disappeared and the dogs were simply called "Doberman".

There is no detailed information about the origin of the breed - for the reason that the creator of the breed F. L. Doberman did not keep any records on this subject. There are suggestions that the breed was bred by multiple breeding of short-haired shepherd dogs, a Rottweiler, as well as a black and tan terrier and a smooth-haired German pinscher. It is highly probable that the blood of the hounds, the Great Dane and Greyhound played a role in the formation of the breed and its exterior.

Calling Friedrich Doberman the sole creator of the nature of aristocratic dogs would be somewhat unfair, because he, because of his death, did not have time to complete the selection work to the end. Otto Geller became the successor of the case, and he is considered to be the "father of the breed", because it was he who managed to combine the "clever servant" and a family friend in this dog.

After World War I, the Dobermans population declined significantly. In the 20s and 30s of the last century, dogs were used in law enforcement and the army. After the Second World War, the situation was even worse - all available breeding programs were transferred to the United States, since Germany was going through difficult economic and political times. It is generally accepted that if it weren’t for individuals that were hastily evacuated to the United States, the breed would simply have died out.

Doberman - breed description

Dobermans are tall dogs (medium and above average). The physique is strong and muscular, but there is no excessive massiveness. In accordance with the modern standard, the Doberman is a rather strong, bony dog ​​with a luxurious high-ampere silhouette consisting of straight short lines. By temperament - choleric sanguine (moreover, males have a more "hot" disposition). Doberman is a harmonious combination of elegance and power.

Interesting fact: A well-mannered Doberman is quite friendly, peaceful, strongly attached to his family and loves children very much. In this case, the dog always shows temperament, moderate spite and moderate excitability. Even a perfectly trained Doberman will never forgive the insult caused by an outsider or the unkind look of a dog walking nearby.

According to breed standards approved in 2015, the height at the withers should be 68–72 cm (for males), and 63–68 cm (for females). Weight requirements - for males - 40–45 kg, for females - 33–35 kg. The above standards once again confirm the fact that Dobermans are strong and at the same time graceful dogs with a proportional physique, wide bone and lean constitution.

The head is relatively small, with an elongated, narrow muzzle and an undeveloped forehead. The eyes are small, the ears are set high. The neck of these dogs is short, the withers are high. The “Dober's” chest is developed, deep and round, the back is straight and strong, and the croup is somewhat lowered down. On the exterior, the abdominal wall in dogs of this breed should be pulled up. The forelimbs are characterized by a wide bone, strong, are at right angles to the body.

Regarding the stopping of ears and tail - there is still no single requirement for this criterion. For example, European dog breeders are categorically against surgical interventions, and in Russia and other CIS countries, Dobermans with only short tails and sharp ears can be seen at exhibitions.

Puppy selection and care

You can bring a puppy into the house no earlier than he turns one month old, it is better - 45 days. It is good if during the selection there will be an opportunity to consult an experienced dog breeder who is familiar with the characteristics and standards of the breed.

When choosing a puppy, they are guided by such criteria as:

  • baby’s health
  • appearance and grooming,
  • lack of visible health problems,
  • activity in behavior.

Sometimes an albino puppy appears in the litter. You can’t take it. The fact is that such a baby has serious health problems. Albinos are never healthy.

UsingPolice, security, protective dog, companion.
AppearanceThe dog is above average height, strong physique, muscular and elegant.
Temperament, behaviorBrave and decisive character, lively temperament.
  • Shape: long, dense, dry, strict lines, has the shape of an elongated blunt wedge.
  • Skull: flat on top.
  • Forehead: without skin folds.
  • Muzzle: deep.
  • Cheeks: Tightened, visible muscles.
  • Jaws: Broad and powerful.
  • Nose: wide, black in black, lighter in brown.
  • Eyes: oval, dark in color.
  • Ears: if docked, stand upright.
  • Back: short, strong.
  • Loin: Elastic, muscular, short.
  • Croup: wide, sloping.
  • The abdomen is tightened, forms a beautiful curved bottom line.
  • Neck: long and graceful.
  • Chest: Moderately broad, convex, ribs slightly protruding.
  • Tail: set high.
  • Forefeet: Forearms straight, sheer. The elbows are pressed to the chest. The wrists are wide. Paws are arched.
  • Hind legs: wide, muscular hips, dry hocks. Sheer metatarsals, long legs.
GaitThe step is free and sweeping. Running is easy, fast. Amble is a vice.
WoolThe coat is short, shiny with a slight undercoat.
ColorBlack, dark brown with reddish tan.
  • Height at the withers:
  • Males 68–72 cm,
  • Bitches 63–68 cm.
disadvantagesDeviation from the above parameters is a drawback.
Significant disadvantages
  • Height and weight are greater or less than standards.
  • Unpainted nose.
  • Narrow chest.
  • Incorrect foot joint angles.
  • Clubfoot, inverted elbows, lack of musculature.
  • Profitable fingers.
  • Marks are white.

Origin history

In the 80s of the XIX century, tax collector Friedrich Louis Dobermann set out to bring the ideal dog that would accompany him on trips. And since the tax official contained a shelter for dogs of different breeds, the task was quite feasible.

Doberman took a German pinscher as a source material and added the blood of a Rottweiler, a Manchester terrier, possibly cops, to him. There is no exact data on breeding work. A talented dog breeder did not keep records. But the results of his work are unique.

Dobermans were the best police dogs of the beginning of the last century. Newspapers of that time vied with each other about the exploits of tall and handsome pinschers.

Louis Doberman died in 1884, never learning about the recognition of the breed, which happened only in 1895. Since that time, the dog has changed several names: Tring Pinscher, Doberman Pinscher, and only since 1949 it is called Doberman. History knows no more cases when a German breed was named after its creator.

Doberman dog feeding

You can feed your pet with natural food or dry food. In the latter case, you can give your favorite pieces of cheese, treat with yogurt without additives or kefir. Picky representatives of the breed are found, in this case, you can add a little sauce to the food or mix it with a moist canned diet.

If the owners decide to feed the dog ordinary food, then it should be remembered that an adult Doberman needs at least half a kilo of meat, always with veins. Also, the diet of the pet should include cereals boiled in water, vegetable or lean meat broth. Of cereals, it is better to give preference to buckwheat, rice, millet, oatmeal.

General description of the breed, character

Smooth silk coat, emphasizing every muscle, chiseled silhouette, flying gait and enormous endurance - before you is a Doberman - a dog with a cult status and millions of passionate admirers around the world. And the secret of this rabid popularity lies not only in the stunning article and external data of the dog, but also in its exceptional intelligence and unlimited devotion to the one who gave his heart to the Doberman.

For many, the Doberman has become a real family mascot. He values ​​a human home almost humanly and is capable of becoming a stone wall that will surround you and your loved ones with unlimited love and will always be on guard of your safety. Dobermans adore children and, as well as possible, are suitable for the role of energetic partners in fun, exhausting fun.

The start of the Dobermann breed was laid by the German Friedrich Luis Dobermann, who at the end of the 19th century brought out the first "version" of the modern Doberman, called the "Thuringian Pinscher" (after the name of the German land - Thuringia). As a tax collector, often forced to carry large amounts of money, Dobermann needed reliable protection, and his main goal was to create a courageous, fearless bodyguard dog. The Thuringian pinscher was obtained by crossing short-haired shepherd dogs, a black and tan terrier, a rottweiler, and a smooth-haired German pinscher. After the death of the Dobermann, the breed was called the Doberman Pinscher, but in 1949 the prefix "Pinscher" was removed from the name.

The Dobermann case was successfully continued by Otto Geller, who made a huge contribution to the development of the breed and actually formed the final appearance of the modern Doberman. Geller began distributing Dobermans in the countries of South and North America. Dobermans appeared in Russia a long time ago - at the beginning of the 20th century. The first dogs were brought from Germany for the purposes of the police and the army, but they soon gained wide popularity, in particular, in the circles of the Russian intelligentsia. Dobermans have a rare scent and striking intuition, and they can often be found in the army and police.

The main misconception associated with this breed of dogs is the myth of their aggressiveness. It must be understood that the Doberman has a very high intelligence, so in the right hands, with the right approach to education, you will get a friendly dog ​​with a stable psyche and adequate reactions to others. Of course, the Doberman is, first of all, a reliable bodyguard, but a healthy dog ​​knows that the manifestation of malice is required of her only in a situation of real danger.

Species, Standards and Varieties

The modern Doberman is a strong, muscular dog, of a fairly strong physique, of medium size (up to 72 cm for males). A long neck, a tightened stomach, strong hips, a wedge-shaped head create a proportional, expressive silhouette, for which the Doberman is often called the aristocratic dog. As for the color, black and dark brown colors with rusty-red tints are allowed.

How to choose a Doberman puppy

To buy a puppy, it is better to contact the kennel. Only there can guarantee that the puppy will match the breed. Of course, puppies in kennels are more expensive than those offered on classified sites. But then you have to be ready for any surprises. You cannot buy a limousine at the price of “oki”. A good puppy has a broad back and chest, a long neck and a bright tan, which indicates a good immune system. Little Doberman should have a great appetite, shiny coat and proper bite. The puppy must not weigh less than 3 kg. The breeder should be asked about the age of the mother (she must be at least 2 years old and no older than 8), the number of litters. When selling a puppy, a conscientious breeder will ask the new owners about the experience of keeping such dogs, the conditions in which the puppy will fall.Take an adult dog to the house is not worth it. Dobermans should know only one leader of the pack, and changing it can lead to irreversible consequences.

Breed defects

The following disadvantages of the appearance of the dog can become defects in the breed:

  • the presence of soft and wavy hair,
  • the appearance of light or darkened tan marks, white marks,
  • the presence of a thick and clearly visible undercoat,
  • amble,
  • the proximity of the hocks, the wrong angles of joints and profitable fingers,
  • the presence of inverted elbows, clubfoot or razmet,
  • lack of muscle
  • the formation of a barrel-shaped, flat or narrow chest,
  • the presence of convex eyes, as well as a thick and short neck with a suspension.

Among other things, flaws can be represented by a convex frontal part or back of the nose, a sharp transition or its complete absence, a heavy and short head, cheekbones, a sharp muzzle, thick lips and low-set ears.

Popular colors Dobermans

The most common color for Dobermans is black or brown, with tan tan-red hues (some breeders call them rusty-red). Other requirements are imposed on taps - they must be clearly marked, with a certain pattern, and be located only in strictly defined places. The coat is shiny, short and very stiff, always snug against the dog’s body, the undercoat is not pronounced.

The most common flaws in the coat:

  • Soft and wavy coat
  • Light or vice versa, overly darkened tan marks. Or located not where needed,
  • White or light gray markings,
  • Thick, clearly visible undercoat.

Only amateurs can be sure that the Doberman can only have a black and tan color - the modern standard involves 4 color options: black, red, blue and deer (it is also known as "Isabella").

The colors listed above were not immediately included in the standard. Initially, the first 1899 standard allowed a single Doberman coat color - black and tan, but by 1901 2 more species were allowed: red and tan and blue and tan.

Deer color was recognized only in 1969 (which is interesting - in the 1st standard it was not even mentioned). The term "Isabella" Doberman originated from the French "sable" or from the Latin "sabulosus, sabulum" - these characteristics mean sand (grayish yellow).

The nature and habits of Dobermans

According to the requirements of the FCI standard, the Doberman should be friendly, peaceful, quite sociable and unusually kind to children, especially to small ones. That is how modern experts and breeders see the absolute ideal of the Doberman breed.

But the reality looks a little different: there are kind dogs for almost all, without exception, and there are incredibly aggressive (even in relation to their own owners) animals. But the Doberman should not fall into these extremes of good blood - the above characteristics, even for the most loyal jury, are an occasion sufficient to disqualify an individual.

Here the problem is not even a specific dog, but the features of the Doberman breed itself. These dogs are unusually intelligent, superbly trained - Dobermans show these qualities from birth. And if any negative character traits are manifested, then with a 100% probability it can be argued that the owner is to blame for their occurrence.

These may be problems:

  1. Social adaptation,
  2. Parenting (and from early childhood),
  3. Strict, not professional training.

Along with choleric temperament, Dobermans do not have a pronounced hunting instinct. For example, they will not abruptly break away and drive with excitement a tree of a frightened cat (imitating this irrepressible terrier). But the “four-legged aristocrat” will never miss the opportunity to fight a worthy opponent, this is inherent in the fighting character of the breed.

Any misconduct, consisting even in a minor violation of the norms and generally accepted rules, is always explained by gaps in the upbringing of a Doberman dog. If the fanged intellectuals were not sufficiently rigidly explained the requirements and reacted “through the sleeves” to exercise control over obedience and obedience, then automatically both the dog breeder, his whole family, as well as his neighbors and guests, are at high risk. Nobody is able to predict the behavior of an "ill-bred" Doberman - such a dog may at any moment manifest unmotivated aggression.

Interesting facts about Dobermans

For the first time, the Doberman breed was demonstrated to the public at a dog show in 1876. The show was very successful, the elegant and confident dog gained the favor of German dog breeders. In 1894, Louis Doberman went to another world, taking the secret of crossing the predecessors of the new breed with him to the grave - it is still not known exactly which breeds were taken to obtain the first Dobermans (in addition to those listed above). And despite the problem, German breeders were able to succeed in breeding and improving such a noble breed.

An incredibly ambitious goal was set - to create the perfect dog, suitable for protection and protection. To this end, they selected the most intelligent, angry, hardy and physically strong dogs, moreover, the features of the exterior they were least interested in. But such a policy did not play into the hands of the popularization and commercial success of the breed. At the beginning of the 20th century, notoriety began to spread rapidly about Dobermans - the vast majority of ordinary people (koi ensure the commercial success of the breed) found these dogs incredibly dangerous and aggressive. Accordingly, people preferred to have calmer breeds as pets. The situation was fundamentally changed by the work of Otto Geller - this breeder made the Dobermans kinder (the dogs he displayed turned out to be more harmonious and suitable for life in the family).

German cynologists recognized the Doberman Pinscher as a separate breed in 1900. In 1908, the first specimen was delivered to America to participate in the upcoming dog show. Luck awaited him there - the dog was awarded the Best in Show award, after which the Doberman was presented at 2 more exhibitions in the USA. And success again - 1st place in the "Best in Show". According to legend, only after the solemn presentation of the award at the 3rd exhibition, the judge began to examine the dog’s teeth. In 1921, the American Doberman Pinscher Club was established, and in 1922 this organization adopted the German version of the breed standard.

Pros and Cons of Dobermans

Among dog breeders there are many lovers of this breed, but there are those who, under no pretext, agree to take the Doberman to their home. And in that, and in another case, the choice is argued by the features of the "German aristocrats."

The following characteristics can be considered advantages of the breed:

  • The versatility of the Doberman. The breed is actively involved everywhere, except for the systematic lying on the TV. Doberman is suitable for all types of security spectrum, as well as for all kinds of search and rescue operations. Moreover, European cynologists actively use these dogs in the implementation of social projects (Dobermans are excellent guides for the blind),
  • Devotion to the master. Brave, brave Dobermans always follow the leader - into fire and water. Pay attention - for the leader,
  • The highest intelligence. This breed is rightfully considered the most intelligent, and the statement can not be considered unfounded. In S. Koren’s book, Dog Intelligence, Doberman is included in the breed group with excellent dog training abilities. Therefore, training and service is the best time of life for these noble and elegant dogs,
  • Power, endurance, fortitude. Doberman - this is the real "fighting machine": Hollywood may exaggerate, but here he certainly does not dissemble.

Dobermans also have disadvantages - they need to be familiarized with no less carefully than with advantages, because it is better not to take a dog than bring a Doberman puppy to the house and not cope with his upbringing.

So, the disadvantages of the breed:

  • Doberman is not suitable for everyone. These dogs accept only charismatic, strong people - real leaders. Sluggish, spineless phlegmatic people under no circumstances can not cope with this German servant,
  • Stubbornness and pronounced waywardness. An intelligent and capable Doberman always has his own point of view on everything - only when communicating with someone he recognizes as a leader, he keeps his opinion “to himself”,
  • Dobermans are incredibly pugnacious and aggressive. Actually, this is one of the necessary components of the "police breed",
  • "Dober" cannot imagine their life without systematic physical activity and high, intense, prolonged stress. An unsportsmanlike, soft-bodied homebody will definitely not need a Doberman - but a St. Bernard or a collie will do just fine.

Breeding Dobermans

If you decide to get offspring of these beauties, you will first need to take care of the proper “genetic material”, that is, acquire worthy parents.

How to distinguish a purebred, elite Doberman from bred by dubious breeders and with "marriage"? There are several reliable signs (and, strangely enough, externally, Dobermans that are not suitable for breeding can look very solid and magnificent to carry out complex commands). The unsuitable can be weeded out by wool: in an elite Doberman, it should in no case be soft or wavy. And yet - the presence of white marks in the color is unacceptable.

Interesting fact: Doberman movements should always be light and elastic, running - beautiful and fast. If the dog starts to club up or move around amble, it means that there are problems with the musculoskeletal system.

The distinctive qualities of a Doberman can be both a great advantage and a critical flaw. The pronounced "police" behavior of the dog, his courage and the ability to immediately respond to any threat - these are the main features of the Doberman character. It is they who impose on the dog breeder the obligation to systematically work with the pet to live in a civilian modern society. In any other “situation”, instead of a good friend and an ideal companion, you will get a “headache” and endanger the life and health of your loved ones.

Therefore, before buying a Doberman puppy (there is no question of acquiring an adult), think several times about whether you will have enough time to fully engage in raising a dog? Can you become an undeniable leader for him? If there is even the slightest uncertainty, the Doberman is not for you. Believe me, there are many other breeds that differ in a softer and more accommodating disposition.

And again, remember that the Doberman is the best choice for a strong, charismatic and confident person. Only a true leader will teach the Doberman puppy adequate behavior in modern society and will eventually be able to raise an ideal companion dog, guard, assistant and friend. A weak, lazy and weak-willed owner will turn all the best qualities of this breed into socially dangerous opposites.

And the breeder should have the listed qualities doubly, because he will have to become a leader not for one Doberman, but for a whole flock of these "aristocrats"!

Doberman Care

These "aristocrats" are always very neat, and due to the presence of short hair, caring for them never takes much time. Just imagine: in contrast to the long-haired “mods”, bathing a Doberman is enough only 2-3 times a year. And as a systematic, daily care, it will be quite enough after each trip to the street to wipe the coat and paws of your pet with a wet towel. 1-2 times in 7-10 days, the dog must be combed out with a special, stiff brush.

The dog's claws, ears and teeth require constant care. Claws are very important to trim in a timely manner, and the auricles and oral cavity (mouth) need a systematic examination and cleaning (every week). The change of milk teeth to molars occurs every six months. At this time, it is very important to monitor the condition of the gums, in no case to prevent inflammatory processes. Eyes need to be thoroughly wiped every day with a clean cloth.

Interesting fact: Stopping the tail and ears is another headache for the Doberman owner. Yes, you can get away with this - this is what has been done in Europe for a long time, but you must admit that the Doberman looks much more solid with “standing” ears.

Keeping a Doberman better in a private house - the apartment will be cramped for this active dog. Also with him you need a long time and actively walk. Running, aport team and constant training should be daily activities. For the winter, it makes sense to buy warm clothes for your pet - due to the lack of undercoat for Dobermans “coat” and “panties” - this is not a luxury, but a vital item.

Dobermann diet

Given all the features of the physique and an increased level of activity, Dobermans are absolutely not suitable for everyday food intended for ordinary dogs. It is logical that athletic build and the highest activity require significant energy expenditures.

Accordingly, the diet should include more calories. The above conditions are best suited for a specially selected, full-fledged dry food intended for puppies of large breeds with athletic physique Purina ® PRO PLAN ® Large Puppy Athletic. Adult dogs can use Large Adult Athletic + OPTIBALANCE from the same manufacturer. The proposed food will not only provide the dog’s body with the calories that it needs so much, but also preserve the health of the dentition, joints and contribute to the improvement of digestive processes.

In addition, similar feeds (in composition and quality) are available in the Royal Canin, Hill’s, Acana, etc. lines. They should never be mixed with ordinary food (with any cereals and meat). As a bait for dobermans, it is important to use boiled vegetables and cereals, low-fat pork, low-fat cottage cheese, sea fish and raw eggs.

Important fact: Doberman owners need to carefully monitor the quality of the dog’s nutrition. Because even despite the fact that representatives of this breed are distinguished by a stable digestive system, they often have a stomach twist. This pathology is often found in dogs of large breeds having a wide chest.

Diseases and Health Problems

Dobermans not only look strong, they are really strong and healthy dogs. Up to 6 months of age, Doberman puppies must undergo 3 stages of vaccination. Vaccination is a mandatory procedure, and it is not difficult to perform it (if you do not have the technique of injecting, invite a veterinarian to your home). Also common pathologies are cardiac arrhythmias, large joint dysplasia, osteopathy, and symptomatic epilepsy.

Important fact: Periodically, dogs need to be given calcium, and ground eggshells are not the best option, albeit cheap. Believe me, it is much better (on either side) to give calcium tablets in a course than to take the dog to a veterinary clinic and cleanse the intestines.

Another scourge of Dobermans are ticks, worms and other parasites. Moreover, those dogs that are “urban dwellers” have the likelihood of contracting them, although Dobermans, who walk freely in nature, have a much higher chance of catching parasites.Accordingly, at least every six months, give anthelmintic drugs and periodically look at the hair and exposed areas (auricles in the first place) for worms.

Due to increased motor activity, Dobermans are significantly susceptible to injuries of the musculoskeletal system, as well as dangerous cuts and stab wounds in terms of the prospect of infection. But if you systematically show your pet to a veterinarian and follow the care recommendations given to them, it is likely that your Doberman will safely live up to 14 years or more.

Doberman - price and how to buy

According to statistics, the price (on average) for a Doberman puppy varies from 15 to 40 thousand rubles. Nurseries that breed elite representatives of the breed boldly ask for 55-60 thousand rubles, and most interestingly, they line up for purchase.

The pricing policy that applies to Doberman puppies sold on the “bird market” or through “Avito” is much lower, but only in this case one should not be surprised that in the end you buy a dachshund, Rottweiler, or even a mestizo, vaguely reminiscent of a Doberman. So it’s not worth saving here - especially if you want to get healthy offspring and buy a dog for commercial purposes.

Interesting fact: In kennels, puppies from the pedigree are conditionally divided into 3 classes - pet, brid and show. No, all these dogs have documents and comply with basic standards, but still differ in some signs, visible only to the eye of a professional.

The cheapest cost is to acquire a pet class puppy. Such dogs have signs that will not allow them to become champions and it is unlikely that animals will be used for commercial breeding. But, if you do not pursue any commercial goals, are not ambitious and are simply looking for a good friend and companion for yourself, then buying a Doberman of this class is the best option. Why pay more? A dog from the pet class category will be no worse than the most elite puppy to protect your home and execute all commands.

Brid-class is the basis of the breed. Dogs of good blood are included here, 100% meeting all the requirements of the standard. They are suitable for breeding work. Buying such a Doberman will cost several times more.

A show class is, one might say, the best of the best. The most elite puppies. Such instances are very rare, they are not born every day and not every couple. Accordingly, such doberman costs the most.